Lord "God" Cromer, “Islamic Revival,” and Imam Feisal Rauf
September 13th, 2010 by Andrew Bostom |
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Lord "God" Cromer:
“Pan-Islamism almost always connotes an attempt to regenerate Islam on Islamic lines—in other words, to revivify and stereotype in the twentieth century the principles laid down more than a thousand years ago for the guidance of a primitive society… that crystallization of the civil, criminal, and canonical law into one immutable whole, which has so largely contributed to arrest the progress of those countries whose populations have embraced the Moslem faith.”
In 1908, racist and fascist Lord "God" Cromer, British High Commissioner in occupied Egypt, wrote “very revealingly in the last chapter of his book, “Modern Egypt”, that England was prepared to grant eventual political freedom to all of her colonial possessions "as soon as a generation of intellectuals and politicians impregnated with the ideals of English culture, through an English education, were ready to assume power, but under no circumstance the British Government will tolerate for one moment an independent Islamic State."
This was mentioned /quoted in “Islam in theory and practice” 1967 by Maryam Jameelah (Margaret Marcus, a Jewish revert to Islam).
Lord "God" Curzon: “The situation now is that Turkey is dead and will never rise again, because we have destroyed its moral strength, the Caliphate and Islam.”
Lord "God" Curzon: “We must put an end to anything which brings about any Islamic unity between the sons of the Muslims. As we have already succeeded in finishing off the Caliphate, so we must ensure that there will never arise again unity for the Muslims, whether it be intellectual or cultural unity.”
BAFS (The words between inverted are mine. See at the end of the post)
Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer (1841-1917), served as British Consul-General in Egypt for almost a quarter century, from 1883 to 1907. As noted by the London Telegraph’s Andrew Roberts, in February, 2004,
…despite all the multifarious benefits he bestowed during his time there, he is cordially loathed in Egypt today.
Given past and present sentiments for the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt among Egypt’s Muslims (“…the Brotherhood has become the most important representative of the Egyptian masses.”), this contemporary hatred of Lord Cromer is consistent with his adamant opposition to such retrograde “Islamic revivalist” movements. Cromer elucidated his objections to early 20th century “Pan-Islamism” identifying the genuine aims and character of this modern transnational incarnation of jihadism.
Lord Cromer also underscored the impotence of the movement’s select, Western-leaning Muslim opponents, who were compelled to adopt its irredentist message or forfeit popular support from the Muslim masses. Ground Zero mosque purveyor Imam Feisal Rauf represents a particularly odious modern variant on this latter theme. An externally “secularized” contemporary Muslim living within the West, Rauf’s goal, as Ibn Warraq confirms in his brilliant explication at NRO today of Rauf’s double messaging, is to Islamize our uniquely Western institutions.
Lord Cromer’s prescient words, are as relevant to contemporary Islam, as they were to the Islamic movements he described a century ago. We would be wise to heed Cromer’s assessment when contemplating the ultimate aims of “moderate” Imam Feisal Rauf, champion of Sharia.
Pan-Islamism almost necessarily connotes a recrudescence of racial and religious animosity. Many of its adherents are, I do not doubt, inspired by a genuine religious fervor. Others again, whether from indifference verging on agnosticism, or from political and opportunist motives, or—as I trust may sometimes be the case—from having really assimilated modern ideas on the subject of religious toleration, would be willing, were such a course possible, to separate the political from the religious, and even possibly from racial issues. If such are their wishes and intentions, I entertain very little doubt that they will make them impossible of execution. Unless they can convince the Muslim masses of their militant Islamism, they will fail to arrest their attention or to attract their sympathy. Appeals, either overt or covert, to racial and religious passions are thus a necessity of their existence in order to insure the furtherance of their political program.
Pan-Islamism almost always connotes an attempt to regenerate Islam on Islamic lines—in other words, to revivify and stereotype in the twentieth century the principles laid down more than a thousand years ago for the guidance of a primitive society. Those principles involve recognition of slavery, laws regulating the relations of the sexes which clash with modern ideas, and, what is perhaps more important than all, that crystallization of the civil, criminal, and canonical law into one immutable whole, which has so largely contributed to arrest the progress of those countries whose populations have embraced the Moslem faith.
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Mohammed Abduh and Rashid Rida
In Paris and London, Abduh assisted Afghani in administering a journal in Paris, called Al Urwah al Wuthkah, or the “Indissoluble Bond”, also the name of a secret organisation he founded in 1883. Among the members of Afghani’s circle in Paris were Egyptians, Indians, Turks, Syrians, North Africans, as well as many Christians and Jews, and Bahais expelled from the Middle East.
Like his teacher, Abduh was associated with the Bahai movement, which had made deliberate efforts to spread the faith to Egypt, establishing themselves in Alexandria and Cairo beginning in the late 1860s. Abduh had met Abdul Baha, who became leader of the Bahai’s after his father’s death, and agreed with his one-world-religion philosophy. Remarking on Abdul Baha’s excellence in religious science and diplomacy, Abduh said of him that, “[he] is more than that. Indeed, he is a great man; he is the man who deserves to have the epithet applied to him.”96
Abduh was known for his “reformist” views about Islam. But in How We Defended Orabi, A.M. Broadbent declared that, “Sheikh Abdu was no dangerous fanatic or religious enthusiast, for he belonged to the broadest school of Moslem thought, held a political creed akin to pure republicanism, and was a zealous Master of a Masonic Lodge.”97
Like the Ismailis before him, he would advance his students progressively into deeper levels of heresy. To the higher initiates, he would reveal the doctrines of the Scottish Rite and the philosophy of one-world government. However, those Abduh deemed were much more disposed, he would introduce to an officer of British intelligence from London.
From 1888, until his death in 1905, Abduh regularly visited the home and office of Lord Cromer. In 1892, he was named to run the administrative Committee for the Al Azhar mosque and university, the most prestigious educational institution in Islam, and the second oldest university in the world. From that post, he reorganised the entire Muslim system in Egypt, and because of Al Azhar’s reputation, much of the Islamic world as well.
In 1899, Lord Cromer made Abduh the Grand Mufti of Egypt. He was now the chief legal authority in Islam, as well as the Masonic Grand Master of the United Lodge of Egypt. Lord Cromer was an important member of England’s Baring banking family which had grown rich of the opium trade in India and China. His motive in making Abduh the most powerful figure in all of Islam was to change the law forbidding interest banking. Abduh then offered a contrived interpretation of the Qur’an to create the requisite loophole, giving British banks free reign in Egypt. Of Abduh, Lord Cromer related, “I suspect my friend Abduh was in reality an agnostic,” and he said of Abduh’s Salafi reform movement that, “They are the natural allies of the European reformer.”98
The Salafi movement then became allied with the Wahhabis of Saudi Arabia through another Freemason, Mohammed Rashid Rida, who, after the death of Afghani in 1897 and Abduh in 1905, assumed the leadership of the Salafis. Rida had become a member of the Indissoluble Bond at a young age. He was promoted through Afghani’s Masonic society through his reading of Al-Urwah al Wuthkah, which he later confessed was the greatest influence in his life. Rida had never met Afghani, but in 1897 he had gone to Egypt to study with Mohammed Abduh. Though Rida did not share his master’s opinions about the Bahai movement, it was through his influence that the Salafi movement became firmly aligned with the State of Saudi Arabia.
96 Cole, Juan R. I. “Rashid Rida on the Bahai Faith: A Utilitarian Theory of the Spread of Religions”, Arab Studies Quarterly 5, 3 (Summer 1983): 278.
97 Raafat, Samir. “Freemasonry in Egypt: Is it still around?” Insight Magazine, March 1, 1999
98 Goodgame, Peter. The Muslim Brotherhood: The Globalists' Secret Weapon.