Tuesday, 31 October 2017



JESUS: Basheer, my Son, did you not tell Brendon to settle down in a less hostile land, start a family, and let others take over his struggle while he writes his book?
BASHEER: You know I did, Father, but, he has too much in him that has to come out in the only manner he thinks fit, and his way is the most dangerous one!  He is lucky he has no children to take care of like I do!
JESUS:   You know my own Father ILAHI did not help me when I screamed out for help while under torture, and imminent death, so they say.
BASHEER:  Yes, Father, but I did not buy that one because you never died and never will!
JESUS: Yes, my Son, I know that you know, but most of those ingrate Earthlings don't, even if you tell them 6 million times!
BASHEER: I have been trying to get in touch with his lawyers (?), but in vain!  Did Saul not warn us against the LAW COURTS?
JESUS: Destiny, my Son, Destiny!  Brahmans call it Karma! 



Princess Diana, Jacob Frank & The Windsor-Goldsmith-Rothschild Connection

Published on 1 Nov 2017
Pieces from Grace Powers' excellent 3-hrs documentary The Zion King, available at http://www.helpfreetheearth.com/DVD-K... On the excommunicated Jewish Messiah Shabbetai Tzvi (ancestor of the Rothschilds), Shabbetai's so-called reincarnation Jacob Frank (ancestor of Princess Diana?), the Windsors, the Goldsmiths, the Rothschilds, the Spencers, the Roches, Kate Middleton-Goldsmith, the Order of the Garter, Tim Cohen's "The AntiChrist and a Cup of Tea", The Red Dragon in the Book of Revelation, Prince William's Coat of Arms, Rabbi Marvin Antelman's "To Eliminate The Opiate", Vol. 1 and 2, Rabbi Wolf Gunther Plaut, Gershom Scholem, Adam Weishaupt, the Bavarian Illuminati, Henry Makow, The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, Nazi Germany, Israel, Anti-Zionist Jews in Israel, Norman Finkelstein, Israel's Crimes against the Palestinians, the City of London, and much more.

 Le barbu non talmudique et non talmudiste que les racistes ne veulent pas en France ou en Occident!

Friday, 6 November 2015




My LKY’s Spell was Broken:

Illuminati Leak: Full List of Recent Members of Secret Society Exposed as ‘Committee Of 300’. Oct 29, 2017

WORLD DICTATORSHIP = THE COMMITTEE OF 300 LED BY BRITISH-SWISS ROTHSCHILDS CRIME SYNDICATE https://concisepolitics.com/2017/10/29/world-dictatorship-the-committee-of-300-led-by-british-swiss-rothschilds-crime-syndicate/
Goals of the Committee of 300 to Kill 6.5 Billion Humanity!! http://thepoisonappleoftheworld.com/goals-of-the-committee-of-300-to-kill-6-5-billion-humanity/

My Spell on LKY was broken after the City Harvest Saga! (Long story will write one day but only let you know one thing what my mother said, “Once LKY dies ALL the SHITS will come out because he had sold his soul to the devils!” 🙁
I have lost TOTAL Respect for the ungrateful son! Why must he sued Roy Ngerng if he is clean and how can he lock up a young Singaporean just because he said that LKY was a horrible man? Therefore, I would like to share with you what I saw on Facebook – LHL is a member of Committee 300. The other Asian is Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization from 2007 to 2017.





 From: Sunflower Chong <sunflower_chong@yahoo.com>

To: “teo_chee_hean@pmo.gov.sg” <teo_chee_hean@pmo.gov.sg>; “tharman_s@pmo.gov.sg” <tharman_s@pmo.gov.sg>; “khaw_boon_wan@mot.gov.sg” <khaw_boon_wan@mot.gov.sg>; “lim_hng_kiang@mti.gov.sg” <lim_hng_kiang@mti.gov.sg>; “yaacob_ibrahim@mci.gov.sg” <yaacob_ibrahim@mci.gov.sg>; “ng_eng_hen@mindef.gov.sg” <ng_eng_hen@mindef.gov.sg>; “v.bala@mfa.gov.sg” <v.bala@mfa.gov.sg>; “k_shanmugam@mha.gov.sg” <k_shanmugam@mha.gov.sg>; “gan_kim_yong@moh.gov.sg” <gan_kim_yong@moh.gov.sg>; “s_iswaran@mti.gov.sg” <s_iswaran@mti.gov.sg>; “heng_swee_keat@mof.gov.sg” <heng_swee_keat@mof.gov.sg>; “grace_fu@mccy.gov.sg” <grace_fu@mccy.gov.sg>; “chan_chun_sing@pmo.gov.sg” <chan_chun_sing@pmo.gov.sg>; “tan_chuan-jin@msf.gov.sg” <tan_chuan-jin@msf.gov.sg>; “lawrence_wong@mnd.gov.sg” <lawrence_wong@mnd.gov.sg>
Sent: Friday, June 16, 2017, 5:42:27 PM GMT+8

Lee Kuan Yew, not the one who wants LHL to be PM but it was Mrs Lee Kuan Yew because she loved LHL very much. When I was young I heard all she can talk was about how smart LHL is. In primary school one day my teacher told us Mr Lee Kuan Yew went to LHL school and told him off in front of the whole class that he cannot use his name. LKY did not allow anyone to use his name to gain favor so I guess this is why his siblings are not happy with LHL because they felt he should stand on his own right to lead Singapore something like that…. I understand why the siblings are stopping him because in the event Singapore is not going the right way this is not LKY doing.
My mother said that Mr Lee Kuan Yew loved LWL very much and she will not be able to get married because she got features like LKY and in LKY eyes all the men not good enough for his daughter. LWL personal body guide loved her but LKY said NO:( I don’t know how come my mother so clever know everything in Lee’s family?
LHY is the middle child got NO ATTENTION so he can do what he likes. In an interview with TODAY on Wednesday night, Mr Lee Hsien Yang also said that this was not a family spat, but about the values of their father – “of putting Singapore first, rather than power and popularity”. He also elaborated on his decision to leave Singapore, saying: “Why would I want to move if I did not feel persecuted?
Read more at http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/statement-questioning-pm-lee-not-merely-a-family-affair-dr-lee-8947500




Illuminati Leak: Full List of Recent Members of Secret Society Exposed as ‘Committee Of 300’. Oct 29, 2017

Click for Source Article on Committee of 300
Rothschild, Jacob – 4th Baron Rothschild De Rothschild, Benjamin De Rothschild, David René James De Rothschild, Evelyn Robert De Rothschild, Leopold David Rockefeller, David Jr. Rockefeller, David Sr. Rockefeller, Nicholas
Queen Elizabeth II Beatrix (Queen) Sofía (Queen) of Spain Margrethe II Queen of Denmark Carlos, Juan – King of Spain Albert II of Ex-King of Belgium Michael of King of Romania Constantine II Ex-King of Greece Abdullah II of King of Jordan
Archduchess Regina, Crown Princess of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia Margherita – Archduchess of Austria-Este Emanuele, Vittorio – Prince of Naples, Crown Prince of Italy Philip (Prince) – Duke of Edinburgh Charles – Prince of Wales Edward (Prince) – Duke of Kent William (Prince) of Wales Willem-Alexander – Prince of Orange Edward (The Prince) – Earl of Wessex Hans-Adam II – Prince of Liechtenstein Alexander – Crown Prince of Yugoslavia Constantijn (Prince) of the Netherlands Alexandra (Princess) – The Honourable Lady Ogilvy Andrew (Prince) – Duke of York Anne – Princess Royal Leka, Crown Prince of Albania August, Ernst – Prince of Hanover Mabel (Princess) of Orange-Nassau Bernhard (Prince) of Lippe-Biesterfeld Massimo, Stefano (Prince) – Prince of Roccasecca dei Volsci Michael (Prince) of Kent Richard (Prince) – Duke of Gloucester Moritz – Prince and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein Colonna, Marcantonio (di Paliano) – Prince and Duke of Paliano Friedrich, Georg – Prince of Prussia Friso (Prince) of Orange-Nassau Lorenz (Prince) of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este Ruspoli, Francesco – 10th Prince of Cerveteri Fabrizio (Prince) – Massimo-Brancaccio Pope Francis
Sassoon, James Meyer – Baron Sassoon Levene, Peter – Baron Levene of Portsoken Levy, Michael – Baron Levy Carington, Peter – 6th Baron Carrington Stevenson, Dennis – Baron Stevenson of Coddenham Williams, Shirley – Baroness Williams of Crosby Wilson, David – Baron Wilson of Tillyorn Woolf, Harry – Baron Woolf Henri – Grand Duke of Luxembourg Alphonse, Louis – Duke of Anjou Borwin – Duke of Mecklenburg Carlos – Duke of Parma Pio, Dom Duarte – Duke of Braganza Sigismund (Archduke) – Grand Duke of Tuscany Franz, Duke of Bavaria Grosvenor, Gerald – 6th Duke of Westminster Camilla – Duchess of Cornwall Vladimirovna, Maria – Grand Duchess of Russia Ogilvy, David – 13th Earl of Airlie Astor, William Waldorf – 4th Viscount Astor
Soros, George Kissinger, Henry Clark, Wesley Kanne Sr. (General) Murdoch, Rupert Blankfein, Lloyd Schwarzman, Stephen A. Bernake, Ben Ballmer, Steve Bloomberg, Michael Buffet, Warren Gates, Bill Bronfman, Edgar Jr. Bronfman, Charles Rosner Stiglitz, Joseph E. Krugman, Paul Kerry, John Forbes Gorbachev, Mikhail Gore, Al Blair, Tony Bush, George HW Powell, Colin Rice, Susan
Holbrooke, Richard Lieberman, Joe Brzezinski, Zbigniew Sarkozy, Nicolas Oppenheimer, Nicky Sassoon, Isaac S.D. Abramovich, Roman Arkadyevich King, Mervyn Ackermann, Josef Kinnock, Glenys Adeane, Edward Agius, Marcus Ambrose Paul Knight, Malcolm Ahtisaari, Martti Oiva Kalevi Koon, William H. II Akerson, Daniel Kufuor, John Lajolo, Giovanni Lake, Anthony Lambert, Richard Amato, Giuliano Lamy, Pascal Anderson, Carl A. Landau, Jean-Pierre Andreotti, Giulio Laurence, Timothy James Hamilton Leigh-Pemberton, James Anstee, Nick Leonard, Mark Ash, Timothy Garton Leviev, Lev Levitt, Arthur Aven, Pyotr Balkenende, Jan Peter Livingston, Ian Balls, Ed Loong, Lee Hsien Barroso, José Manuel Louis-Dreyfus, Gérard Belka, Marek Bergsten, C. Fred Mandelson, Peter Benjamin Berlusconi, Silvio Manning, Sir David Geoffrey Bernstein, Nils Martínez, Guillermo Ortiz Berwick, Donald Mashkevitch, Alexander Bildt, Carl Bischoff, Sir Winfried Franz Wilhen “Win” McDonough, William Joseph McLarty, Mack Mersch, Yves Blavatnik, Leonard Bolkestein, Frits Miliband, David Bolkiah, Hassanal Miliband, Ed Bonello, Michael C Mittal, Lakshmi Bonino, Emma Moreno, Glen Boren, David L. Napoléon, Charles Nasser, Jacques Bruton, John Niblett, Robin Nichols, Vincent Budenberg, Robin Nicolás, Adolfo Noyer, Christian Ofer, Sammy Cameron, David William Donald Ollila, Jorma Jaakko Cardoso, Fernando Henrique Osborne, George Oudea, Frederic Parker, Sir John Carney, Mark J. Patten, Chris Carroll, Cynthia Pébereau, Michel Caruana, Jaime Penny, Gareth Castell, Sir William Peres, Shimon Chan, Anson Chan, Margaret Chan, Norman Pöhl, Karl Otto Chartres, Richard Prokhorov, Mikhail Chiaie, Stefano Delle Quaden, Guy Baron Chipman, Dr John Rasmussen, Anders Fogh Chodiev, Patokh Reuben, David Cicchitto, Fabrizio Reuben, Simon Rhodes, William R. “Bill” Clarke, Kenneth Clegg, Nick Clinton, Bill Rifkind, Sir Malcolm Leslie Cohen, Abby Joseph Ritblat, Sir John Cohen, Ronald Roach, Stephen S. Cohn, Gary D. Robinson, Mary Cooksey, David Rodríguez, Javier Echevarría Cowen, Brian Rogoff, Kenneth Saul “Ken” Craven, Sir John Roth, Jean-Pierre Crockett, Andrew Dadush, Uri Rubenstein, David D’Aloisio, Tony Rubin, Robert Darling, Alistair Davies, Sir Howard Safra, Joseph Davignon, Étienne Safra, Moises Davis, David Sands, Peter A. Sawers, Sir Robert John Deiss, Joseph Scardino, Marjorie Deripaska, Oleg Schwab, Klaus Dobson, Michael Schwarzenberg, Karel Draghi, Mario Du Plessis, Jan Shapiro, Sidney Dudley, William C. Sheinwald, Nigel Duisenberg, Wim Simeon of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Snowe, Olympia Elkann, John Specter, Arlen Feldstein, Martin Stuart “Marty” Stern, Ernest Festing, Matthew Fillon, François Steyer, Tom Fischer, Heinz Fischer, Joseph Martin Strauss-Kahn, Dominique Fischer, Stanley Straw, Jack FitzGerald, Niall Sutherland, Peter Tanner, Mary Fridman, Mikhail Tedeschi, Ettore Gotti Thompson, Mark Thomson, Dr. James A. Tietmeyer, Hans Geidt, Christopher Trichet, Jean-Claude Geithner, Timothy Tucker, Paul Gibson-Smith, Dr Chris Van Rompuy, Herman Vélez, Álvaro Uribe Verplaetse, Alfons Vicomte, ex-Governor of the National Bank of Belgium Gotlieb, Allan Villiger, Kaspar Green, Stephen Greenspan, Alan Volcker, Paul Von Habsburg, Otto Gurría, José Ángel Waddaulah, Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Gustaf, Carl XVI of Sweden Walker, Sir David Alan Hague, William Wallenberg, Jacob Hampton, Sir Philip Roy, Chairman of GlaxoSmithKline Walsh, John Warburg, Max, Deputy Chairman of Supervisory Board, M.M.Warburg & CO (AG & Co.) Harald V Norway Weber, Axel Alfred Harper, Stephen Weill, Michael David Heisbourg, François Wellink, Nout Whitman, Marina von Neumann Hildebrand, Philipp Hills, Carla Anderson Williams, Dr Rowan Honohan, Patrick Howard, Alan Ibragimov, Alijan Wolfensohn, James David Ingves, Stefan Nils Magnus Wolin, Neal S. Isaacson, Walter Jacobs, Kenneth M. Woolsey, R. James Jr. Julius, DeAnne Worcester, Sir Robert Milton Juncker, Jean-Claude Wu, Sarah Kenen, Peter Zoellick, Robert Bruce







Cops shoot, kill mentally ill man warning disturbing video, Jason Harrison

Media Defamation Against Brendon O'Connell

Sunday, 29 October 2017


Holocaust Survivors!
Most of my personal libraries have been destroyed by my parents and siblings, and by women I loved and trusted, and most of my surviving books had to be given away because Earthlings calling themselved humans and civilised, hate freedom, truthful knowledge, justice, and the Moral Way!  This did not break my heart because the experience taught me how unreliale humans were and are!



What the Media Won't Tell You About Saudi Arabia

reallygracefulPublished on 16 Sep 2017
Support my channel on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=4621074 *Sources always pinned as top comment Images in this video are from http://reorientmag.tumblr.com/archive **PLEASE CONTACT ME IF I USED YOUR ARTWORK AND DID NOT CREDIT YOU** Ali Al Shehabi (beautiful images) https://www.instagram.com/p/BXQmIgLlU... Please subscribe to my backup channel: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l5eAz... GAB: https://gab.ai/reallygraceful Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/reallygraceful Twitter: https://twitter.com/reallygraceful


* First, let Mohammed bin Salman al-Saud get rid of that Western title of "Crown Prince", then we'll talk!  
* Then, let him and others acknowledge that Saudi leadership was Crypto-Jewish!  
* Then, that they never practiced Islam, but only a Western Freemasonic and CIA brand of extremist religion that usurped the name of Islam!  
*Then, let him FREE ARABIA, and then call it back ARABIA, its proper name, and not call it by its Western shit name of SAUDI ISRAEL or SAUDI "Arabia" owned and controlled by the West!

Since my teens I kept my promise never to perform pilgrimage in that Freemasonic-Jewish occupied land of ARABIA!  Muslim fanatics have all along been accomplices in crime against Islam and the Ummah of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him

Don't we look alike?

 I will return Saudi Arabia to "moderate Islam" (Another colossal Jewish style lie!), says crown prince Mohammed bin Salman tells the Guardian that ultra-conservative state has been ‘not normal’ for past 30 years

Saudi (HOLY JEWISH SHIT!) Arabia’s crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman, has vowed to return the country to “moderate Islam” and asked for global support to transform the hardline kingdom into an open society that empowers citizens and lures investors.


In an interview with the Guardian, the powerful heir to the Saudi throne said the ultra-conservative state had been “not normal” for the past 30 years, blaming rigid doctrines that have governed society in a reaction to the Iranian revolution, which successive leaders “didn’t know how to deal with”.Expanding on comments he made at an investment conference at which he announced the launch of an ambitious $500bn (£381bn) independent economic zone straddling Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Egypt, Prince Mohammed said: “We are a G20 country. One of the biggest world economies. We’re in the middle of three continents. Changing Saudi Arabia for the better means helping the region and changing the world. So this is what we are trying to do here. And we hope we get support from everyone.

“What happened in the last 30 years is not Saudi Arabia. What happened in the region in the last 30 years is not the Middle East. After the Iranian revolution in 1979, people wanted to copy this model in different countries, one of them is Saudi Arabia. We didn’t know how to deal with it. And the problem spread all over the world. Now is the time to get rid of it.”Earlier Prince Mohammed had said: “We are simply reverting to what we followed – a moderate Islam open to the world and all religions. 70% of the Saudis are younger than 30, honestly we won’t waste 30 years of our life combating extremist thoughts, we will destroy them now and immediately.
The crown prince’s comments are the most emphatic he has made during a six-month reform programme that has tabled cultural reforms and economic incentives unimaginable during recent decades, during which the kingdom has been accused of promoting a brand of Islam that underwrote extremism.
The comments were made as the heir of the incumbent monarch moves to consolidate his authority, sidelining clerics whom he believes have failed to support him and demanding unquestioning loyalty from senior officials whom he has entrusted to drive a 15-year reform programme that aims to overhaul most aspects of life in Saudi Arabia.
Central to the reforms has been the breaking of an alliance between hardline clerics who have long defined the national character and the House of Saud, which has run affairs of state. The changes have tackled head-on societal taboos such as the recently rescinded ban on women driving, as well as scaling back guardianship laws that restrict women’s roles and establishing an Islamic centre tasked with certifying the sayings of the prophet Muhammed.

A woman sits behind the wheel of a car in Riyadh last month. 
A woman sits behind the wheel of a car in Riyadh last month. Photograph: STR/EPA

The scale and scope of the reforms has been unprecedented in the country’s modern history and concerns remain that a deeply conservative base will oppose what is effectively a cultural revolution – and that the kingdom lacks the capacity to follow through on its economic ambitions.

The new economic zone is to be established on 470km of the Red Sea coast, in a tourist area that has already been earmarked as a liberal hub akin to Dubai, where male and female bathers are free to mingle.
It has been unveiled as the centrepiece of efforts to turn the kingdom away from a near total dependence on oil and into a diverse open economy. Obstacles remain: an entrenched poor work ethic, a crippling regulatory environment and a general reluctance to change. Pinterest A promotional video for Neom, a new economic zone on the Red Sea coast

“Economic transformation is important but equally essential is social transformation,” said one of the country’s leading businessmen. “You cannot achieve one without the other. The speed of social transformation is key. It has to be manageable.”

Alcohol, cinemas and theatres are still banned in the kingdom and mingling between unrelated men and women remains frowned upon. However Saudi Arabia – an absolute monarchy – has clipped the wings of the once-feared religious police, who no longer have powers to arrest and are seen to be falling in line with the new regime.

Economically Saudi Arabia will need huge resources if it is to succeed in putting its economy on a new footing and its leadership believes it will fail to generate strategic investments if it does not also table broad social reforms.

Prince Mohammed had repeatedly insisted that without establishing a new social contract between citizen and state, economic rehabilitation would fail. “This is about giving kids a social life,” said a senior Saudi royal figure. “Entertainment needs to be an option for them. They are bored and resentful. A woman needs to be able to drive herself to work. Without that we are all doomed. Everyone knows that – except the people in small 

towns. But they will learn.”

A screengrab from the promotional video for Saudi Arabia’s new economic zone. 


A screengrab from the promotional video for Saudi Arabia’s new economic zone. Photograph: YouTube

Saudi society is rigid, its youth restless. The prince’s reforms need to succeed  

Read more

In the next 10 years, at least five million Saudis are likely to enter the country’s workforce, posing a huge problem for officials who currently do not have jobs to offer them or tangible plans to generate employment.

The economic zone is due to be completed by 2025 – five years before the current cap on the reform programme – and is to be powered by wind and solar energy, according to its founders.

The country’s enormous sovereign wealth fund is intended to be a key backer of the independent zone. It currently has $230bn under management. The sale of 5% of the world’s largest company, Aramco, is expected to raise several hundred billion dollars more. 

Since you’re here …

… we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too.

I appreciate there not being a paywall: it is more democratic for the media to be available for all and not a commodity to be purchased by a few. I’m happy to make a contribution so others with less means still have access to information. Thomasine F-R. 

If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps fund it, our future would be much more secure. For as little as £1, you can support the Guardian – and it only takes a minute. Thank you.



Encyclopedia of The Bible – Arabian, Arabians, Arabs
Arabian, Arabians, Arabs
Arabian, Arabians, Arabs

ARABIAN, ARABIANS, ARABS (עֲרַב֒, H6851, עַרְבִ֨ים; ̓́Αραβες). In the Bible, Arabians refers to the nomads who live in the deserts of Arabia, esp. in the northwestern part. They are also known by the general term “people of the East” (Judg 6:3). Some Arabian tribes mentioned in the Bible are: Amalekites, Buzites, Dedanites, Hagrites, Ishmaelites, Kadmonites, Kedarites, Kenites, Meunim or Meunites, Midianites, Naamathites, Sabeans, and Shuhites.

A. History of the Arabs in relation to the Bible.

1. In the time of the patriarchs—Arabian tribes. The Arabs first appear in the Bible in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 and in other early genealogies. Among the descendants of Cush (10:7), the following are located in Arabia: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Sheba, and Dedan. The descendants of Joktan, who was of the line of Shem, include the following names which have been attached to places in Arabia: Hazarmaveth, Uzal, Sheba, Ophir, and Havilah (10:25-29). The names of some of the descendants of Nahor are associated with tribes or areas in N Arabia: Uz, Buz, Chesed (the sing. of the name whose pl. is tr. Chaldeans), and Hazo (22:20-23). Of the descendants of Abraham by Keturah (25:1-4), Sheba is usually associated with S Arabia and the following with N Arabia: Medan, Midian, Shuah, and Dedan. Most of the names of the descendants of Ishmael (25:13-16) refer to tribes or places in NW Arabia, namely: Nebaioth, Kedar, Dumah, Massa, Tema, and Kedemah. The Arab genealogists also trace their own ancestry back to Ishmael and Abraham.

The earliest Biblical incident involving Israelites and Arabs is the selling of Joseph by his brothers to Arab merchants, who took him to Egypt and sold him there (37:25-28; 39:1). These merchants are called Ishmaelites, which is a general name for Arabs, and they also are called Midianites (37:28), their specific Arab tribe (cf. Judg 6:1; 8:24).

2. In the time of Moses—the Midianites. Moses, after killing an Egyp., fled to Midian, an area and a tribe in NW Arabia, and stayed there many years (Exod 2:15). There he married Zipporah, the daughter of Reuel (also called Jethro), the priest of Midian. As a typical Arab, Reuel had flocks (2:16), and Moses adapted to Arab life by tending these flocks (3:1). After the Exodus, the Israelites in the wilderness had to fight Arab tribes such as the Amalekites (17:8-15).

At Rephidim, Jethro came to visit Moses and acknowledged: “Yahweh is greater than all the gods” (18:11, Jerusalem Bible). That he participated in sacrifice to Yahweh and a sacred meal (18:12) is not sufficient evidence to prove, as some have held, that Yahwism was derived from the Midianites or the Kenites. Jethro did advise Moses to appoint subordinate administrators and judges to hear ordinary cases, presumably as was done among the Midianites (18:13-23). Therefore, the administrative and judicial organization of Israel had an Arab model.

Hobab, the son of Reuel, finally consented to accompany the Israelites to guide them through the wilderness (Num 10:29-32). Hobab and his descendants among the Israelites are called Kenites (Judg 1:16; 4:11), a tribe, perhaps of metal workers, associated with the Midianites. Later Midianites joined with the Moabites in opposing the passage of the Israelites through Trans-Jordan (Num 22:4). Phinehas, a priest, killed Cozbi, a Midianite princess, and the Israelite who had taken her into his tent (ch. 25). The Israelites defeated the Midianites and killed their five kings (31:8).

3. In the time of Gideon—Midianite raids. The Midianites, with Amalekites and “people of the East” (that is, people of the Arab country E of Pal.), made raids in Israel with camels (Judg 6:1-6). As in the later Arab ghazw, or razzia (“raid”), the Midianites seized animals and produce and then returned to the semi-desert land E and S of the Jordan. Gideon and his band chased the Midianites away and killed two of their princes (7:25) and two of their kings (8:21). The two princes Oreb (Raven) and Zeeb (Wolf) had animal names, which were common among pre-Islamic Arabs.

4. During the United Kingdom of Israel—Sheba. Both Saul (1 Sam 15:1-33) and David (30:1-20) defeated the Amalekites, who were making raids into southern Pal. It was natural that David should choose an Arab, Obil, to take care of his camels and another Arab, Jaziz the Hagrite, to superintend his flocks (1 Chron 27:30).

In the 10th cent. b.c. the S Arabian kingdom of Saba, Biblical Sheba, controlled the trade between Arabia and the countries of the eastern Mediterranean. The Sabean trading caravans carried not only the spices of Arabia but also products of Africa and India. The capital of Sheba was Mar’ib.

Since Pal. was a natural northern terminus for the Sabeans’ trade, Solomon had important commercial relations with Arabia. From Eziongeber he sent out fleets to Ophir, perhaps in S Arabia. These trading vessels returned with gold, almug wood, and precious stones (1 Kings 9:26-28; 10:11). The Queen of Sheba (named Bilqīs in Arab tradition) visited Solomon (1 Kings 10:1-13), not only to hear his wisdom, but also to trade. The spices, gold, and precious stones which she brought on camels, were typical Sabean merchandise. The text says that she “gave” these things to Solomon, but she received things in return, and therefore it amounted to a commercial transaction except in name. Assyrian sources refer to several Arabian queens, who evidently occupied an important place in Arabian society. Solomon received tribute in gold and silver from “the kings of Arabia” (2 Chron 9:14), prob. chiefs in the northwestern part of the peninsula.

5. During the kingdoms of Judah and Israel—Kedar. An Arab king, Gindibu, provided a thousand warriors on camels to help King Ahab of Israel and others in resisting the Assyrian invasion at the battle of Qarqar in 854 b.c. This battle, not mentioned in the Bible, is described in the annals of Shalmaneser III of Assyria. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (873-849 b.c.) like Solomon, had a fleet at Eziongeber for trade with Arabia (1 Kings 22:48). The same king received tribute from the Arabs, which was in the form of sheep and goats (2 Chron 17:11). According to the RSV tr. of 2 Chronicles 20:1, Meunites, who some think were Minean Arabs, joined with the Moabites and Ammonites in an unsuccessful expedition against Jehoshaphat. Arabs, with Philistines and Ethiopians, attacked Jehoram, king of Judah (849-842 b.c.), and carried away his treasures, his wives, and most of his children (21:16, 17). Uzziah, king of Judah (785-734 b.c.), defeated the Arabs of Gurbaal and the Meunites (26:7). Meunim in 1 Chronicles 4:41 RSV is another spelling of Meunites, but some tr. the word here as “dwellings” (cf. Jerusalem Bible, Anchor Bible). Some of these Meunim were living in Trans-Jordan and were wiped out by Simeonites in the reign of Hezekiah of Judah in the latter part of the 8th cent. b.c. At the same time other Simeonites went to Mount Seir (Edom) and killed and replaced Arab Amalekites living there (1 Chron 4:42, 43).

Conquests of N Arabian tribes by the Assyrians is implied in Isaiah 21:13-17. Records of the Assyrian kings, Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon, and Sennacherib, tell of their victories over the Arabs and tribute from them.

During the period of the divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah, Kedar was the dominant Arab tribe in N Arabia (21:16). In the Assyrian records of this period “Arabs” and “Kedarites” are interchangeable. The Kedarites made raids in Pal.-Syria, but Asshurbanipal, king of Assyria (669-627), repulsed them. Jeremiah (49:28, 29) predicted that Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylonia (605-562 b.c.), would subjugate Kedar, and recently discovered portions of the Babylonian Chronicle record this conquest of N Arabia.

6. Persian Period—Kedar, Mineans, Qataban, Hadramaut. According to Xenophon’s Cyropaedia, VII. 4. 16, Cyrus, king of Persia, subdued the Arabs, and there were Arab soldiers in Cyrus’s army which took Babylon in 539 b.c. (VII. 5. 13; cf. Dan 5:30, 31). The Behistun inscr. of Darius I lists Arabia as one of the Pers. provinces. Arabs furnished camel-riding troops for the expedition against Greece organized by Xerxes I, the Ahashuerus of the Book of Esther (Herodotus, VII. 86).

In the time of Nehemiah, Geshem the Arabian tried to prevent the Jews from rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh 2:19; 6:1, 2, 6). At el-Ula, Biblical Dedan, deep in northern Arabia, an inscr. is dated in Geshem’s time. An inscr. on a silver bowl from Tell el-Maskhūṭah, near the northeastern border of Egypt, calls Geshem the king of Kedar, a title implying suzerainty over northwestern Arabia.

During the Pers. period the economic and political dominance of Saba (Biblical Sheba) in S Arabia came to an end, and other kingdoms rose to power and controlled the spice trade. About 400 b.c. the Mineans, perhaps the Biblical Meunim, were dominant in S Arabia. Their capital was Qarnaw, now called Ma’īn. Another kingdom in S Arabia was Qataban, whose capital was Timna’. The kingdom of Hadramaut, corresponding to Hazarmaveth in Genesis 10:26, extended along the southern coast of Arabia. Its capital was Shabwat, present-day Shabwah.

7. Fifth century B.C. to first century A.D.—Nabateans. The Nabateans were the dominant tribe in northwestern Arabia from the 4th cent. b.c. until the 1st cent. a.d. Obadiah 7 and Malachi 1:3, 4 prob. reflect the expulsion of the Edomites from Sela, later called Petra, by the Nabateans.

Arabs helped in the defense of Gaza against Alexander (Arrian II. 25. 4). Alexander went on to subdue Arabia, that is the NW portion (Livy XLV. 9). According to Polybius V. 71, Arabs helped Antiochus III to win Pal. from the Ptolemies in 198 b.c. (cf. Dan 11:15, 16).

In the Apoc., Nabateans (1 Macc 5:25) and Arabs (5:39) are often synonymous. The Arabs sometimes sided with the Jews in their struggle for independence (9:35), but at other times with the Syrians (5:39; 2 Macc 12:31). The first known king of the Nabateans was Aretas I, who refused asylum to Jason the runaway Jewish high priest about 169 b.c. (5:8). In 145 b.c. an Arabian prince, Zabdiel, cut off the head of Alexander Balas, who had held the Seleucid throne for five years (11:17). Another Arab, Imalkue, brought up Alexander Balas’s son, Antiochus VI (11:39, 40).

The Nabateans frequently clashed with the later Maccabean rulers of the Jewish state. About 90 b.c. the Nabatean king Obedas I defeated Alexander Janneus at Gadara in Gilead when the latter was trying to conquer Arab territory (Jos. Antiq. XIII. xiii. 5). Under Aretas III (87-62 b.c.) the Nabatean kingdom reached its greatest extent. He forced Alexander Janneus to give him Moab and Gilead (XIII. xiv. 2), took over Damascus (XIII, xv, 2), and intervened in Jewish affairs, supporting Hyrcanus II as the Jewish ruler against the latter’s brother, Aristobulus II (XIV, i. 4; XIV. ii. 1-3). The Nabateans opposed the Rom. intervention in Pal. under Pompey, and a Rom. general, Scaurus, blockaded Aretas in Petra until he paid money to the Romans (XIV. v. 1). In 31 b.c. Herod the Great fought battles against the Arabs and finally defeated them (XV. v.).

During much of NT times Aretas IV (9 b.c.-a.d. 40) was the Nabatean king. Herod Antipas married the daughter of this Aretas, but divorced her to marry Herodias (XVIII. v. 1; Matt 14:3). Because of this and a disputed boundary between their dominions in the country of Gamalitis, Aretas attacked and defeated Herod Antipas. The Arabians who heard Peter at Pentecost (Acts 2:11), were prob. Jews from Nabatean areas, SE of Pal. The governor of Damascus under Aretas set guards at the city gates to seize Paul, prob. at the request of Jewish leaders, but the apostle escaped over the city wall (2 Cor. 11:32, 33).

During the second half of the 1st cent. a.d., the Romans gradually took over the areas that had been controlled by the Nabateans. The Romans forced Malichus II, the Nabatean king (a.d. 40-70), to give up control of Damascus. Malichus also was obliged to contribute Arab soldiers to help the Romans in suppressing the Jewish revolt in a.d. 67 (Jos. War III. vii. 9).

C. Arab culture and the Bible. The Arabs speak Sem. languages, as indicated by their descent from Shem (Gen 10:25-30). The angular S Arab. script developed from the Sinaitic alphabet, and the earliest datable Sabean inscr. comes from the 8th cent. b.c. From S Arab. the following scripts developed: Lihyanic, beginning in the 7th cent. b.c.; Thamudic, beginning in the 5th cent. b.c.; and Safaitic, beginning about a.d. 100. The Nabatean script was derived from Aram. and led to the N Arab. writing which prevails today.

Genesis 16:12 predicts that Ishmael will be “a wild ass of a man.” The wild ass wandered in the Syrian desert, as did the Arab Ishmaelites, “over against,” or E of, their Aram. and Heb. kinsmen. Ishmael’s “hand” will be “against every man,” perhaps referring to the many raids of the Arabs on the fertile lands bordering the Syrian desert.

Among the cultural features of the Arabs mentioned in the Bible is that they lived in “the wilderness,” the semi-desert plateau of NW Arabia (Jer 3:2). Their homes were tents (Ps 83:6; 120:5; Jer 49:29). They used camels for riding and carrying baggage (Gen 37:25). From S Arabia their merchant caravans brought spices, gold, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:2); they sold sheep and goats from N Arabia to the Phoenicians (Ezek 27:20-22); they transferred products of Africa and India to Mediterranean lands (1 Kings 10:22); and they also dealt in slaves (Joel 3:8). Jeremiah (25:23; 49:32), like Herodotus (III. 8), mentions that they cut the corners of their hair, leaving a tuft on top as Bedouins do today. The Midianites wore gold earrings (Judg 8:24), like some Bedouins today, and hung crescents on the necks of their camels (v. 21). The crescent always has been popular in Arab. art and has become the symbol of Islam.

The Arabs, called “the people of the E” in 1 Kings 4:30, were famous for their wisdom. The wise sayings of Agur and of Lemuel, two kings of Massa in N Arabia, are preserved in the last two chs. of Proverbs. The homes of Job and his friends and most of the animals mentioned in that wisdom book are located in NW Arabia. The sons of Hagar, that is the Ishmaelites, are called “seekers of wisdom” in Baruch 3:23.

Recent excavations have uncovered impressive monuments illustrating the material culture of S Arabia. Noteworthy are the great temple of the Sabean moon-god Ilumquh at Marib, large dams and canals for irrigation, statues in stone and bronze and jewelry. On the stone monuments of S Arabia are carved thousands of memorial, historical, and religious inscrs.

The Nabateans carved spectacular tombs and temples in Greco-Rom. style from the colored sandstone at Petra. Some of their pottery was remarkably thin and beautifully painted. Their inscrs. are found on rocks in many parts of NW Arabia.

D. Ancient Arab religion. The general Arabian word for god was il (like Heb. El) or ilah (like Heb. Eloah), but the ancient Arabians were polytheists. One of their most important deities was the moon-god called Ilumquh by the Sabeans, Wadd by the Mineans, ’Amm by the Qatabanians and Sin by the Hadramautians. The moon-god’s consort was the sungoddess Shamsi, and their son was ’Athtar, the morning star. The gods of Adumatu (Biblical Dumah) in the 7th cent. b.c. as noted by the Assyrians were: Atarsamaim, Dai, Nuhai, Ruldaiu, Abrillu, and Atarquruma. Atarsamaim is perhaps the same Arabian goddess called Alilat (“the goddess”) by Herodotus (I. 131), and hanilat (also meaning “the goddess”) in a 5th cent. Kedarite inscr. According to the Babylonian Talmud (Taanith, 5b), the Kedarites also worshiped water. This may refer to the veneration of sacred wells, such as Zamzam at Mecca. Deities of the Nabateans included: Dushara, the supreme god; Allat, the mother goddess; Hadad, the storm-god; Atargatis, the fish-goddess; and Gad, the god of luck. Gods in Safaitic inscrs. include: Dushara, Allāt, Gad-’Awidh, and Ba’alsamīn. Pagan Arab gods mentioned in the Qur’ān are: al-Lāt, al-’Uzza, and Manāh, considered as three daughters of Allah, the supreme god (53:19, 20), Wadd, Suwā', Yaghūth, Ya’ūq, and Nasr (71:23). Arabians fear demons called jinn (Qur’ān 72).

Some of the religious practices of the ancient Arabians were similar to those of the Hebrews. Both people practiced circumcision and pilgrimage. The Arab priest (kāhin), like the Heb. kōhēn, not only performed sacrifices, but also used the sacred lots (cf. Heb. Urim and Thummim) to learn the divine will and the future. Some think that the lw’ who served in the temple at Dedan is related in name and function to the Biblical Levite. The Arabian mslm sacrifice is from the same root as the Heb. šlm, “peace offering.” The Arabian incense used in worship included several spices, like the sacred incense of Exodus 30:34. A pillar before the temple at Sirwah was called knt, “firmness,” like the pillar called Jachin, “it is firm,” before Solomon’s Temple (1 Kings 7:21).

Bibliography D. H. Müller, “Arabia,” Pauly’s Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, N.B., III (1895), cols. 244-259; al-Tabari, Ta’rīkh al-rusul w-al-mulūk (1879-1901); J. A. Montgomery, Arabia and the Bible (1934); G. Caton-Thompson, The Tombs and Moon Temple of Hureidha (Hadhramaut) (1944); W. F. Albright, “The Chronology of Ancient South Arabia in the Light of Excavation in Qataban,” BASOR, 119 (1950), 5-15; G. Ryckmans, Les religions arabes préislamiques (1951); G. W. Van Beek, “Recovering the Ancient Civilization of Arabia,” BA, XV (1952), 2-18; W. F. Albright, “Dedan,” Beiträge sur historischen Theologie, XVI (1953), 1-12; Jawad ’Ali, Ta’rīkh al-’arab qabl al-islām, I-III (1950-1953); C. Rathgens, Sabeica I (1953); O. Eissfeldt, “Das Alte Testament im Lichte der Safatenischen Inschriften,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, CIV (1954), 88-118; F. M. Cross, “Geshem the Arabian,” BA, XVIII (1955), 46, 47; A. L. Oppenheim, “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” ANET (1955), 263-317; W. Phillips, Qataban and Sheba (1955); J. Starcky, “The Nabataeans: A Historical Sketch,” BA, XVIII (1955), 84-106; G. Ryckmans, “L’Arabie antique et la Bible,” L’Ancien Testament et l’orient (1957), 89-109; R. L. Bowen, F. P. Albright, Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia, II (1958); S. Moscati, Ancient Semitic Civilizations (1960), 181-219; J. Pirenne, Le royaume sud-arabe de Qataban et sa datation (1961); G. W. Van Beek, “South Arabian History and Archaeology,” The Bible and the Ancient Near East (1961), 229-248; A. Jamme, Sabaean Inscriptions from Mahram Bilqīs (Mārib) (1962); R. L. Cleveland, An Ancient Arabian Necropolis, Objects from the Second Campaign (1951) in the Timna’ Cemetery (1965); N. Glueck, Deities and Dolphins: The Story of the Nabataeans (1965); B. Abd al-Malik, J. A. Thompson, “Arabia,” The Biblical World (1966), 45-50; R. deVaux, “Sur l’origine kénite ou madianite du Yahvisme,” Eretz-Israel, IX (1969), 28-32; P. K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th ed. (1970).