Saturday, 29 October 2016



Cherokee - Chief John Ross. Vintage photo restored by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Cherokee - Chief John Ross. Vintage photo restored by Kathy Weiser-Alexander. 
Cherokee Confederates
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Did you know, first Cherokee Indian tribe is Muslim
Question is How come Europeans claim that they explore America's? as there is overwhelming evidence of Muslims being in contact with Native Indians, long before Columbus. It is not possible that Europeans were not aware of this, as after Spanish Inquisittion, Spaniards had access to very academic and intellectual property of Muslims.
cherokeeindianBenarkah? Yes very true, in the history that is not revealed and never revealed and is only expressed in the akedemisi related to history, noted that the majority of the Cherokee indian tribe is Muslim. As evidence that this was indeed true, and if...

Did you know, first Cherokee Indian tribe is Muslim cherokeeindianBenarkah? Yes very true, in the history that is not revealed and never revealed and is only expressed in the…

Did you know, first Cherokee Indian tribe is Muslim

Did you know, first Cherokee Indian tribe is Muslim

cherokeeindianBenarkah? Yes very true, in the history that is not revealed and never revealed and is only expressed in the akedemisi related to history, noted that the majority of the Cherokee indian tribe is Muslim. As evidence that this was indeed true, and if there Rejeki opportunity to visit the library to U.S. Congress (Library of Congress) please ask for records indicated the agreement between the U.S. and the Cherokee indian tribe in the year 1787.

There will be visible signature of Cherokee tribe at that time with the name of Abdel-Khak and Muhammad Ibn Abdullah

Long history,


The spirit of the people of Islam and China at that time to get to know more about the planet (of course at that time the planet has not heard the name) where in addition to widen the influence, seek new trade routes and of course expand Islamic propaganda encouraging some intrepid among them to traverse the area still considered to be dark in the maps they are at that time.

Some famous names remain so even to this day almost everyone had heard only a Tjeng Ho and Ibn Batutta, but some almost not hear, and only recorded on academic books.

Experts and intellectual geography of the Muslims who travel to record the Americas-that is Abu Al-Hassan Ali Ibn Al Hussain Al Masudi (died 957 years), Al-Idrisi (died 1166 years), Chihab Addin Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad bin Fadhl Al Umari (1300 - 1384) and Ibn Battuta (died 1369 years).

According to the notes historian and expert geography Moslem Al Masudi (871 - 957), Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad of a Muslim navigator of Cordoba in Andalusia, has been to the Americas in the year 889 BC. In his book, 'Muruj ADH dhahab-Maadin wa al-Jawhar' (The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels), Al Masudi reported that during the Spanish Caliph Abdullah Ibn Muhammad (888 - 912), Ibn Khashkhash

Saeed Ibn Aswad sailed from Delba (Palos) in 889, across the Atlantic Ocean, to reach areas that have not been known that disebutnya ARD Majhoola, and then return with a stunning variety of property.

After that many cruises visit the mainland in the Atlantic Ocean, which was dark and foggy. Al Masudi also write a book 'Akhbar Az Zaman', which includes material from the history of vagrancy traders to Africa and Asia.

Dr. Swakke Mroueh also wrote that during the Caliph Abdul Rahman III (929-961 years) from Umayah Dynasty, recorded the existence of people from Africa that Islam also sail from the port Delba (Palos) in Spain to the west towards the sea that separated black and foggy , Atlantic Ocean. They successfully bring back the goods from the value of obtaining a foreign land.

He is also writing the notes historian Abu Bakr Ibn Umar Al-Gutiyya that the Caliph of Spain, Hisham II (976-1009) from a navigator Ibn Farrukh Granada was called to leave the port Kadesh in February across 999 years Atlantic Ocean and landed in Gando (Canary Kepulaun).

Ibn Farrukh visit to the King Guanariga and then proceed to the west to see two islands and it Capraria and Pluitana. Ibn Farrukh return to Spain in May 999.

Perlayaran across the Atlantic Ocean from Morocco also noted by a sea Shaikh Zayn-eddin Ali bin Fadhel Al-Mazandarani. Unencumbered Tarfay ship from the Sultan of Morocco at the time of Abu-Yacoub Sidi swakke (1286 - 1307) king of the sixth dynasty in Marinid. Ship landed on the island of the Caribbean Sea on the Green in the year 1291. According to Dr. Morueh, travel notes this as a reference by many Islamic scholars.

Sultans of the kingdom of Mali in west Africa who beribukota in Timbuktu, also appeared to make their own travel to the Americas. Chihab historian Abu Al-Addin-Abbas Ahmad bin Fadhl Al Umari (1300 - 1384) memerinci exploration geography this carefully. Timbuktu people who are now forgotten, was a center of civilization, a library and scholarly progress in Africa. Ekpedisi land travel and sea made a lot of people started to Timbuktu or from Timbuktu.

Sultan noted melanglang Buana to the new continent at that time was Sultan Abu Bakari I (1285 - 1312), brother of Sultan Mansa Kankan Musa (1312 - 1337), who had twice expedition travel to the Atlantic Ocean to the United States and even the river Mississippi.

Sultan Abu Bakari I do exploration in central and northern United States with the Mississippi river between the years 1309-1312. The Arabic eksplorer this. Two centuries later, the invention of the Americas enshrined in the color map of Piri Re'isi made year 1513, is presented to the king and the Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1517 years. This map shows the western hemisphere, and even the southern United States Antarctic continent, with Brazil drawing pesisiran a quite accurate.

Talk about the Cherokee, of course, can not be separated from the Sequoyah (portait top left). A native tribe of the Cherokee tribe Syllabary revive them in 1821. Syllabary is perhaps a kind of literacy, if we know the alphabet A to Z the Cherokee tribe has its own way for its characters. Which makes it very remarkable is the fact that literacy is found again by Sequoyah is similar to the Arabic script (see picture right). Several centuries to any posts cherokee-7 were found on stones terpahat even in Nevada is very similar to any posts "Muhammad" in Arabic.

Other evidence is, to know that Columbus own people Carib (Caribbean) is the pursuer of the Prophet Muhammad. He understood that the people of Islam have been in there, especially those from West Africa coast. They inhabit the Caribbean, North and South America. But does not like Columbus who want to enslave the people and the United States. Orang-Orang Islam came to trade and some even marry indigenous people.

Columbus further admitted on 21 October 1492 in pelayarannya between Gibara Cuba Beach and see a mosque (standing on the hill with the beautiful any posts according to another source). To date, the remains of ruins of the mosque has been found in Cuba, Mexico, Texas and Nevada.

And you know, 2 people Nahkoda ships Columbus led by captain and ship Nina is the fate of the Muslims, namely the two brothers Martin Alonso Pinzon and Vicente Pinzon still Yanex family of Morocco Sultan Abuzayan Muhammad III (1362). [THACHER, JOHN Boyd: Christopher Columbus, New York, 1950]

And why is it up to Columbus at this time known as the inventor american continent? When the expulsion occurred because the Jews from Spain of 300,000 Jews by the Christian king Ferdinand, and the Jews the way the funds for shipping news and Columbus' discovery of the Americas' first post by Christopher Columbus to his friends of the Jews in Spain. Columbus voyage this publication seems to be thirsty and needed to create a legend in accordance with the 'sponsored links' to the Jewish donors. Next story we know that the mass media and publications occupied by the Jews that even the doghouse by people like Henry Ford of the United States is the king of the car. Then there is the look-jujuran facts in writing the history of the discovery of the Americas. History of abuse by the Jews that occurred the first time since they shared the European set foot to the Americas.

And you know, actually laksam ana or Zheng He in Indonesia is well known as warlord Cheng Ho is the first inventor continental United States, about 70 years before Columbus.

Around 70 years before Columbus benderanya stick in the United States mainland, warlord Zheng He has been first to come there. Participants in the seminar organized by the Royal Geographical Society in London some time ago made terperangah. Was a submarine expert and historian named Gavin Menzies paparannya with and then get the most attention.

Show full confidence, Menzies explained theory about famous voyage home from the sea mahsyur China, warlord Zheng He (we know the molasses Ho-red). Together with evidence found from the historical record, he then concluded that the sailor and navigator from the top-flight Ming Dynasty was the beginning of the continental United States inventor, and not Columbus.

In fact, according to him, Zheng He 'beat' with the Columbus range within about 70 years. What Menzies raised to make the fur fly because of the world community to know that this is the Columbus-discoverer of the Americas in the 15th century. Menzies reinforced this statement with some evidence of history. Is a map made in the period before Columbus launch ekspedisinya full picture with the Americas and a map of Zheng He owned astronomical dosodorkannya as the evidence is. Menzies to be very confident after examining the accuracy of historical objects that.

"Laksana that this is the proper title of inventor was the first continental United States," he said. Menzies to study for more than 14 years. This research includes ancient maps, artefacts and also proof of the development of modern astronomy technology through programs such as Starry Night software.

Of key evidence that could change the history of this flow, Menzies said that most of the navigation map and any posts they are ancient China during the warlord Zheng He voyage. Penjelajahannya to reach the Americas to take time between the years 1421 and 1423. Previous fleet Zheng He sailed the route south through Africa and to South America.

Description astronomical voyage Zheng He roughly call, late at night when the stars look south around 18 March 1421, the site is located at the south end of South America. It is then reconstructed using a re-Starry Night software to compare the map with the Zheng He voyage.

"I memprogram Starry Night in the period up to year 1421 and estimated that the world never be plied these expeditions," said Menzies also a navigator and a former submarine commander British navy this.

From here, he finally found two different locations of this voyage to the notes astronomy (stars) Zheng He expedition.

So going on the movement of the stars is, according to the earth rotation and orientation in space. Earth's rotation due to the less perfect to create the earth as if punk sculpture circle in the air every 26 thousand years. This phenomenon, called precision, meaning that each point polar stars look different during the run. Menzies uses software to reconstruct the position of the stars as the year 1421.

"We already have a star map of ancient China, but still require dismantling map," said Menzies.

When are confused to think of this problem, suddenly ditemukanlah solutions. "With extraordinary luck, one of the goals that they lalui, between Sumatra and Dondra Head, Sri Lanka, leading to the west."

Part of the voyage is apparently very close to the equator in the Indian Ocean. The Polaris, the north star, and the southern stars Canopus, which is near the southern polar latitude, are listed in the map. "From there, we successfully determine the location and direction of Polaris. So next time we can ensure that the map from the year 1421, plus and minus 30 years. "

Above findings, the Phillip Sadler, navigation experts from Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said the estimated using the map based on the position of ancient stars is possible. He also agreed that the estimate of the time 30 years, as in the Menzies, also reasonable.

During this time, people of the world knows gait explorer Zheng He as a superlative. He was born in Kunyang, the city which is located on the southwestern Yunan Province, in the year 1371. Family named Ma, is part of the minority citizens Semur. They came from Central Asia and profess Islam. Father and grandfather Zheng He voyage ever known pilgrimage to the Holy Land of Makkah. While Zheng He alone grow large with lots of travel to a number of areas. He is a devout Muslim.

Yunan is one of the last defense of the nation Mongols, existing long before the Ming Dynasty. At the time of the Ming troops Yunan year 1382, Zheng He participated thralled and brought to Nanjing. When he was still aged 11 years. Zheng He was made as a crown servant son will be named emperor Yong Le. Well this is the emperor who gave the name of Zheng He to the end he became one of the most termashyur marine commander in the world. (Early Tokyo / sbl)


Cherokee Indians




Cherokees, one of the most populous Indian societies in the Southeast during the eighteenth century, played a key role in Georgia's early history. They were close allies of the British for much of the eighteenth century. During the Seven Years' War (1756-63) and American Revolution (1775-83), a breakdown in relations with the British and then the Americans led to repeated invasions of the Cherokee homeland. The post-revolutionary era witnessed remarkable Cherokee efforts to cope with land encroachments and territorial loss, and to succeed at nation-building. Increased expansion by the United States in the nineteenth century ultimately resulted in the forced removal of most Cherokee peoples to a region west of the Mississippi River.

Cherokee Society

It is important to first identify what made the Cherokees a distinct social group. The Cherokees occupied a common homeland in the southern Appalachian Mountains known in Georgia as the Blue Ridge, including much of the northern third of the land that would become Georgia. They spoke an Iroquoian language, while most of their indigenous neighbors spoke languages of the Muskogean, Algonquian, or Siouan language families. More important, the Cherokees were bound by kinship networks, as clan membership defined who was and who was not a Cherokee.

Though a shared cultural heritage and political connections also conjoined the Cherokees into a recognizable ethnic group, they were far from a united people. Social, political, and religious activity centered on the local village. They organized themselves into the divisions known during the Historic Period: the Overhill Towns, the Middle Towns, the Out Towns, the Valley Towns, and the Lower Towns. The latter two made up the Cherokee inhabitants of Georgia.

 further generated divisions. For example, the Lower Towns, such as Chattooga, were situated on the headwaters of the upper Savannah River in present-day Georgia and South Carolina. Their particular location resulted in frequent interactions with Georgians, Carolinians, and Creek Indians. This contrasted to the Overhill Cherokees in present-day east Tennessee. Many of their crosscultural exchanges took place with a different set of neighbors, including the Shawnees and Iroquois. These varying locations and identities influenced the ways in which Cherokees interacted with outsiders. When pursuing a more thorough rendering of Cherokee history than presented here, it is necessary to appreciate these local and regional differences.

Early History

The Cherokees inhabited the mountainous South long before the arrival of Europeans and Africans. Archaeological evidence and
Cherokee origin stories indicate that Cherokee forbears settled their historic homeland many generations prior to the Spanish incursions of the sixteenth century. Occupying a land where a complex river system reached the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Mississippi River Basin, the Cherokees developed extensive relations with many indigenous peoples. 
Foremost among these relationships during the Historic Period were those with the Creek Indians.

Cherokees and some of the ancestors of the Creeks had a long history of interaction in the north Georgia mountains. Both had ancestors who were part of the Mississippian Period chiefdoms (A.D. 800-1600) and who built impressive mounds throughout Georgia. With the arrival of Spanish explorers and Old World diseases, the chiefdoms collapsed, and remnant populations coalesced into new political entities, such as the Cherokees and Creeks. North Georgia subsequently served as a dynamic borderland between the two groups after the arrival of the British in the Southeast.

English-Cherokee Trade and Alliance

Early Cherokee history experienced a profound change with the founding of Carolina (1670) and Georgia (1733). The Cherokees became key trading partners of the British in Augusta and Charleston, South Carolina. Traders often resided within Cherokee villages as they exchanged tools, weapons, and other manufactured goods for
valuable deerskins. The Cherokees were voracious consumers, and many traditional items were replaced by European technology. Access to the English trade gradually changed Cherokee culture, but it also affected power balances within the region. Indigenous peoples vied for control of the trade, which led to sporadic warfare involving both natives and newcomers.

The Yamasee War (1715), for example, was one of the most destructive wars in the colonial Southeast. During that conflict, the Yamasee Indians and their allies warred against Carolina as a result of trading abuses and land encroachments. The British presence in the Carolina lowcountry remained uncertain until Cherokee intervention tipped the balance. The Cherokees promised to assist the British and then killed a delegation of anti-Carolina Creeks. This action cemented the English-Cherokee alliance, but it also unleashed a forty-year war between the Cherokees and Creeks. Thereafter, both the Cherokees and British kept a guarded eye on the Creeks, who maintained trading ties to Carolina and Georgia but also to the French in Louisiana. These intertribal and imperial concerns became even more pronounced with the onset of the Seven Years' War.

Seven Years' War

The English-Cherokee alliance was sorely tested during the Seven Years' War, a worldwide conflict that involved many theaters and included the French and Indian War (1754-63) in North America. As Britain
struggled against France for control of the Ohio country, the Cherokees once again answered calls for assistance from their allies. Perhaps as many as 1,000 warriors, nearly one-third of their fighting force, joined the British war effort. By 1759 the British had routed the French in America, but their Indian affairs deteriorated in the process. The first signs of trouble with the Cherokees began in western Virginia. Feeling undervalued and undercompensated for their military services, Cherokee warriors plundered backcountry settlers. Several skirmishes ensued, leading to murders on both sides. The conflict escalated, which eventually resulted in open warfare between the Cherokees and the British.

Cherokee warriors attacked settlers throughout the southern colonies, while the British responded with two military incursions during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-61). During these invasions of their homeland, Cherokees failed to prevent widespread destruction of their towns. Those towns nearest to Georgia and South Carolina were the most affected. British regulars and colonial militia torched Cherokee homes, public structures, and agricultural fields. Many townspeople were temporarily displaced by the tumult of war, which hastened the spread of a recent outbreak of smallpox in 1759-60 with deadly results. The Cherokees experienced significant population loss, and it would take years before village life returned to normal.

American Revolution

If the Cherokees thought the Seven Years' War was a disastrous event, they would become even more unsettled during the American Revolution. For the Cherokees, this war lasted from 1776 to 1794. With the commencement of hostilities between the British and the colonists, the Cherokees became divided over how to respond to the emerging crisis. Few Cherokees supported the expansionist Americans, but many villagers favored neutrality. Enough Cherokees supported the British in 1776, however, to wage war openly against the southern states.

settlements from Virginia to Georgia experienced the ravages of war, as Cherokee raiding parties attacked backcountry settlers throughout the region. Southern militia retaliated by sacking Cherokee country, this time burning towns in all regions in near simultaneous attacks. Georgia was directly involved in these early campaigns. Soldiers under the leadership of Colonel Samuel Jack, for example, razed the Lower Town of Tugaloo, in present-day Stephens County, in 1776.

These multistate invasions, coupled with significant territorial loss following the treaties of DeWitt's Corner and Long Island of Holston (1777), further divided the Cherokees. Many villagers sought peace with the Americans, but a large contingent of warriors continued to fight and relocated their towns to north Georgia. Led by a charismatic warrior named Dragging Canoe, the Chickamauga Cherokees, as they were called, pursued closer relations with the British and other Indian groups who resisted American expansion. They continued to war against the United States for more than a decade after the Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the Revolution. Only after repeated invasions of their homeland did the Chickamauga Cherokees finally agree to end hostilities.

Nineteenth-Century Nationhood and Transformation

The cost of peace was high. Successive treaties with the Americans in the 1790s and early 1800s, such as the
Treaty of Tellico (1805), which made the Federal Road possible, eroded Cherokee territory. With the loss of valuable hunting grounds and an important economic commodity (deerskins), the Cherokees struggled to defend their homeland and their way of life.

Central to this effort was the emergence of a more centralized Cherokee society, and in 1827 a constitutional government, the Cherokee Nation, was established. Led by principal chief (the equivalent of president) John Ross, counselor Major Ridge, and Charles Hicks, who were known as the "Cherokee Triumvirate," this new political entity eventually witnessed the adoption of a written constitution, council, mounted police force, and many other Western-influenced institutions. The new capital at New Echota (near Calhoun in present-day Gordon County), reflected a major demographic change for the Cherokees, whose core areas of settlement had shifted to northwest Georgia.

The transition to nationhood was not an easy process. The Cherokees experienced many difficulties in dealing with both internal and external challenges. Town and regional interests remained strong, and political factionalism intensified throughout the period. Much of this infighting could be connected to vast
cultural and economic changes that had reached Cherokee country by the early nineteenth century.

An influx of Europeans and Africans complicated the ethnic and racial makeup of Cherokee society. The deerskin economy had also largely been replaced by an agricultural system and a move toward private ownership of property that encouraged male-centered farming and herding. A proliferation of missionaries to the Cherokees in the early nineteenth century—most notably by Moravians from North Carolina but including those of other denominations as well—also served to create a Euro-Christian-educated elite. The result was social and economic stratification between those Cherokees—such as Joseph Vann, Major Ridge, and John Ross—who turned to plantation agriculture supported by a workforce of African American slaves, and those whose livelihoods and community values were similar to Cherokees of an earlier generation.

The Cherokee Phoenix, the first Native American newspaper in the United States, began publication in the late 1820s and featured both English and Cherokee text (a syllabary created by Sequoyah). Elias Boudinot served as editor from 1828 until 1832, when he was forced to resign because of his stance in favor of Cherokee removal.

Loss of a Nation

In the 1820s and 1830s Georgia conducted a relentless campaign to remove the Cherokees. Between 1827
and 1831 the Georgia legislature extended the state's jurisdiction over Cherokee territory and set in motion a process to seize the Cherokee land, divide it into parcels, and offer the parcels in a lottery to white Georgians. The discovery of gold on Cherokee territory in 1829 further fueled the desire of Georgians to possess their land. The following year Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized U.S. president Andrew Jackson to negotiate removal treaties with Native American tribes. Ross and other leaders fought government efforts to separate the Cherokees from their land and appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. In Worcester v. Georgia (1832) the Court held that the Cherokee Indians constituted a nation holding distinct sovereign powers, but the decision would not protect the Cherokees from removal.

The strategies of the Cherokee leadership diverged sharply. Ridge became convinced that either warfare or negotiation with the U.S. government must proceed. He became a leader of the Treaty Party, which favored removal to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River (in present-day Oklahoma), in exchange for financial compensation of $5 million to the Cherokees. Ross, on the other hand, refused to believe that Americans would oust the most "civilized" native people in the Southeast. His faith in the republican form of government, the authority of the Supreme Court, and the political power of Cherokee supporters, especially the Whig Party, gave him confidence that Cherokee rights would be protected.

In December 1835 Ridge and a minority of
Cherokees signed the Treaty of New Echota without authorization from Ross or the Cherokee government. The illegal treaty was then signed by President Jackson and passed by one vote in the U.S. Senate. Ridge and his family voluntarily moved west, but Ross and other treaty opponents fought its implementation. The Ross faction failed, and in 1838 the military enforced the removal order. Thousands of Cherokees were expelled from their homeland and forced to migrate west. Because of harsh weather conditions, more than 4,000 Cherokees died during the 1838-39 winter on the "trail where they cried," commonly known as the Trail of Tears. Some of Ross's supporters later murdered the treaty signers Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot in retaliation for their role in the Cherokee tragedy.

The descendants of those who were removed would become known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. A smaller number of Cherokees avoided forced removal and remained in the mountains of North Carolina. They became the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.)

Cherokee - Westward on the Trail of Tears

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The Cherokee tribe was the first to inhabit what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most of them were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. One of the tribes referred to by Native Americans as the Five Civilized Tribes, various Cherokee bands played an important role in colonial America and in United States history.

The name Cherokee is an old pronunciation of Tsalagi, which is the name for the Cherokee in the Creek language. The name which the Cherokee originally used for themselves is Aniyunwiya, meaning "principal people.” The Cherokee speak an Iroquoian language and had a system of writing their own language, developed by Sequoyah.

Evidence indicates that the Cherokee migrated in prehistoric times from present-day Texas or northern Mexico to the Great Lakes area. However, wars with the Iroquois and Delaware tribes, who controlled those lands, pushed the Cherokee southeast to the mountains and valleys of the southern part of the Appalachian chain. They eventually settled in modern Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama.

The Cherokee economy, like that of other Southeast tribes, was based primarily on agriculture, growing corn, beans, squash, sunflowers and tobacco. Deer, bear, and elk were hunted with bows and arrows. Smaller game, such as raccoons, rabbits, squirrels, and turkeys, were hunted with long cane-stem blowguns that propelled wood-and-feather darts. For fishing, hooks and lines, spears, and traps were used. Wild plant foods, including roots, greens, berries and nuts were also gathered for another source of nutrition.

The Cherokee women wore skirts woven from plants, while the men wore breechcloths or leggings. The men would paint their skin and decorate it with tattoos. The women would sew feathers into light capes made of netting.

The Cherokee were divided into seven matrilineal clans who lived in numerous permanent villages, typically placed along rivers and streams. Cherokee families typically had two dwellings: rectangular summer houses with cane and clay walls and bark or thatch roofs, and cone-shaped winter houses with pole frames and brushwork covered by mud or clay. The Cherokee crafted pottery as well as baskets.

The Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, first encountered them in the Appalachians in 1540. By 1715 smallpox had reduced the Cherokee population to about 11,000.
During the British and French struggle for control of colonial North America, the Cherokee provided warriors in support of the British, but revolted against them in 1760 in the Cherokee War under Chief Oconostota.  During the American Revolution tribal members aided Great Britain with sporadic attacks on outlying settlements, as the pioneers continually encroached upon Cherokee lands.
In 1785 a number of bands negotiated a peace treaty with the United States, but Cherokee resistance continued for a decade thereafter. In 1791 a new treaty reconfirmed the earlier one; part of Cherokee territory was ceded to the United States, and the permanent rights of the tribe to the remaining territory were established. Between 1790 and 1819, several thousand of the tribe began to leave their lands, becoming known as the Chickamauga. Led by Chief Dragging Canoe, the Chickamauga made alliances with the Shawnee and engaged in raids against colonial settlements, aided by the British.
John Ross, first Chief of the Cherokee NationJohn Ross was an important figure in the history of the Cherokee tribe. His father emigrated from Scotland prior to the Revolutionary War and his mother was a quarter-blood Cherokee woman. He began his public career in 1809. Still permitted under the Constitution at that time, the "Cherokee Nation" was founded in 1820, with elected public officials. The Cherokee established a republican governmental system modeled on that of the United States, with an elected principal chief, namely John Ross, a senate, and a house of representatives. In 1827 they drafted a constitution and incorporated as the Cherokee Nation. John Ross remained the chief until his death.

Meanwhile, valuable gold deposits were discovered on tribal lands in northwestern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern North Carolina.

In 1819 Georgia appealed to the U.S. government to remove the Cherokee from Georgia lands and when the appeal failed, attempts were made to purchase the territory. In retaliation, the Cherokee Nation enacted a law forbidding any such sale on punishment of death.

Cherokee ConstitutionSince the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, America's policy had been to allow Indians to remain east of the Mississippi River as long as they became assimilated or "civilized." This meant they were to settle in one place, farm the land, divide communal land into private property, and adopt democracy.

In 1828 the Georgia legislature outlawed the Cherokee government and confiscated tribal lands. Cherokee appeals for federal protection were rejected by President Andrew Jackson.
In 1830, the "Five Civilized Tribes," which included the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee, were still living east of the Mississippi River. Despite the assimilation of the Cherokee, the position of the tribes was not secure. Some felt the presence of the tribes was a threat to peace and security, since many Native Americans had fought against the United States in previous wars, often armed by foreign nations such as Great Britain and Spain. Other white settlers and land speculators simply desired the land that was occupied by the tribes.

Accordingly, governments of the various U.S. states desired that all tribal lands within their boundaries be placed under state jurisdiction. When Georgia moved to enforce state laws on tribal lands, the Cherokee fought them in the U.S. Supreme Court; where the court ruled that while Indian tribes were not sovereign nations, state laws had no force on tribal lands.

However President Andrew Jackson defied the court’s action, when he signed into law the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The Removal Act provided for the government to negotiate removal treaties with the various tribes. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek with the Choctaw was the first such removal treaty implemented; while around 7,000 Choctaw ultimately stayed in Mississippi, about 14,000 moved along the Red River.
In 1835 about 500 leading Cherokee agreed in the Treaty of New Echota to cede the tribal territory in exchange for $5,700,000 and land in the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma.) Their action was repudiated by more than nine-tenths of the tribe, and several members of the group were later assassinated.
In 1838 federal troops began forcibly evicting the Cherokee. Approximately 1,000 Cherokee escaped to the North Carolina mountains, while those who lived on individually owned land (rather than tribal domains) were not subject to removal. Those who stayed behind eventually formed tribal groups including the Eastern Band Cherokee, based in North Carolina.
Meanwhile, most of the tribe were driven west some 800 miles in a forced march that became known as the Trail of Tears. About 4,000 perished through hunger, disease, exposure, and attacks by bandits during the journey or in stockades awaiting removal. Others died after their arrival in the Indian Territory from disease or food shortages.

Of this tragic event, Samuel Carter, author of Cherokee Sunset, wrote in 1976:

"Then … there came the reign of terror. From the jagged-walled stockades the troops fanned out across the Nation, invading every hamlet, every cabin, rooting out the inhabitants at bayonet point. The Cherokees hardly had time to realize what was happening as they were prodded like so many sheep toward the concentration camps, threatened with knives and pistols, beaten with rifle butts if they resisted"

So, the five tribes were resettled in the new Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma and parts of Kansas. The Cherokee reorganized their government under Chief John Ross, and became known as the Western Band, or the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.

Trail of Tears painting by Robert Lindneux in the Woolaroc

 Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

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Nuwati Herbal Teas - All natural healingCherokee Herbal Teas - These natural remedies, from the Medicine Cabinet of Mother Earth, are produced by Nuwati Herbals, who have been making healing teas, balms, and other natural remedies for many years. These Herbal Teas work with the body in an all natural way to promote balance and good health. From calming nerves, to providing energy, relieving headaches and stomach problems, strengthening bones, and more, you will find an herbal tea that helps. Today, these ancient natural remedies are available so we may all have access to Mother Earth's healing gifts.

When Columbus "discovered" the Americas, 100 million people were already living there. European "civilisation" proceeded to wipe them out.
Cloud Walking Tea - Relax the Mind & Body Buffalo Bone Tea - Strong Bones, Joints & Connective Tissues Calming the Storm Tea - Soothe Upset Stomach
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Healer Tea - Sinuses, Colds, & Headaches Eye of the Hawk Tea - Eye Health & Enhance Vision See Less O'Me Tea - Diet & Weight Management
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Wind Dancer Tea - Energy & Stamina

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