William Cooper - Mind Control
"He who knows nothing is closer to the truth than he whose mind is filled with falsehoods and errors." Thomas Jefferson
"There is nothing more frightening than active ignorance." -- Goethe
"The search for truth is never wrong. The only sin is to lack the courage to follow where truth leads." -- Duke
World and American History
Slavery. Just mention the word and most black people will have some opinion, mostly negative, about Colonial America, White Americans, and black treatment by Whites.
We are not about to defend the practice of slavery in the United States of America
What we are going to do is give historical background
Facts that you may not be aware of, and other important information.
It's also important to understand that
White people suffered from slavery
As a matter of fact
Four months before the first blacks landed on American shores Great Britain shipped the first 100 slaves to Jamestown -- they were White children
with many more to follow
When the first 20 Africans arrived they were unintended and they were bartered for food and provisions
This did not start slavery in America
Slavery had already been established with Whites!
No flood of Africans followed these first blacks
There was no market for them in Virginia
Six years later there were still only
Twenty-three Africans in the colony
Does this sound like a major slave trade?
Even decades later there were only a few hundred Africans.
Of course, this would change. But for decades, the poor of England, the riff-raff of England, the prisoners of England, Scotland and Ireland
These were the slaves of America
See the extraordinary book "White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America" by Don Jordan and Michael Walsh for more information on how the rich elite enslaved their own countrymen for profit and personal gain
Color didn't matter -- Just money
The Irish were considered
"Niggers turned inside out"
"Negro slavery was efficiently established in colonial America because Black slaves were governed, organized and controlled by the structures and organization that were first used to enslave and control Whites. Black slaves were 'late comers fitted into a system already developed.'"
(Michael Hoffman, They Were White and They Were Slaves and Ulrich B. Phillips, Life and Labor in the Old South, pp. 25, 26)
Historian Oscar Handlin writes that in colonial America, White "servants (SLAVES) could be bartered for profit, sold to the highest bidder for the unpaid debts of their masters, and otherwise transferred like movable goods or chattels...The condition of the first Negroes in the continental English colonies must be viewed within the perspective of these conceptions and realities of White servitude."
(Michael A Hoffman, They Were White and They Were Slaves, p. 39)
Why don't you know about White slavery?
Why haven't you been taught this aspect of your history and Heritage in school?
Ask a different question: who benefits from racial unrest?
Notice this advertisement includes negro, Indian and a "fresh complexion servant" who has run away
Only negroes were the victims of slavery and only Whites owned slaves
The truth is that by around 1626
White slaves outnumbered blacks in the Chesapeake by more than
Twenty to one
And even by 1700 the ration was still three to one
6000 White slaves
2000 black slaves
The gap was closing fast, but Whites were still enslaved in greater numbers then blacks.
With this history in mind, let's look at the history of slavery
Especially black slavery in the United States
We've relied on www.wikipedia.org, www.newworldencyclopedia.org, and other sources for this information. Google it for yourself and double check us.
History of Slavery
Slavery is the systematic exploitation of labor. Slavery is a legal or informal institution under which a person (called "a slave") is compelled to work for another (sometimes called "the master" or "slave owner"). Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed to varying extents, forms and periods in almost all cultures and countries. Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation in return for their labor. Today, slavery is formally outlawed in nearly all countries, but the continues to exist in various forms around the world. Prior to the 10th century, words other than "slave" were used for all kinds of unfree laborers. For instance, the old Latin word servus was used for both serfs and chattel slaves.
In Modern English, the word slave originates from "sclave" around 1290. It's based on the Byzantine Greek "sklabos" meaning Slavic people". The term originally referred to various peoples from Eastern and Central Europe since many Slavic and other people from these areas were captured and sold as slaves by the Vikings and later the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I.
The enslavement of so many White Christian people is where the word slave originated.
Slavery traces back to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi around 1760 BC, which refers to it as an established institution. Slavery in ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer and is found in every civilization including ancient Egypt, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Ancient Persia, Rome and the Islamic Caliphate. Slavery is mentioned in the Bible.As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply. The Romans enslaved Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (Celts), Jews, Arabs and many more not only for labor but for their amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). This oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts, the most famous led by Spartacus. Most of these populations were White, the majority Christian.
The early medieval slave trade was mainly to the East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim World were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages.
During the constant warfare between Muslims and Christians in Medieval Spain and Portugal, Muslim raiding parties took Christian slaves by the thousands, mainly women and children.
Over 10% of England's population entered in the Domesday Book in 1086 were slaves. This would be White, English slaves.
The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world. After one battle 12,000 Christian slaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks. Christians also sold Muslim slaves captured in war.
Slavery was prominent in Africa long before the beginnings of the transatlantic slave trade. The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal was created for the sale of imported African slaves 1444. In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. By the year 1552 black African slaves made up 10 percent of the population of Lisbon.
The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniards. They used them on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, where the native populations had been decimated by smallpox. The first African slaves arrived in 1501.
According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere there were an estimated 8 million or 9 million slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar about 15% of the population were slaves. Slavery was abolished in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. The Imperial government formally abolished slavery in China in 1906, and the law became effective in 1910. Indigenous slaves existed in Korea. Slavery was officially abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930. During the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) about 30% to 50% of the Korean population were slaves.
Historians say the Arab slave trade lasted more than millennium. Some historians estimate that between 11 and 18 million black African slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 AD to 1900 AD, or more than the 9.4 to 12 million Africans brought to the Americas. According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbara pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.
On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 4 states:
That hasn't stopped slavery
Although outlawed in nearly all countries, forms of slavery still exist in many parts of the world. According to Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there were 27 million people (although some put the number as high as 200 million) who worked in virtual slavery in 2007, spread all over the world. According to FTS, these slaves represent the largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history and the smallest percentage of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once.FTS claims that present-day slaves have been sold for $40 in Mali for young adult male workers and as much as $1,000 in Thailand for HIV-free females able to work in brothels. The lower limit represents the lowest price that there has ever been for a slave: the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 in the United States would have been about $25,800 in present-day terms (US$1,000 in 1850). That difference, even allowing for differences in purchasing power, is significant. As a result of the lower price, the economic advantages of present-day slavery are clear.
Today (2008) Enslavement is also taking place in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. The Middle East Quarterly reports that slavery is still endemic in Sudan. The Chinese government freed 570 people from brick manufacturers in June and July 2007. Among those rescued were 69 children. In response, the Chinese government assembled a force of 35,000 police to check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, sent dozens of kiln supervisors to prison, punished 95 officials in Shanxi province for dereliction of duty, and sentenced one kiln foreman to death for killing an enslaved worker.
In Mauritania (northwest Africa) alone, it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor. Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007. It should be interesting to note that it's the lighter skinned Muslim majority ("white Moors" or bidhan) that's enslaving the darker skinned descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery who now live in Mauritania as "black Moors" or haratin in Mauritania.
In Niger slavery is also a current phenomenon. A Nigerian study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population. Pygmies, the people of Central Africa's rain forest, live in servitude to the Bantus. Some tribal sheiks in Iraq still keep blacks, called Abd, which means servant or slave in Arabic, as slaves. Child slavery has commonly been used in the production of cash crops and mining. According to the U.S. Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in the Ivory Coast in 2002. In the Sudan more than 200,000 people, mostly Dinka, have been enslaved in recent years.
In Myanmar an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labor.
Sexual SlaveryIn Africa with institutional slavery "abolished" in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in most countries, other forms of slavery have become more widespread. Reports of women sex slaves in Sudan, Liberia, Sierra Leone, northern Uganda, Congo, Niger and Mauritania are common. In Ghana, Togo and Benin a form of religious prostitution known as trokosi (ritual servitude) forcibly keeps thousands of girls and women in traditional shrines as "wives of the gods", where priests perform the sexual function in place of the gods.
In India as many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under the age of 14, have been sold into sexual slavery. Nepalese women and girls are favored in India because of their fair skin and they look young.
In Pakistan girls as young as nine years old have been sold by their families to brothels as sex slaves in big cities, often due to poverty or debt, but occasionally to pay for gambling, drinking or drug debt. Girls from Afghanistan have been tricked into coming to Pakistan and then used as sex slaves.
Asia is rampant with crimes against women in the sex slave business. Tens of thousands of women and girls, some very young, are forced into the sex business in countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, China, and others. Thailand is a big offender in this disgusting business. Japan recently apologized for forcing women to be used as sex slaves during World War II.
Israel has smuggled between 3,000 and 5,000 women over the past four years in a burgeoning, illegal sex industry, according to a parliamentary committee report issued in 2005. The women are smuggled across the Egyptian border into Israel and, according to Zehava Galon who heads the Committee Against Trade in Women, these women are "raped, beaten, and then sold in public auctions." Most of the women are from the former Soviet Union, she said. In other words, White.
The United States has rescued Asian and Mexican women from being held captive as used as sex slaves.
These are just some of the known cases of modern day slavery
Human traffickingTrafficking in human beings (also called human trafficking) is sometimes referred to as a form of slavery. The opponents of the practice point out that victims are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into a "debt slavery" situation by the use against them of coercion, deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims.
While the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, who are forced into prostitution (in which case the practice is called sex trafficking), victims also include men, women and children who are forced into manual labor.
Due to the illegal nature of human trafficking, its exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2005, estimates that 600,000-800,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year (10,000 to 20,000 into the United States). This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally. This number is probably very low.
As you can see, slavery has its victims in all races, male and female, young and old
Stalin and Forced Labor
Even though Stalin's gulags weren't technically slavery we feel compelled to mention the Communist forced prison labor camps.
There were at least 476 separate camps, some of them comprising hundreds, even thousands of camp units. The most infamous complexes were those at arctic or subarctic regions. Started in 1918 after the Communist takeover of Russia, more than 14 million people passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, with a further 6 to 7 million being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. According to de-classified archive data released by the successor agency to the KGB after Perestroika, a total of 1,053,829 people died in the GULAG from 1934 to 1953, not counting those who died in labor colonies. The total population of the camps varied from 510,307 (in 1934) to 1,727,970 (in 1953). Notice they haven't released earlier numbers.
Some estimates are that at least 20,000,000 -- that's twenty million people died in the Soviet Gulags
A Large majority of them White Christians
Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although the political prisoner population was always significant. People could be imprisoned in a Gulag camp for crimes such as unexcused absences from work, petty theft, or anti-government jokes. About half of the political prisoners were sent to Gulag prison camps without trial. Per official data, there were more than 2.6 million imprisonment sentences in cases investigated by the secret police, 1921-1953. While the Gulag was radically reduced in size following Stalin's death in 1953, forced labor camps and political prisoners continued to exist in the Soviet Union right up to the Gorbachev era. However, the camps in Siberia still house a labor force of about a million prisoners.
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History of Slavery in America
First Legal Slave Owned by a Negro!
In 1619 the Dutch ship, the White Lion, damaged by battle with a Spanish ship and by a great storm, came ashore at Old Point Comfort with 20 captured enslaved Africans that they had taken from the Spanish. The Dutch were in need of repairs and supplies and the colonists were in need of able-bodied workers. So the Africans were traded for food and services. One could argue that being traded to the Jamestown colonists freed these 20 Africans. If they had continued with the Dutch they most certainly would have spent their lives in slavery. Instead, they became indentured servants and earned their freedom after a period of time. These 20 became "servants" and went to work in tobacco fields alongside the White servants from England. Conditions were hard for both groups but their servitude eventually would end.
In addition to Africans, Irish, Scottish, English and Germans were brought over in substantial numbers as slaves. Over half of all white immigrants to the English colonies consisted of these slaves, which historians want to call "indentured servants," during the 17th and 18th centuries. Most of the Whites were slaves. Only a handful were actually true indentured servants. At first, the Africans in Virginia were treated just the same as the European indentured servants. The Africans were freed after a stated period and given the use of land and supplies by their former owners. One African, Anthony Johnson, arrived in Jamestown in 1621, fulfilled his obligation of servitude, married and eventually became a landowner.
The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery for the Africans happened gradually since there were no laws regarding slavery early in Virginia's history. Yet in 1640 at least one black servant had been sentence to slavery. John Punch, an indentured servant, ran away. His sentence? A lifetime of slavery. The two White indentured servants who ran away with him are given extended terms of servitude.
The first legally-recognized slave in the area that was to become the United States was John Casor, a black man. A court in Northampton County, Virginia declared him property for life. Casor was "owned" by the Black colonist Anthony Johnson. Yes, the first legally owned slave in the American colonies was owned by a black man! What irony. But remember, Anthony Johnson came from Africa where slavery was common and expected. He only wanted to continue the practice of his homeland!
It's our opinion that, even though Mr. Johnson was the first to apply for a legal slave, it's obvious that the rest of society was quick to follow his actions. It's also our opinion that if white landowners didn't want the cheap labor that slavery provided there never would have been a market for this horrific practice. That's obvious. What isn't so obvious is that this is the start of the downfall of our nation. Just like ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, when cheap labor becomes more important then doing the work yourself and maintaining your racial purity, your country will fall. The Africans suffered from White laziness. And ultimately, the White race, and America, has suffered.
The Virginia Slave Codes of 1705 made clear the status of slaves. During the British colonial period, every colony had slavery. Those in the north were primarily house servants and those in the South worked on farms and plantations. Subsistence farmers seldom owned slaves.
Notice that there were more White "servants" than black slaves at that time
Slavery was not just black
If this doesn't put history in perspective for you, nothing will
Slavery was not just southern -- or White owned!
Bet this one may surprise you! Yes, slavery was also in the Northern states. From the University of Virginia Library has a historical census browser where you can get a variety of statistics relating to the census including slave statistics. One of these tables even lists slaves by state, county and the number of slaves that each county had in a particular census year (remember, the census was done every 10 years starting in 1790.)
Guess what, Connecticut had slaves in 1790! Every county. So did Delaware. As a matter of fact, Delaware had slaves in every county, every census, until slavery was abolished.
Alabama's first slave wasn't until the 1820 census! And then it wasn't even in every county. Georgia, of course, had some slaves in 1790 but certainly not every county, only a handful.
Illinois, land of Lincoln, had slaves! Yes, several counties in Illinois owned slaves up until the 1850 census and even a handful of counties in Indiana were slave owners.
We're well aware that Louisiana, Mississippi and the Carolinas were big slave owning states. But did you know that Maryland, except for Howard County, (until 1860) and one or two others owned slaves! That's right.
New Hampshire had a handful of slaves. Most counties in New Jersey were slave owning, New York and Pennsylvania until 1850 HAD SLAVES!
These northern states owned slaves before the southern states. The Northern States owned slaves starting from the 1790 census. Some Southern States started later, the Carolinas were by 1790, so was Virginia. Georgia and Tennessee had a handful by 1800, but others didn't start their slave ownership until the 1820 census.
So what does this prove? That slavery started in the industrial north. It was not a southern invention. The southern economy may have depended on slavery but the northern states benefited from slavery as well.
Don't believe us? Check it out for yourself. http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/index.html
By 1860 on the eve of the War of Northern Aggression, most northern states had outlawed slavery. Yet interestingly, Maryland (87,189) Delaware (1,798) and New Jersey (18) still owned slaves. Nebraska, which was supposed to be a "free" state, had 15 and Kansas had 2. (Maryland was technically a border, slave owning state but remained part of the Union during the Civil War).
According to the 1860 Census 1.4% of Whites in the country (or 4.8% of southern Whites) owned one or more slaves. The majority owned between 1 and 5 slaves. The few individuals who owned 50 or more slaves were confined to the top one percent, and have been defined as slave magnates.
Back to the 1860 Census, there were almost 4.5 million blacks in the country, most of them in the south. Almost half a million of them were free. Of those, over 10,000 lived in New Orleans and over 3,000 of them owned slaves a whopping 28% of the free blacks of that city!
The 1860 Census also shows that at least six blacks in Louisiana owned more than 65 slaves, one, C. Richards and her son P.C. Richards, owned 152 slaves on a large sugar cane plantation. Another, Antoine Dubuclet, who was a sugar planter, had over 100 slaves and was valued, in 1860 dollars, at $264,000. That year the mean wealth of southern Whit men was $3,978.
In Charleston, South Carolina in 1860, 125 free blacks owned slaves, six of whom owned ten or more. In North Carolina 69 free blacks were slave owners.
Historians will say that black slave owners only owned their family or friends. The book "Black Slave Owners: Free Black Slave Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860" proves this to be false. The author, a black man named Larry Koger, proves that blacks who owned slaves did so for two reasons. Some of them purchased their family members. And because of laws were unable to then free them and then "owned" their husbands, wives, or children for life. But a large majority of free black slave owners purchased their slaves for profit. These blacks were plantation owners and business owners, tailors, cooks, dress makers, etc. They needed slaves to make their business a success. In other words, just like the Whites of their day, the black slave owners took advantage of the practice of slavery in order to advance their business and make money. It was the economic system and they took advantage of it. These black slave owners separated families, sold unprofitable slaves and purchased their human property for profit. Just like the White man.
Notice that three of the four advertisements specifically advertise negroes
Is the fourth advertising White slaves?
Slave Ship Owners
How did the slaves get here? Who owned the slave ships that brought the Africans to our country? Who profited from this horrific trafficking in human cargo?
The following table is a list of Ship's names, dates that they sailed and who owned them. This is just a fraction of the ships that entered the United States. But it gives an idea of who was profiting from this. TSRBBAJ = The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews.
Other ships: White Hourse owned by Jan de Sweetvts, Jew, Expedition, owned by John and Jacob Roosevelt, Jews,
see http://www.afrostyly.com/english/afro/diverse/slaveship.htm for this information
Where in Africa did the slaves come from?
Where did they go?
Europeans suffered from tropical diseases that the Africans were immune to. Africans were excellent workers and were used to a tropical climate. They had been traded as slaves for centuries, including among each other. The Muslims enslaved the Africans also.
Between 1450 and the end of the 1800s, slaves were obtained from along the west coast of Africa with the full and active co-operation of African kings and merchants. These African kings and merchants received various trade goods including beads, cowrie shells (used as currency), textiles, alcohol, horses, and guns. Ironically, these same guns were then used against the Europeans who colonized Africa in later years.
The trade, including slave, between Africa, Europe and the Americas is called the Triangular Trade. The export of trade goods from Europe to Africa forms the first side of the triangular trade.
The transport of slaves from Africa to the Americas forms the middle passage of the triangular trade. The African slaves were introduced to new diseases and suffered from malnutrition long before they reached America. It's been suggested that the majority of deaths on the voyage across the Atlantic happened during the first couple of weeks due to malnutrition and disease encountered during the forced marches in Africa and the slave camps on the coast of Africa awaiting loading onto slave ships. In other words, thanks to the African kings, the slave were in terrible shape before they ever got on the slave ships.
It didn't help that conditions on the slave ships were terrible, yet the estimated death rate of around 13% is still lower than the mortality rate for seamen, officers and passengers on the same voyages.
Because of the slave trade, five times as many Africans arrived in the Americas than Europeans. They were used on plantations and mines. But, most went to Brazil, the Caribbean, and the Spanish Empire. Less than 5% went to the North American States.
The third, and final, leg of the triangular trade involved the return to Europe with the produce from the slave-labour plantations: cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses and rum.
Much of this information came from http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
For more information see "Transformations in Slavery" by Paul E. Lovejoy, Cambridge University Press, 2000, and "The Slave Trade" by Hugh Thomas, Simon and Schuster, 1997
How did the African slaves get captures?
This first-hand account is very interesting in its detail.
The Black traders have mistreated the captured African long before the poor slave ever entered the hands of the ship's captain. They had been starved, beaten, and abused. And in some cases, murdered. It's no wonder that so many of them died on the way to their final destination, most of them in the first two weeks. Statistics prove that more European immigrants and ship's crews died on the Atlantic voyage than did African slaves. Yes, slavery was reprehensible, but let's be honest about the history of slavery.
So you see, slavery was much more complicated than you've been told.
Finally, no discussion on slavery is complete without talking about "reparations," widely discussed in 2002 but not much in recent years. Should we, or shouldn't we, pay for the mis-deeds of those who came before us?
In no way should the information on this web site be used as an excuse for hatred, violence or to commit any illegal act against any person of color
This site is about information and education of White people and the preservation of our unique Heritage
Be Respectful and Polite at all times
Remember -- Truth is not Racist, Facts are not Hate!
Today at 11:19 AM
February 9, 2015, the New York Times
The Muslims of Early America
IT was not the imam’s first time at the rodeo.
Scheduled to deliver an invocation at the Fort Worth Stock Show and Rodeo last week, Moujahed Bakhach of the local Islamic Association of Tarrant County canceled his appearance because of the backlash brought on by a prayer he had offered a few days before. The imam had been asked to confer a blessing on horses, riders and members of the military. He was met with gasps from the audience and social media complaints: “Outraged at a Muslim prayer at an all American event!” “Cowboys don’t want it!”
Vocal anti-Islamic sentiment is undergoing a revival. Four days before the imam’s canceled benediction, protesters at the State Capitol in Austin shouted down Muslim speakers, claiming Texas in the name of Jesus alone. In North Carolina two weeks earlier, Duke University’s plan to broadcast a Muslim call to prayer was abandoned amid threats of violence. Meanwhile Gov. Bobby Jindal, Republican of Louisiana claimed that if American Muslims “want to set up their own culture and values, that’s not immigration, that’s really invasion.”
No matter how anxious people may be about Islam, the notion of a Muslim invasion of this majority Christian country has no basis in fact. Moreover, there is an inconvenient footnote to the assertion that Islam is anti-American: Muslims arrived here before the founding of the United States — not just a few, but thousands.
They have been largely overlooked because they were not free to practice their faith. They were not free themselves and so they were for the most part unable to leave records of their beliefs. They left just enough to confirm that Islam in America is not an immigrant religion lately making itself known, but a tradition with deep roots here, despite being among the most suppressed in the nation’s history.
In 1528, a Moroccan slave called Estevanico was shipwrecked along with a band of Spanish explorers near the future city of Galveston, Tex. The city of Azemmour, in which he was raised, had been a Muslim stronghold against European invasion until it fell during his youth. While given a Christian name after his enslavement, he eventually escaped his Christian captors and set off on his own through much of the Southwest.
Two hundred years later, plantation owners in Louisiana made it a point to add enslaved Muslims to their labor force, relying on their experience with the cultivation of indigo and rice. Scholars have noted Muslim names and Islamic religious titles in the colony’s slave inventories and death records.
The best known Muslim to pass through the port at New Orleans was Abdul-Rahman Ibrahim ibn Sori, a prince in his homeland whose plight drew wide attention. As one newspaper account noted, he had read the Bible and admired its precepts, but added, “His principal objections are that Christians do not follow them.”
Among the enslaved Muslims in North Carolina was a religious teacher named Omar ibn Said. Recaptured in 1810 after running away from a cruel master he called a kafir (an infidel), he became known for inscribing the walls of his jail cell with Arabic script. He wrote an account of his life in 1831, describing how in freedom he had loved to read the Quran, but in slavery his owners had converted him to Christianity.
The story of Islam in early America is not merely one of isolated individuals. An estimated 20 percent of enslaved Africans were Muslims, and many sought to recreate the communities they had known. In Georgia, which has joined more than a dozen states in the political theater of debating a restriction on judges’ consulting Shariah, Muslims on a secluded plantation are known to have lived under the guidance of a religious leader who wrote a manuscript on Islamic law so that traditional knowledge might survive.