ACADEMIC FREEDOM CONFERENCE
26 APRIL 2014
Academic Freedom: JFK, 9/11 and the Holocaust
A historic conference was held on April 26, 2014
speakers: Kevin Barrett, Ph.D., James Fetzer, Ph.D., Nicholas Kollerstrom, Ph.D., Winfield Abbe, Ph.D., David Robinson, Ed.D. & Stephen Francis
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illini Union
Sponsored by Scholars for 9/11 Truth & Midwest 9/11 Truth, Coordination and videos by Stephen Francis
Al Etejah English TV East West interview w/Nicholas Kollerstrom & TruthJihad News,debate, CODOH Revisist Forum, NoLiesRadio Nick Kollerstrom, OccupyCU listUofI, Shoah.org.uk Kevin Barrett, MORE
Part 1, Kevin Barrett
Part 2, David Robinson
Part 3, Nicholas Kollerstrom
Part 4, Stephen Francis
Part 5, Winfield Abbe
Part 6 James Fetzer
|Veterans Today articles|
Kevin BarrettKevin Barrett received a Ph.D. in African languages and literature with a minor in folklore from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2004, focusing his dissertation on the topic of Moroccan legend. He has taught English, French, Arabic, American Civilization, Humanities, African Literature, Folklore, and Islam at colleges and universities in the San Francisco Bay area, Paris, and Madison, Wisconsin. He is the founder of the website Muslim Jewish Christian Alliance for 9/11 Truth and has numerous radio shows. He has been blacklisted from teaching at the University of Wisconsin and the University of Illinois due to his views on 9/11. see VeteransToday/Barrett, TruthJihad, TruthJihadRadio and MUJCA Muslim Christian Jewish Alliance for 9/11 Truth.
|"...the so-called War on Terror, the book concludes that this concept is an empty propaganda ploy that must be exposed and rejected."|
James FetzerA former Marine Corps officer, Jim Fetzer has published widely on the theoretical foundations of scientific knowledge, computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and evolution and mentality. McKnight Professor Emeritus at the University of Minnesota Duluth, he has also conducted extensive research into the assassination of JFK, the events of 9/11, and the plane crash that killed Sen. Paul Wellstone. The founder of Scholars for 9/11 Truth, his latest books include The Evolution of Intelligence (2005), The 9/11 Conspiracy (2007), Render Unto Darwin (2007), and The Place of Probability in Science (2010). He devoted himself to dealing with the most complex and controversial events of recent history on "The Real Deal" and his articles on Veterans Today. VIDEO
Nicholas KollerstromNicholas Kollerstrom, PhD, has two history of science degrees, one from Cambridge 1968, plus a PhD from London, 1995. He was an honorary member of staff of UCL for 11 years. He co-edited The Case Against War (Spokesman, comprising the CND legal arguments against the Iraq war) and then co-organised the Belgrano Inqury in 1986, publishing The Unnecessary War as its proceedings in 1998. In 2008 he received widespread publicity and ethical damnation owing to his interest in studies of the residual cyanide levels found in walls of the World War Two labor-camps. His recent book Terror on the Tube is the sole comprehensive account of the 2005 London bombings. It endorses the hypothesis of Islamic innocence.
David W. Robinson, Ed.D.
David W. Robinson, Ed.D., received a B.A. from Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon, went on to an M.A. in Teaching (Social Studies) from Lewis and Clark College, and an Ed.D. in Educational Foundations and Leadership from George Fox University in Newberg, Oregon. He has taught courses in history, the humanities, and the social sciences at both the undergraduate and graduate level, as well as graduate courses in higher educational teaching, course design, assessment, and administration. Additionally, he has served as Department Chair, Program Chair, Vice President of Information Technology, and Vice President of Academic Affairs at several colleges. This has made him well acquainted with the practical and complex issues of academic freedom in action. Currently, he serves as an adjunct professor on three different university faculties, teaching graduate courses in education, information technology and e-commerce, and doctoral course work in educational foundations and leadership. His scholarly writing includes books and articles on the history of higher education, specializing in academic industrialization in America, as well as Protestantism’s role in the history of universities and schools. As a long-time student of American history, David has a strong interest in academic freedom, liberty of conscience, open access to historical evidence, and the implications of America’s loss of free inquiry in national discourse. It is his conviction that our current national-security state civilization is the main by-product of the loss of the checking-and-balancing power of reasoned dialogue in academic life. David is looking forward to further exploration of these themes at the conference. video
Winfield Abbe, Ph.D.
Winfield Abbe received an A.B. degree in physics from the University of California Berkeley, M.S. in physics from California State University at Los Angeles and Ph.D. in physics from the University of California Riverside. His main areas of research are low temperature solid state physics and theoretical elementary particle physics. He has also spent some time working on the long standing problem of Fermat’s Last Theorem which was recently solved, but the esoteric solution is known and understood by only a handful of people in the world. Dr. Abbe was a faculty member at the University of Georgia, Athens and an Institute of Science and Technology Fellow at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. During his career in academe, he has observed gross abuses senior faculty have administered to junior and the deterioration of the practice of academic freedom, which he looks forward to addressing during the conference.
NFU: 9/11 is the Achilles Heal of the Zionists/001% plans to dominate the world. Emboldened by the seemingly enduring Holocaust Hoax and the equally daunting juggernaut of JFK assassination cover-up, they schemed that a new 'Pearl Harbor' would usher in a new more sinister era of war profits. But they underestimated the power of the internet to level the playing field and unleash the inevitable success of millions of researchers exposing their miscalculation.
Oxford Journal abstract ... The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved. The “Rhineland Hypothesis” depicts Eastern European Jews as a „population isolate” that emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward and expanded rapidly. Alternatively, the „Khazarian Hypothesis” suggests that Eastern European Jew descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized Empire until the 13th century. Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars. Thus far, however, the Khazar's contribution has been estimated only empirically, as the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian Hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian Hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland Hypothesis. We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. We further describe major difference among Caucasus populations explained by early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central Caucasus. Our results have important implications on the demographic forces that shaped the genetic diversity in the Caucasus and medical studies.
Holocaust Revi_sion top
Nick Kollerstrom, a principle at Whatreallyhappened.info ... is based in the United Kingdom and devoted to free inquiry into historical events. This site exists to promote an open scientific, evidenced-based approach to historical enquiry. We do not believe or reject anything, though naturally we do form opinions. However, they are just that: opinions based on our current understanding of the facts. We are not emotionally attached to them and we would have no problem with changing our current positions on any subject if the evidence suggested we should. We are mainly, though not exclusively, interested in the Second World War and the German treatment of Jews during that conflict, since this is the area where free enquiry is most actively and efficiently suppressed by force of law and imprisonment in some countries and by taboo in all. The topic is protected from any objective investigation by an electric fence of emotion and insult, with the result that few other than those with a political axe to grind dare question the received story. We have no such axe. We have looked at the orthodox story and at the arguments brought against it by ists, and we find that, at the very least, the ists have raised questions which so far have not been satisfactorily answered. They are met with insults and ad hominem accusations of political bias, which, even if they are true (they are in some cases but not in others) are irrelevant, since the historical facts of what happened in the 1940s cannot be influenced by anyone's views today on anything. The reality is that those who promote the orthodox story are themselves also largely driven by emotion and political bias. On the whole, whatever their motives, it is the ists, not the proponents of orthodoxy, who have looked for material evidence and applied scientific methodology. Background: Zoominfo d
Holocaust Revision and Academic Freedom (articles) top
WashingtonBlog, these prominent, highly trained engineers
all question the official account of 9/11 and want a new investigation...
Alfred Lee Lopez, with 48 years of experience in all types of buildings:
John D. Pryor, with more than 30 years experience: Robert F. Marceau, with
over 30 years of structural engineering experience: Kamal S. Obeid,
structural engineer, with a masters degree in Engineering from UC Berkeley
and 30 years of engineering experience Steven L. Faseler, structural
engineer with over 20 years of experience in the design and construction
industry: Ronald H. Brookman, structural engineer, with a masters degree in
Engineering from UC Graham John Inman Paul W. Mason notes: David Scott says:
Nathan Lomba states: Edward E. Knesl writes: Antonio Artha,with 15+ years of
experience in building design Steven Francis Dusterwald: John S. Lovrovich:
Travis McCoy, M.S. in structural engineering James Milton Bruner, Major,
U.S. Air Force, Christopher Michael Bradbury: David Anthony Dorau Russell T.
Connors, designed many buildings and other types of structures Lester Jay
Germanio, 20+ years experience Daniel Metz, 26+ years experience Jonathan
Smolens, William Rice, P.E., Marshall Casey Pfeiffer Paul A. Thomas Steven
Merritt Kers Clausen Dennis Kollar, Doyle Winterton, American structural
engineer (retired) David Topete The former head of the Fire Science Division
of the government agency which claims that the World Trade Centers collapsed
due to fire (the National Institute of Standards and Technology), who is one
of the world’s leading fire science researchers and safety engineers, a
Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (Dr. James Quintiere), called for an
independent review of the World Trade Center collapse investigation. “I wish
that there would be a peer review of this,” he said, referring to the NIST
investigation. “I think all the records that NIST has assembled should be
archived. I would really like to see someone else take a look at what
they’ve done; both structurally and from a fire point of view. … I think the
official conclusion that NIST arrived at is questionable. Harry G. Robinson,
III – Professor and Dean Emeritus, School of Architecture and Design, Dr.
David L. Griscom x
“The best way to control the opposition is to lead it ourselves.”
Neo-Nazis are far more likely to be linked to Neocons than they are to holocaust revisionists.
March 5-6, 2014 -- WMR report on Sochi ruse operation picks up steam as more facts emerge
WMR's previous report that the CIA and Saudi-funded militants arranged for Russian-made weapons to be smuggled into the hands of Ukrainian opposition units while Russian and Ukrainian security forces were put on the alert for three veiled Muslim "black widow" suicide bombers targeting Sochi during the Winter Olympics is gaining traction.
Additional facts have emerged that point to Western intelligence agencies working with neo-Nazi groups in Ukraine and Chechen Islamist militants to successfully smuggle Russian-made weapons captured from Muammar Qaddafi's armories to Ukrainian irregular forces.
A leaked phone call between Estonian Foreign Minister Urmas Paet and Catherine Ashton, the European Union's commissioner for foreign affairs, reveals that Paet was informed that Ukrainian protesters and policemen were shot by the same snipers. Paet visited Kiev on February 25 during violent clashes between protesters and government security forces on Maidan Square.
Paet told Ashton that a Ukrainian female doctor showed the visiting Estonian official that the bullets that struck protesters and policemen all came from the same weapons and that the opposition was covering up for the snipers. Paet told Ashton about his conversation with the doctor, Olga Bogomolets: "So . . . she then also showed me some photos she said that as a medical doctor she can say that it is the same handwriting, the same type of bullets, and it’s really disturbing that now the new coalition, that they don’t want to investigate what exactly happened."
WMR previously reported that the neo-Nazi units in Kiev and elsewhere were armed with the Russian-made Libyan weapons to make it appear that it was Russian troops who were killing Ukrainians. These same Russian-made Libyan weapons may be used in future "false flag" attacks that will be blamed on the Russian government.
Just as in Syria, where Saudi and Israeli intelligence and military forces are assisting Al Qaeda-linked elements to overthrow President Bashar al Assad in a bloody civil war, Israeli Defense Force veterans in Kiev joined hands with Chechen Islamist guerrillas, in addition to neo-Nazi units to help overthrow the government of President Viktor Yanukovych. An Israeli Defense Force veteran codenamed "Delta" led a unit called the "Blue Helmets of Maidan" in battling Ukrainian security forces. "Delta" led a 40-man unit consisting of other ex-IDF members. Delta defended the main neo-Nazi political party, Svoboda, stating that claims that the party and its members are anti-Semitic are "exaggerated." Opposition fighters wounded in Kiev received medevaced to Israel, a clear sign that the Israeli government supported the coup against Yanukovych.
The leader of the neo-Nazi Right Sector party, Dmitry Yarosh, coordinated support for the coup leaders in Ukraine from the Al Qaeda-linked Caucasus Emirate of Doku Umarov, the Chechen terrorist who is responsible for deadly attacks that have killed hundreds of people in Russia. Chechen government officials, including Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov, confirmed that Yarosh was working with Umarov loyalists inside Ukraine. Chechen intelligence officers picked up on the coordination between Yarosh and the Caucasus Emirate by monitoring postings on the social networking site
Israeli Ukrainian opposition militia leader "Delta" worked hand-in-glove with neo-Nazis and Al Qaeda to overthrow Yanukovych government. This alliance has not been so active since their joint 9/11 attack on the United States.
Although there are reports that Umarov was killed by Russian security forces, the United States and UN Security Council continue to list Umarov on their international terrorist lists.
It was through the Al Qaeda network that the Russian-made arms from Libya were smuggled into Ukraine. And it was the Chechen terror network that was behind the CIA's ruse operation that had Russian and Ukrainian security personnel on the alert for the three "black widow suicide bombers in Sochi, this diverting critical resources from surveillance of the Russian-Ukrainian border for illegal arms smuggling.
Rabbi Moshe Azman, a claimant to the title of chief rabbi of Ukraine, provided support to the Blue Helmet units, which was allied with a seemingly strange coalition of neo-Nazis and Islamist terrorists.
Volodymyr Groysman, the rebel government's deputy prime minister for regional policy, which includes responsibility for Russian-speaking Crimea and eastern Ukraine, is Jewish, a supporter of Israel, and is working closely with the neo-Nazi ministers for national security, defense, and justice.
Russian President Vladimir Putin provided more details of the Western operation to overthrow the Ukrainian government. Putin told a press conference that the key Ukrainian agitators received training in Poland and Lithuania. Putin said, "They underwent preparation in bases in Lithuanian and Polish border areas, and in Ukraine itself. Their instructors were ready for a lengthy time, you saw how they were prepared, like special forces, they were even divided up into squads."
Poland and Lithuania are members of NATO.
Against the backdrop of the false flags and ruse operations used to overthrow the democratically-elected government of Ukraine and then justify the operation are the NSA- and British Government Communications Headquarters-led cyber operations now taking place with the corporate news media and on social media websites. Sock puppets are out in force. They are making wild accusations likening Putin to Adolf Hitler, even though it is the Ukrainian opposition government that has allotted one-third of the government ministries to neo-Nazis. There are wild and unfounded rumors coming from acting Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk, a former World Bank official and George Soros ally, that Yanukovych and his aides stole $70 billion from Ukraine and moved the money into offshore accounts. With only Yatsenyuk's word, the corporate media is running with the story as fact. The truth is that Ukraine was broke due to International Monetary Fund and World Bank policies before the coup against Yanukovych and it is doubtful the country's treasury had one billion dollars at its disposal let alone $70 billion. The story is as fake as the other disinformation now being reported as factual news from Ukraine.
WMR Ukraine Neocons
The neocons are still alive and active as ever inside Secretary of State John Kerry's State Department. Kerry's Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, Victoria Nuland, who previously served as Hillary Clinton's State Department mouthpiece, has threatened sanctions against Ukraine.
Ukraine, which resisted efforts by the European Union to integrate it into Europe's banker-led federation of austerity and poverty, came into the EU's cross hairs after it abandoned talks with Brussels and Berlin in favor of an economic union with Russia. That move triggered off what can be described as the "Second Orange Revolution," a mass street uprising in Kyiv's Maidan (Independence) Square that demanded the resignation of Ukraine's democratically-elected President and government.
The connections between the Kyiv uprising and the EU outside manipulators are so apparent, the Kyiv square that has become the "Tahrir Square" of Ukraine is called "Euromaidan."
This "Orange Crush" was spearheaded by the same George Soros/National Endowment for Democracy/CIA provocateur guru Gene Sharp hydra that saw the overthrow of Ukraine's government in 2004 in the so-called Orange Revolution. This time, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych is the target.
Nuland, who is married to the bloody-handed neocon archangel Robert Kagan, handed out snacks to protesters on Maidan Square. Imagine the reaction of the United States had a second-tier official of either the Russian or Chinese foreign ministry handed out food to Occupy Wall Street protesters in Washington and urged them to overthrow, by force if necessary, President Obama. Yet, that is exactly the scenario Nuland engaged in by supporting protesters in Maidan. Furthermore, she reprimanded Yanokovych for the heavy security presence in Maidan. Nuland and Kerry, who also upbraided Yanukovych, forgot the acts of police brutality committed by U.S. cops against occupy protesters, as well as a plan by the FBI to use snipers to assassinate the leaders of the group.
And Nuland and Kerry were very quiet when the Turkish government sicced riot police on peaceful protesters in Taksim Square in Istanbul earlier this year. After all, Turkey is a member of NATO and Ukraine, for the time being, is not.
For Gene Sharp and his two NGO "babies," OTPOR and the Center for Applied Nonviolent Action and Strategies (CANVAS), vanguard organizations for organizing "rent-a-riot" anti-government protests around the globe, only nations resistant to the "New World Order" designs of Wall Street and the Pentagon are fair game for receiving cash, snacks, and other support from the United States. Recently, it was discovered, through leaked emails, that CANVAS founder Srdja Popovic was collaborating with the CIA- and Pentagon-linked intelligence firm STRATFOR, founded by George Friedman, whose ties to the U.S. and Israeli military-intelligence establishments are well known.
And as with all fake "themed" revolutions, an "embattled martyr" is needed to rally the "rent-a-mob" to action. For the Ukrainian demonstrator, the "Maiden of Maidan" is Yulia Tymoshenko, the former Prime Minister who was imprisoned for corruption.Tymoshenko, who is now held at a clinic in Kharkiv, has become the "Aung San Suu Kyi" of Ukraine. But for many Ukrainians, the former Prime Minister is a shameless attention seeker whose trademark braided hair coif is derided as a "bagel" on top of her head. The quip is a reference to Tymoshenko's support for Ukraine's leading Zionists and jailed Russian tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, another darling of the Soros/Sharp/Nuland set.
Nuland, Kagan, Soros, Sharp crowd rally around Ukrainian protesters and the "Euromaidan Maiden," the lady with the "bagel" on her head, Yulia Tymoshenko.
One of the demands of the EU to agree to the pact with Ukraine was the release from prison and political rehabilitation of Tymoshenko. AndNuland and her neocon friends have made no secret of their desire to have Ukrainian ex-boxer and Udar Party leader Vitali Klitschko replace President Yanukovych in an undemocratic process brought about by the type of hooliganism that saw protesters topple a statue of Vladimir Lenin in central Kyiv. Who really benefits from the destruction of a Lenin statue? The answer to that question can be found in the banking corridors of Frankfurt and London, as well as the political power corridors of Washington and Brussels.
Jewish Virtual Library ...pamphlets imply the neoconservatives are the real neo-Nazis..
. This interaction has created a dynamic in which antisemitic ideas and conspiracy theories once circulated almost exclusively by German Nazis and their neo-Nazi offspring entered popular culture, mainstream political debate, and even broadcast television series, especially in Islamic and Arab countries in the Middle East. These even included a revival of the false allegations from The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. These conspiracy allegations moved into more mainstream circles through bridging mechanisms that often mask the original overtly anti-Jewish claims by using coded rhetoric about "secret elites" or "Zionist cabals." The international organization run by Lyndon LaRouche is a major source of such masked antisemitic theories globally. In the U.S. the LaRouchites spread these conspiracy theories in an alliance with aides to Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam. A series of LaRouchite pamphlets calls the neoconservative movement the "Children of Satan," which links Jewish neo-conservatives to the historic rhetoric of the blood libel. In a twisted irony, the pamphlets imply the neoconservatives are the real neo-Nazis.
Urban Dictionary Neo-Con-Nazi
Short for Neo-Conservative Nationalist-Socialist. Basically an American member of the Republican party who claims the conservative ideology of Ronald Reagan, but in practice acts like a Nazi in that they are pro-corporate, anti-<insert-current-scapegoat-here>, pro-military, anti-sharing, pro-self-serving, anti-abortion, pro-death-penalty, anti-tax, pro-greed, etc. Their intent is to establish a totalitarian-style state with the pretense of democracy and freedom cloaked in faux-patriotism, but controlled only by like-minded individuals. I don't know what an Islamo-Fascist is because they don't exist, but there definitely are Neo-Con-Nazi hordes running the Republican party. George W. Bush, Donal Rumsfeld, any of the PNAC aithors, Ann Coulter, Bill O'Reilly, etc.
TruthOut Neocons and the Ukraine Coup, (Truthout, left gatekeeper)
American neocons helped destabilize Ukraine and engineer the overthrow of its elected government, a “regime change” on Russia’s western border. But the coup – and the neo-Nazi militias at the forefront – also reveal divisions within the Obama administration, reports Robert Parry.
More than five years into his presidency, Barack Obama has failed to take full control over his foreign policy, allowing a bureaucracy shaped by long years of Republican control and spurred on by a neocon-dominated U.S. news media to frustrate many of his efforts to redirect America’s approach to the world in a more peaceful direction.
But Obama deserves a big dose of the blame for this predicament because he did little to neutralize the government holdovers and indeed played into their hands with his initial appointments to head the State and Defense departments, Hillary Clinton, a neocon-leaning Democrat, and Robert Gates, a Republican cold warrior, respectively.
Even now, key U.S. diplomats are more attuned to hard-line positions than to promoting peace. The latest example is Ukraine where U.S. diplomats, including Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs Victoria Nuland and U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey Pyatt, are celebrating the overthrow of an elected pro-Russian government.
Occurring during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, the coup in Ukraine dealt an embarrassing black eye to Russian President Vladimir Putin, who had offended neocon sensibilities by quietly cooperating with Obama to reduce tensions over Iran and Syria, where the neocons favored military options.
Over the past several weeks, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych was undercut by a destabilization campaign encouraged by Nuland and Pyatt and then deposed in a coup spearheaded by neo-Nazi militias. Even after Yanukovych and the political opposition agreed to an orderly transition toward early elections, right-wing armed patrols shattered the agreement and took strategic positions around Kiev.
Despite these ominous signs, Ambassador Pyatt hailed the coup as “a day for the history books.” Most of the mainstream U.S. news media also sided with the coup, with commentators praising the overthrow of an elected government as “reform.” But a few dissonant reports have pierced the happy talk by noting that the armed militias are part of the Pravy Sektor, a right-wing nationalist group which is often compared to the Nazis. more
Wikipedia Svoboda ( neo-nazi organization)
The Social-National Party of Ukraine changed its name to the All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda" in February 2004 with the arrival of Oleh Tyahnybok as party leader. Tyahnybok made significant efforts to moderate the party's extremist image. The party not only replaced its name, but also abandoned the "I + N" ("Idea Natsii" Ukrainian "idea of a nation") Wolfsangel logo (a symbol popular among neo-Nazi groups) with a three-fingered hand reminiscent of the 'Tryzub' pro-independence gesture of the late 1980s. Svoboda also pushed neo-Nazi and other radical groups out the party, distancing itself from its neofascist past while retaining the support of extreme nationalists. In 2004, Tyahnybok was expelled from the Our Ukraine parliamentary faction for a speech calling for Ukrainians to fight against a "Muscovite-Jewish mafia," and celebrated the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists for having fought "Moscovites, Germans, Jews and other scum who wanted to take away our Ukrainian state." The speech was delivered at the grave-site of a commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army where Tyahnybok praised its struggle against "Moskaly", a derogatory term for either Russians or pan-Russian nationalists; Germans; and "Zhydy", an archaic but controversial term for Jews in Ukraine due to it being a slur when used in the Russian language. In the 2006 local elections the party had obtained 4.2% of the votes and 4 seats in the Ternopil Oblast Council, 5.62% of the votes and 10 seats in the Lviv Oblast Council and 6.69% of the votes and 9 seats in the Lviv city council. In the 2007 parliamentary elections, the party received 0.76% of the votes cast, more than double their share during the 2006 parliamentary elections, when they received 0.36%. It was ranked eighth out of 20 parties (in the 2007 elections) and the non-participation of the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists made the party the only far-right party to participate in the 2007 parliamentary elections. In the autumn of 2009, Svoboda joined the Alliance of European National Movements as the only organisation from outside the European Union. That year the party claimed to have 15,000 members.
GlobalResearch How and Why the U.S. Government Aided a Coup Led by Neo-Nazis in Ukraine
The people of the United States are being deliberately misled and misinformed about the leading role played by the U.S. State Department, intelligence agencies and neoconservative leaders in bringing neo-Nazis to power in Ukraine.
The same neoconservative politicians and strategists that drove the country to war against Iraq in 2003, against Libya in 2011 and nearly against Syria in 2013 have been neck-deep in a protracted regime change effort in Ukraine as part of a larger geo-strategic struggle against Russia. The fact that they have worked hand in glove with armed neo-Nazis in Ukraine—with Sen. John McCain and Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland literally joining the protests—speaks volumes about the political nature of the events.
The Maidan protest movement was launched in Kiev in November 2013 when Ukrainian President Yanukovych rejected a European Union economic plan that would have imposed a harsh austerity regime on Ukraine as the price for admission into the economic sphere dominated by German banks. The U.S. and E.U.-backed street protests, supported most fervently by neoconservative elements inside and outside the Obama administration, began when Yanukovych instead accepted a $15 billion loan from Russia and an economic plan that did not require austerity measures but did include discounted prices for Russian natural gas.
Oleh Tyahnybok, leader of the Neo-Nazi Svoboda party. Fascists now control key posts in the government, including over the armed forces
The U.S. government has engineered, financed and fully supported a classic coup d’état that overthrew a corrupt but democratically elected government in Ukraine. Joining in the destabilization of the Ukrainian government were Germany, France, Britain and other NATO powers.
The U.S. State Department funds an international network of non-governmental organizations and media outlets that are used to create political opposition and conduct regime change against targeted countries from Venezuela to Bolivia to Syria to Ukraine and other countries. A principal vehicle for these U.S. operations is the National Endowment for Democracy (NED).
A recent article by Robert Parry reports: “NED, a $100 million-a-year agency created by the Reagan administration in 1983 to promote political action and psychological warfare against targeted states, lists 65 projects that it supports financially inside Ukraine, including training activists, supporting ‘journalists’ and promoting business groups, effectively creating a full-service structure primed and ready to destabilize a government in the name of promoting ‘democracy.’”
The new coup-led government was selected by a rump session of the parliament when many elected members could not show up to vote for fear of physical attack. It is filled with fascist and semi-fascist forces, as well as powerful billionaire oligarchs. The fascist forces promote hatred toward Russians, Jews, Poles and other minorities.
|EUSTACE MULLINS: THE SECRET HOLOCAUST|
|EUSTACE MULLINS: THE SECRET HOLOCAUST Eustace Mullins Posted July 8, 2009 Eustace Mullins is a veteran of the United States Air Force, with thirty-eight months of active service during World War II. A native Virginian, he was educated at Washington and Lee University, New York University, Ohio University, the University of North Dakota, the Escuelas des Bellas Artes, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, and the Institute of Contemporary Arts, Washington, D.C. THE SECRET HOLOCAUST The devastation of civilization to date by the rapacious hordes of Godless Communism, as well as their planned annihilation of all non-Jewish societies and political organizations, began to ravage the world in the nineteenth century. It has resulted in incredible suffering and death for many millions of Christian victims in many parts of the world. Yet as these Christian victims lie in their graves, unmourned and unknown, a new class of international citizens, (the creators of Marxist terrorism), profess to be the only "victims" who have endured suffering in the past one hundred and fifty years. They command the world to weep for them, because they control the world. These harbingers of terror claim to be "refugees", since they had no nation of their own, but infested the civilized societies in every part of the world for two thousand years, bringing with them, in every instance, disease and death. They have emerged from one shattered nation after another, not as refugees, but as the final victors, bearing away their loot, and scurrying through ports which they have created and which they alone know how to follow, until they come to another host nation. With them they bring, like the medieval Bubonic Plagues, (an infection which they were accused of spreading), a terrible contamination, an infestation which quickly spreads through the new host country, and fells all who become its victims. This plague is world Communism, and its known carriers, the furry scavengers who have found their way through the sewers into every civilized place, are the international Jews. P. D. . We are asked to weep only for the Jews, and to ignore the many millions of actual victims of world terrorism in the past one hundred and fifty years, a chronicle of such horror that one scarcely can bear to put down this bloodstained record, not merely in fear that the world might put away its business in order to mourn these countless victims of international Communist terrorism, but that the tragic fate of these innocents, most of them women and children, is one of such pathos that one's heart could break from the full impact of its terrifying implications for everyone alive today. One of the first victims of the international financiers, shortly after publication of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx in 1848, was the Southern civilization of the United States. White immigrants had wrested from a hostile territory the means to create a gracious culture, one which the ruder and more unlettered sections of the new Republic could only gape at in admiration, an admiration, however, which soon turned to envy and then hatred. This hatred brought armies into the American South, bearing the terrorists who, unknown at that time, were the first Communist totalitarians determined to wreak their hatred and policies of annihilation on all civilized people. M JO Mtfa-n American Jewry and the Civil War Bertram W. Korn Introduction by Allan Nevlns with a raw chapter by ths author|
|Iron Light Is Elie Wiesel an impostor?|
On 3 March 2009, a Hungarian website published an article entitled Még mindig kísérti a haláltábor (The extermination camp is still tempting) and outlining important revelations by Miklós Grüner, a former deportee to Auschwitz. The article was translated and appeared the following day under the title Auschwitz Survivor Claims Elie Wiesel is an Impostor. The text reads as follows:
In May 1944 , when Miklos Gruner was 15, he was deported from Hungary to Auschwitz-Birkenau with his mother and father as well as both a younger and an elder brother. He says that his mother and his younger brother were immediately gassed after their arrival in the camp. Then he, his elder brother and their father had an inmate number tattooed on their arms and were sent to perform hard work in a synthetic fuel factory linked to IG Farben where the father died six months later. After that, the elder brother was sent to Mauthausen and, as the young Miklos was then alone, two elder Jewish inmates who were also Hungarians and friends with his late father took him under their protection. These two protectors of the young Miklos were the Lazar and Abraham Wiesel brothers.
In the following months, Miklos Gruner and the Wiesel brothers became good friends. Lazar Wiesel was 31 years old in 1944. Miklos never forgot the number Lazar was tattooed with by the Nazis: A-7713. In January 1945, as the Russian army was coming, the inmates were transferred to Buchenwald. During the ten days this transfer took, partly by foot, partly by train, more than half of the inmates died and amongst them was Abraham, the elder brother of Lazar Wiesel. In April 8, 1945, the US army liberated Buchenwald. Miklos and Lazar were amongst the survivors of the camp. As Miklos had tuberculosis, he was sent in a Swiss clinic and therefore was separated from Lazar. After recovering, Miklos emigrated to Australia while his elder brother, who also survived the war, established himself in Sweden.
Years later, in 1986, Miklos was contacted by the Swedish journal Sydsvenska Dagbladet in Malmo and invited to meet “an old friend” named Elie Wiesel… As Miklos answered that he doesn’t know anyone with this name, he was told Elie Wiesel was the same person Miklos knew in the Nazi camps under the name Lazar Wiesel and with the inmate number A-7713… Miklos still remembered that number and he was therefore convinced at that point that he was going to meet his old friend Lazar and happily accepted the invitation to meet him at the Savoj Hotel in Stockholm on December 14, 1986. Miklos recalls:
“I was very happy at the idea of meeting Lazar but when I confronted the so-called ‘Elie Wiesel’, I was stunned to see a man I didn’t recognize at all, who didn’t even speak Hungarian or Yiddish and instead he was speaking English in a strong French accent. Therefore our meeting was over in about ten minutes. As a goodbye gift, the man gave me his book entitled ‘Night’ of which he claimed to be the author. I accepted the book I didn’t know at that time but told everyone there that this man was not the person he pretended to be!”
Miklos recalls that during this strange meeting, Elie Wiesel refused to show him the tattooed number on his arm, saying he didn’t want to exhibit his body. Miklos adds that Elie Wiesel showed his tattooed number afterward to an Israeli journalist who Miklos met and this journalist told Miklos that he didn’t have time to identify the number but… was certain it wasn’t a tattoo. Miklos says:
“After that meeting with Elie Wiesel, I spent twenty years of research and found out that the man calling himself Elie Wiesel has never been in a Nazi concentration camp since he was not included in any official list of detainees”.
Miklos also found out that the book Elie Wiesel gave him in 1986 as something he has written himself was in fact written in Hungarian in 1955 by Miklos’ old friend Lazar Wiesel and published in Paris under the title “Un di Velt hot Gesvigen”, meaning approximately “The World Kept Silent”. The book was then shortened and rewritten in French as well as in English in order to be published under the author’s name Elie Wiesel in 1958, under the french title “La Nuit” and the English title “Night”. Ten million copies of the book were sold in the world by Elie Wiesel who even received a Nobel Peace prize for it in 1986 while – says Miklos – the real author Lazar Wiesel was mysteriously missing…
“Elie Wiesel never wanted to meet me again”, says Miklos. “He became very successful; he takes 25 thousand dollars for a 45 minutes speech on the Holocaust. I have officially reported to the FBI in Los Angeles. I have also complained to governments and media, in the US and Sweden with no result.
I have received anonymous calls telling me I could be shot if I don`t shut up but I am not afraid of death any more. I have deposited the whole dossier in four different countries and, if I died suddenly, they would be made public. The world must know that Elie Wiesel is an impostor and I am going to tell it, I am going to publish the truth in a book called “Stolen Identity A7713”.”
Miklós Grüner’s declarations have been repeated many times, but have not caused any major research effort. We will thus scrutinize them critically but soberly.
First of all, some biographical data on Elie Wiesel:
Born on 30 September 1928 at Sighet in Romania, the son of Shlomo and Sarah Frig, the daughter of Dodye Feig, deported to Birkenau on 16 May 1944.
The most important point to be verified is the reliability of the accuser. What can be considered established on the subject of Miklós Grüner is the fact that he was at Buchenwald in May of 1945. In a “Concentration Camp Inmates Questionnaire” of the Military Government of Germany, we have an entry giving his name, and the date of his birth – 6 April 1928 – also conforms. The ID number is handwritten in the upper left hand corner: 120762. More Coincidentally, this fall marked the 75th anniversary of the Mercury Theater of the Air’s broadcast of “War of The Worlds,” when Orson Welles and his talented players used the conventions of the new-ish medium of radio to fool at least some unsuspecting Americans into believing their Halloween broadcast was actually a Martian invasion.
|Wikipedia Raul Hilberg ... Raul Hilberg ...Destruction of European Jews ... Droemer Knaur ... decided against publication, due to the work's documentation of certain episodes of cooperation by Jewish authorities with the executors of the Holocaust — material which the editors said would only play into the hands of the antisemitic right wing in Germany. Hilberg dismissed this fear as "nonsense". ... finally came out in German edition in 1982... Hillberg was raised Polish Jewish but became an atheist, family, Anschluss, Austria, Cuba, WWII to escape Hitler, encounter with Stephen Wise, Columbia University, more interested in perpetrators of holocaust than victims, President Carter's Commission on the Holocaust, holocaust scholar, Geschwister-Scholl-Preis award. Hilberg not religious, attended Ohavi Zedek, "Jews are the conscience of the world"... interviewd by Claude Lanzmann's Shoah, a strong supporter of Norman Finkelstein's Holocaust Industry, made posthumous appearance in American Radical: The Trials of Norman Finkelstein, died of lung cancer, a life long Republican,|
YouTube The General's Son. Miko Peled is a peace activist who dares to say in public what others still choose to deny. Born in Jerusalem in 1961 into a well known Zionist family, his grandfather, Dr. Avraham Katsnelson was a Zionist leader and signer of the Israeli Declaration of Independence. His Father, Matti Peled, was a young officer in the war of 1948 and a general in the war of 1967 when Israel conquered the West Bank, Gaza, Golan Heights and Sinai. Miko's unlikely opinions reflect his father's legacy. General Peled was a war hero turned peacemaker. Miko grew up in Jerusalem, a multi-ethnic city, but had to leave Israel before he made his first Palestinian friend, the result of his participation in a dialogue group in California. He was 39. On September 4, 1997 the beloved Smadar, 13, the daughter of Miko's sister Nurit and her husband Rami Elhanan was killed in a suicide attack. Peled insists that Israel/Palestine is one state—the separation wall notwithstanding, massive investment in infrastructure, towns and highways that bisect and connect settlements on the West Bank, have destroyed the possibility for a viable Palestinian state. The result, Peled says is that Israelis and Palestinians are governed by the same government but live under different sets of laws. At the heart of Peled's conclusion lies the realization that Israelis and Palestinians can live in peace as equals in their shared homeland. All rights-Alternate Focus under educational learning aid.
InsideHigherEducation Academic Freedom and Holocaust Denial ... A Pennsylvania English professor whose anti-Israel rhetoric and denial of the Holocaust as a historic certainty have ignited controversy is citing academic freedom as his defense. Kaukab Siddique, associate professor of English and journalism at Lincoln University of Pennsylvania, appeared last month at a pro-Palestinian rally in Washington, where he called the state of Israel illegitimate. “I say to the Muslims, ‘Dear brothers and sisters, unite and rise up against this hydra-headed monster which calls itself Zionism,’ ” he said at a rally on Sept. 3. “Each one of us is their target and we must stand united to defeat, to destroy, to dismantle Israel -- if possible by peaceful means,” he added. Read more: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/10/26/siddique#ixzz2rE6YbBN4 Inside Higher Ed search terms: anti-Israel rhetoric, Holocaust was a hoax, example of a questing mind asking tough questions, freedom of expression, fire bombing, Hiroshima, Nagazaki, moral ambiguity of war, look at both sides, part of being a professor, avoid topic in classes, Siddique's comments and conservative Christians, CBN, Pat Robertson, Siddique's positions similar to Carter's, extreme right wing defense of Israel, death threats, dumbing down of discourse, expressed views do not represent Lincoln University, a black college,
Metapedia Anti-Semitism (also spelled antisemitism) is a term and contemporary epithet which has been used in a variety of contexts by different people and organisations, though it was originally invented in 1860 by a liberal Jew named Moritz Steinschneider, the son of a Talmudist born in Moravia. In its initial coining, it was applied in a criticism of Ernest Renan's contrast of Semites and Indo-Europeans, though at this stage was in a wider more general context than just opposition to Jewishness. It was the socialist Wilhelm Marr who popularised the term in the 1870s with his League of Anti-Semites, applying it to himself in a positive sense primarily in his attacks on Jewish finance, but also in regard to their non-assimilationism in wider society. The earliest self-identifying "anti-semites" or those figures whom the term was applied to, were generally non-Marxian socialists who came to regard Jewishness and its values system, as the most anti-social form of the unrestrained bourgeoisie following the Industrial Revolution. This had coincided with the ascent of various monopolistic Jewish financial dynasties in Europe and soon North America following their "emancipation". For a time, the phrase was adopted by certain integral nationalists, especially in France such as Action Française. The phrase had its critics from the start and was regarded as inaccurate by people such as Eugen Dühring and largely fell out of use as a self-identifying term by the 1920s. "Anti-anti-semitism" has led to mass murder on an industrial scale; following the Jewish coup d'etat in Russia in 1917 for instance, so-called "anti-semitism" was a "crime" punishable by death, often by shooting in the back of the head. Today the thought police continue their war against people who criticise the legion of Jewish crimes against humanity by throwing "anti-semites" into modern gulags (ie - prisons) in many parts of Europe or bring them to ruin financially. While in other parts of the world, particularly the United States, social ostracism is enforced. Because Jews believe they are a race "chosen" by God above the rest of humanity, they believe they can commit atrocities with impunity and the mere goyim have no business asking them to limit or take account of their grotesque behavior.
400 Jewish Leaders Attend the Non Zionist Conference on Palestine
October 22, 1928
In the presence of 400 Jewish leaders representing twenty-five States and Canada, Mr. Louis Marshall opened the Non-Zionist Conference at the Hotel Biltmore on Saturday evening.
Mr. Marshall’s address, which will be reported in our next issue, surveyed the history of the efforts to enlarge the Jewish Agency, going as far back as the first Non-Partisan Conference held in 1924. After describing the successive sages leading up to the formation of the Joint Palestine Survey Commission, Mr. Marshall gave an account of the inquiry conducted by the experts in Palestine, and submitted the report of the Survey Commission bearing the signatures of Felix M. Warburg, Lord Melchett, Dr. Lee K. Frankel, and Oscar Wasserman, for the consideration of the Conference.
The large number of prominent delegates, the presence of many distinguished visitors as well as of numerous representatives of the press emphasized the unusual importance attached to the Non-Zionist Conference.
Dr. Chaim Weizmann, President of the World Zionist Organization. Lord Melchett, and Felix M. Warburg were among those who addressed the Conference.
The delegates present were: Canada, Montreal, Asher Pierce; Toronto, A. Rhinewine; Connecticut, Greenwich, Dr. S. L. Quitt; New Haven, Dr. Sidney S. Tedesche, Col. Isaac M. Ullman, Samuel J. Weil; South Norwalk, Dr. S. M. Deitz; Delaware, Wilmington. Samuel Cannon, Rabbi A. A. L. Mischkind, David Snellenburg; Washington. D. C., Dr. Herbert Friedenwald and Simon Lyon. Florida, Tampa, Rabbi L. Elliot Grafman.
Illinois, Chicago, Herbert J. Friedman, Edward Katzinger, Rabbi Gerson B. Levi, Rabbi Joseph Stolz; Rock Island, Louis Andich. Indiana, Indianapolis, Rabbi Morris M. Feuerlicht. Iowa, Sioux City, Dave Davidson.
Maryland, Baltimore, Isidor Goldstrom, Frank J. Rubenstein, Mr. and Mrs. Siegmund H. Sonneborn. Massachusetts, Boston, Sidney Dreyfus, Maurice Goldberg, Dr. Maurice B. Hexter, Jacob Rabinowitz; Clinton, Morris Long; Holyoke, Abraham Greenspan, Jacob Ogan, Lewis M. Potolski, Abraham Saltman; Lawrence, Rabbi Moses Eckstein; Westfield, Sam Simkowitz. Michigan, Battle Creek, Samuel Blick. Detroit, David A. Brown, Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, M. L. Prentis, Milford Stern.
Missouri, Kansas City, J. A. Harzfeld, St. Joseph, Rabbi Myron M. Meyer; New Hampshire, Portsmouth, Louis Shapiro.
New Jersey, Bayonne, Harris Boorstein, Rabbi Aaron R. Charney Morris Newell, Isaac Niedorf. Rabbi Benjamin. Plotkin, Julius A. Rose, Israel Shilowitz; Bloomfield, Dr. Nathaniel A. Olinger; Camden. Dr. Hyman I. Goldstein; Jersey City, Henry D. Cohen, Ben Schlossberg. Jacob J. Singer; Newark, Louis Bamberger, Felix Fuld, Dr. K. Vornberg; New Brunswick, Prof. Jacob G. Lipman; Passaic, Philip Goldman; Paterson, Abram I. Bluestein, Benjamin Horwich. Filbert L. Rosenstein. Rabbi W. Wittenstein; Perth Amboy, A. Beckhoff, Rabbi Max D. Davidson, Samuel Levy; Plainfield, Rabbi A. Lincoln Krohn; Union City, Morton R. Goodman; West Orange, Samuel S. Kaplan.
New York. Albany, Bertram M. Aufsesser, William Barnet, Samuel Hessberg, Rabbi Marius Ranson; Buffalo, Rabbi Joseph L. Fink, Willard W. Saperston; Cohoes, M. F. Aufsesser; Haverstraw, Paul Israelson; Herkimer, Miss Frances Schermer. Hudson, Rabbi Simon R. Krinsky; Kingston. Nathaniel B. Gross and Morris Kaplan; Middletown, Julian L. Greifer; Mt. Vernon, G. Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Wilk; Niagara Falls, Gustave J. Silberberg and Louis S. Silberberg; Olean, B. M. Marcus; Poughkeepsie, Ely L. Gellert and Jack Siegel; Saranac Lake, Samuel Edelberg; Syracuse, Rabbi Benjamin Friedman, Bernard B. Given. Adolph M. Holstein; Tarrytown, Eugene H. Lehman; Utica, Samuel Reichler; Yonkers, Samuel Blumner.
North Carolina, Goldsboro, Leslie Weil. North Dakota, Fargo, Harry Lashkowitz. Ohio, Cincinnati, Rabbi Julian Morgenstern; Cleveland, Mrs. Siegmund Herzog; Toledo, Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld; Youngstown, Gusttave Kahn. Oklahoma, Okmulgee, Paul May. Pennsylvania, Easton, Meyer Feinberg and Israel Krohn; Harrisburg, Paul Goldblatt; Hazelton, M. Friedlander; Lewistown, Harold D. Cohen; McKeesport, Miss Dora C. Weiss.
Philadelphia, Dr. Cyrus Adler, Mrs. Cyrus Adler, Justin P. Allman, Jacob Billikopf, Solomon Solis Cohen, Aaron D. Faber, Samuel S. Fels, Rabbi W. H. Fineshiber, Stanley Folz, David Friedlaender, Mr. David Friedlaender, David J. Galter, Rabbi Solomon Grayzel, Joseph H. Hagedorn, Philip Klein, Mrs. L. F. Levy, Martin O. Levy, Albert H. Lieberman, Leon J. Obermayer, Mrs. Nathan Perilstein, Nathan Perilstein, W. B. Rosskam, Joseph W. Salus, I. H. Silverman, Judge Horace Stern. Mrs. Horace Stern, Harry G. Sundheim, Rabbi Louis Wolsey; Scranton, Meyer Davidow.
Rhode Island. Providence, Rabbi Samuel M. Gup; Texas, Houston, Arthur Adams; Virginia, Richmond. Rabbi Edward N. Calisch; Wisconsin, Milwaukee, A. L. Saltzstein; Madison, Rabbi Solomon Landman.
New York City, Abe N. Adelson, Ben Altheimer, Paul Baerwald, Hon. Clarice M. Baright, Benjamin Benenson. Marcy I. Berger, Samuel Berliner, Alex A. Bernstein, Herman Bernstein, Dr. Aaron Bodansky, David M. Bressler, Frederick Brown, Captain Frank Connes. J. Clarence Davies, Alexander Dolowitz, Dr. Samuel Doskow, Max Eckman. Bernard Edelhertz, Abraham Eisenbud, Dr. Samuel Eilsberg, Rabbi H. G. Enelow, Morris Engelman. Rabbi Jacob Eskolsky, M. Feinstone. William Fischman, Dr. Lee K. Frankel, Edward Friedman, Elisha M. Friedman, Howard S. Gans, Harry L. Glucksman, Louis Gold. Hon. Henry M. Goldfogle, Milton Goldsmith. Samuel A. Goldsmith. William Goldsmith, Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein. Jonah J. Goldstein, Mrs. Jonah J. Goldstein, Hon. Samuel Greenbaum. Meyer Greenberg, John Grosberg, Blanche J. Hart. Henry S. Hendricks. Mrs. Henry S. Hendricks, Abraham Herman. Arnold Herrmann, Maurice N. Hyman.
Rabbi Leo Jung, M. J. Karpf, David Kass, Mrs. David Kass, William Klein. Dr. I. J. Kligler, Edgar J. Kohler, Max J. Kohler, Alfred E. Kornfeld, A. Krasne. Samson Lachman, S. C. Lamport. Alexander A. Landesco, Rabbi Isaac Landman, Hon. Edward Lazansky, Herbert H. Lehman, Mrs. Max L. Levenson, I. Montefiore Levy, Isaac Liberman. William Lieberman, Solon J. Liebeskind, Mrs. Morris Loeb, Louis C. Lowenstein, Solomon Lowenstein, William J. Mack, James Marshall.
Louis Marshall, Prof. Alexander Marx, Jacob Massel, Mrs. Eva May, Miss Irma May, Philip Meysrowitz, Cohon J. Minikes, Edgar J. Nathan, Edgar J. Nathan, Jr., Aaron E. Norman, Edward A. Norman, Benjamin Pepper, A. S. Phillips, William Prager, Rabbi Julius J. Prics, Mr. and Mrs. Sidosy Prince, Rabbi Irving F. Reichert, Louis S. Reingold, Leonard G. Robinson, Judge Otto A. Rosalsky, James N. Rosenberg, Henry H. Rosenfelt, Leon Sanders, Aaron Sapiro, Harry Schneiderman, Rabbi S. Schulman, Rubin Schwartz, Jefferson Seligman, Harry Serper. Isaac Siegel, Rabbi Joseph Silverman. Ben L. Simon, A. Solomon, Jacob Sperber, Mrs. Estelle M. Sternberger, Hugh Grant Straus, Lewis L. Strauss, Sol M. Stroock, Solert## Sufrin, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, Willliam S. Sussman, George Toeplitz, Z. Ty, ## Israel Unterberg, Samuel Untermy, J. M. Wachman, Morris D. Wald### Felix M. Warburg, Paul M. Warburg, Mrs. Eugene Warner, Dr. H. M. Warberg. J. Wener, Maurice Wertheim Peter Wiernik, Rabbi Jonah B. Wise, Leo Wolman, Max Zaritsky, Emil N. Zolla, Abraham Zucker, Nathan Zvirin.
Read more: http://www.jta.org/1928/10/22/archive/400-jewish-leaders-attend-the-non-zionist-conference-on-palestine#ixzz34FGe6NQF
Lulu Dr. Herman Greife Jewish-Run Concentration Camps in the Soviet Union ...An anti-Communist book from 1937 which revealed that Communist Jews were the commandants of 11 out of the 12 main Stalinist-era Gulags, or concentration camps, including the camp system directors Matvei Berman and Hershel Jehuda. Ultimately, some 14 million people would be detained in the 53 camps which operated from 1934 to 1953. According to official Soviet data, some 1,053,829 people died in the camps from various causes. The modern-day Russian industrial cities of the Arctic, such as Norilsk, Vorkuta, and Magadan, were originally Gulags. Contents Introduction to the 2011 edition by Francis Dupont ; Introduction to the 1999 Edition by Dr. E.R. Fields; About This Book; Foreword to the 1937 Edition; Preface to the 1937 Edition; Chapter One: The Jewish Terror Grips Russia; Chapter Two: The Origin of the Compulsion Workers; Chapter Three: The Cry for Redemption of the Exiles; Chapter Four: The Division of the Compulsion Workers; Chapter Five: The Construction of the Stalin White Sea Canal; ...
and Wikipedia Berman was the son of a Jewish brickyard owner. He joined the Russian army and entered the military school in Irkutsk. He then became a cadet of the 25th Reserve infantry regiment. Berman joined the Bolsheviks in June 1917. In 1918 he joined the Red Army and was stationed in Tomsk and in June was working in a propaganda unit. In August 1918 he joined the Cheka and was named chief of state security in the city of Glazov. From 1923 to 1924 he was People's Commissar for State Security in the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. He then led the OGPU in Central Asia. From February 1927 to October 1927 he was the chairman of the OGPU in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In November 1929 he helped develop the GULAG system of camps and became deputy chief of the GULAG in 1930. From June 9, 1932 to August 17, 1937 he was head of the GULAG. He was awarded the Order of Lenin on August 4, 1933, soon after the completion of the White Sea – Baltic Canal. By 1935, by his own count, Berman was in charge of over 740,000 prisoners working on 15 major projects in the GULAG. After the fall of Genrikh Yagoda, Berman continued to rise in the hierarchy of the NKVD and he held the offices of head construction of the Moscow-Volga Canal and Deputy head of the NKVD in 1936-1937. In August 1937, Berman's fall began in the time of the Great Terror. On August 17, 1937, he lost his position as head of the GULAG and was appointed People's Commissar of Posts and Telecommunications (Russian: Наркомпочтель). On December 23, 1938, he was expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, arrested the next day in the office of Georgi Malenkov, and sent to prison at Lubyanka. He was found guilty by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR of belonging to a "terrorist and sabotage organization" and shot on March 7, 1939 at Kommunarka. On October 17, 1957 Berman was legally rehabilitated. Matvei's younger brother, Boris, also worked for the NKVD and the GULAG in supervisory positions. Boris was awarded the Order of Lenin on December 19, 1937, arrested on September 24, 1938 and executed on February 22, 1939. He was not rehabilitated.
|Reference (articles) top|
|Wikipedia Academic freedom is the belief that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment. Academic freedom is a contested issue and, therefore, has limitations in practice. In the United States, for example, according to the widely recognized "1940 Statement on Academic Freedom and Tenure", teachers should be careful to avoid controversial matter that is unrelated to the subject. When they speak or write in public, they are free to express their opinions without fear from institutional censorship or discipline, but they should show restraint and clearly indicate that they are not speaking for their institution. Academic tenure protects academic freedom by ensuring that teachers can be fired only for causes such as gross professional incompetence or behavior that evokes condemnation from the academic community itself. Contents [show] Rationale Proponents of academic freedom believe the freedom of inquiry by students and faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy. They argue that academic communities are repeatedly targeted for repression due to their ability to shape and control the flow of information. When scholars attempt to teach or communicate ideas or facts that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities, they may find themselves targeted for public vilification, job loss, imprisonment, or even death. For example, in North Africa, a professor of public health discovered that his country's infant mortality rate was higher than government figures indicated. He lost his job and was imprisoned. The fate of biology in the Soviet Union is also cited as a reason why society has an interest in protecting academic freedom.[who?] A Soviet biologist named Trofim Lysenko rejected Western science—then focused primarily on making advances in theoretical genetics, based on research with the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- and proposed a more socially relevant approach to farming that was based on the collectivist principles of dialectical materialism. (Lysenko called this "Michurinism", but it is more popularly known today as Lysenkoism.) Lysenko's ideas proved appealing to the Soviet leadership, in part because of their value as propaganda, and he was ultimately made director of the Soviet Academy of Agricultural Sciences; subsequently, Lysenko directed a purge of scientists who professed "harmful ideas," resulting in the expulsion, imprisonment, or death of hundreds of Soviet scientists. Lysenko's ideas were then implemented on collectivised farms in the Soviet Union and China. Famines that resulted partly from Lysenko's influence are believed to have killed 30 million people in China alone. AFAF (Academics For Academic Freedom) of the United Kingdom is a campaign for lecturers, academic staff and researchers who want to make a public statement in favour of free enquiry and free expression. Their statement of Academic Freedom has two main principles: that academics, both inside and outside the classroom, have unrestricted liberty to question and test received wisdom and to put forward controversial and unpopular opinions, whether or not these are deemed offensive, and that academic institutions have no right to curb the exercise of this freedom by members of their staff, or to use it as grounds for disciplinary action or dismissal.' AFAF and those who are part of the campaign believe that it is important for academics to be able to express their opinions - not just full stop, but to put them to scrutiny and to open further debate. They are against the idea of telling the public Platonic 'noble lies' and believe that people should not be protected from radical views. Academic freedom for professors The concept of academic freedom as a right of faculty members is an established part of most legal systems. Different from the United States, where academic freedom is derived from the guarantee of free speech under the First Amendment, constitutions of other countries (and particularly of civil law jurisdictions) typically grant a separate right to free learning, teaching, and research. zxcv|
|Gilad Atzmon: "I am happy i circulated" Holocaust denial propaganda Submitted by david gehrig on January 24, 2008 - 12:02pm UCIMC Independent Media Center, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois|
|Gilad Atzmon: "I am happy i circulated" Holocaust denial propaganda Submitted by gehrig on January 24, 2008 - 12:02pm Global News Racism Gilad Atzmon has distributed -- and defended in general terms -- an essay by Paul Eisen designed to promote Holocaust denial. The Eisen essay, titled "Holocaust Wars," claims among other things that the gas chambers of Auschwitz are fraudulent and couldn't work. It "backs up" this claim using the same lies used by the leading lights (such as they are) of the Holocaust denial movement -- people like David Irving, the self-described "Hitler-lover" Ernst Zündel, and the faux engineer Fred Leuchter. When you defend Paul Eisen's essay, you're defending the very same lies promulgated by the "Hitler-lover" Zündel, his flunky Leuchter, and his admirer David Irving. Yet this is what Gilad Atzmon does. Now, if you think I'm exaggerating by calling Paul Eisen's essay "Holocaust denial propaganda," you might want to skip to the last section of the post, in which I document exactly that. For now, it suffices to say that Eisen has said "... the evidence for the use of homicidal gas-chambers [at Auschwitz] is not good at all. The evidence against it is much, much stronger." http://www.haloscan.com/comments/thecutter/117192641046077827/ And the following paragraph from the essay Atzmon circulated gives little room for doubt on where Eisen stands: "Many will take the view that Holocaust rev-isionism [the boilerplate euphemism for the Holocaust denial movement] is but pernicious nonsense motivated only by a hatred of Jews and a desire to rehabilitate Hitler and National Socialism specifically, and fascism in general, and therefore not even worthy of scrutiny. I don't agree, and those with sufficient curiosity to wish to research the subject can visit the website of the premier rev-isionist think tank, the [fascist-founded, though Eisen doesn't mention that] Institute for Historical Review, locate the Journal of Historical Review and its archive of articles and papers and start reading." I'll describe the "Institute for Historical Review" in a little more detail below. You can find the Eisen essay itself, the one Gilad Atzmon thought was so brilliant, by googling "Eisen 'Holocaust wars'"; you'll pull it up on a number of "Poor Hitler was misunderstood" sites like Ernst Zündel's. What was Gilad Atzmon's reaction recently when he was challenged over having distributed a stack of standard-issue Holocaust denier lies? "I am happy i circulated Eisen and he is indeed a friend of mine." http://www.haloscan.com/comments/thecutter/8761647492477468265/ Is Atzmon an open Holocaust denier, as Tony Greenstein claims? Not quite; he's got too much to lose to go around saying openly what Eisen does. But Atzmon clearly has no serious problem with circulating pro-denial essays or praising Holocaust deniers, as shown by his decision to distribute Eisen's essay, a decision he's "happy" about. And when challenged about the propriety of spreading the lies of Nazi apologists, Atzmon resorts to the same line of patter I describe in the next section. -- Some notes on the Holocaust denial movement. One of the favorite lines of patter of the Holocaust denial movement is that nothing should be taboo when it comes to studying history. They're right -- or at least they're right if by "studying" you mean studying, not "making up lies about." Unfortunately, they mean the latter. It helps to remember some facts about the Holocaust denial movement. And the first thing to notice is that the Holocaust denial movement is and has been for thirty years a product of the racist right, the brownshirt right. Ernst Zündel -- the guy who paid for the Leuchter report I'll discuss below -- let us know exactly where he stands politically when he wrote the book, "The Hitler We Loved and Why." The Holocaust denial movement in America was also a product of the racist right; the "Institute for Historical Review" -- for decades the leading Holocaust denial organization in the US -- was funded by Willis Carto, a former Bircher who led it for more than a decade. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willis_Carto And, of course, David Irving -- well, nobody's about to argue that *he's* in any way a political progressive, right? His racism was completely exposed in the Lipstadt trial, but so was his tendency to speak to neo-Nazi organizations. Like any crackpot organization, Holocaust deniers have two core ideas. One is that the Holocaust was vastly exaggerated by the greedy Jews. The second -- common ground for all crackpot organizations -- is that they are being censored and persecuted for their ground-breaking views. (Name a crackpot who doesn't claim he's being persecuted for his ideas. It's part of the syndrome.) When legitimate historians refuse to debate Holocaust deniers -- for exactly the same reason that legitimate astronomers don't debate flat-earthers -- Holocaust deniers do the "nothing should be taboo in historical study" dance. Which sounds pretty good, if you've removed it from context. The context, though, is this: the Holocaust *has* been very widely studied and will continue to be very widely studied. And from the very beginning these studies have shown that Holocaust deniers are full of shit. (I'll give a specific example below.) They're like -- although considerably nastier than -- the "intelligent design" folks, who start from an absolutist religious position but try to dress it up as if it were a scientific position. Scientists see right through "intelligent design," just like historians see right through Holocaust denial, which is antisemitism trying to pass for historical inquiry. The Holocaust denial movement starts from the stance, "the brownshirts weren't as bad as they say, and The Jews are lying," and then tries, through pseudo-scholarship, to make that seem like it might be a legitimate historical stance, rather than an expression of basic antisemitism. -- a note on law A key difference, of course, is that spreading Intelligent Design isn't illegal, while several countries have included Holocaust denial as part of their laws against hate speech. These countries -- all but two, last time I checked, either having been part of the Reich or having been occupied by the Reich -- aren't wrong to consider Holocaust denial a form of hate speech. I think these are bad laws, not because they somehow mischaracterize Holocaust denial (they don't), but because I don't think there should be laws against hate speech as such, except when that speech is used to incite to violence. Of course, Holocaust deniers -- and their defenders -- natter on about "thought police throwing people into prison" and such, never mentioning that Holocaust denial is only one of many forms of hate speech such laws prohibit. Having said that, let me repeat that I don't agree with such laws. I think the best way to confront Holocaust denial is simply to show how ridiculous its claims are, when unwrapped from their lies and rhetorical flourishes. But let's be clear: if you start saying things like "why is investigating the Holocaust taboo" you have bought into the Holocaust denier frame, which is wrong for two reasons. One is that investigating the Holocaust is not taboo; the second is what Holocaust deniers are doing isn't "investigating" but lying. -- the repackaging of Holocaust denial for leftist consumption And let's be clear about something else: there are some folks on the left starting to repackage classic, by-the-book Holocaust denial in "anti-Zionist" garb, hoping to spread it over here. Paul Eisen is one, and Gilad Atzmon is self-admittedly "happy" to help him do it. In the new version, tailored for the left, the culprit is not the Jews -- heaven forfend, no! -- but "the Zionists." Same lies, same reliance on Zündel and Leuchter and Faurisson and Irving and the rest of that jackboot lot, new false "anti-Zionist" moustache. There was an interesting example of this in the US just a few years ago. The nation's oldest regular publication, a progressive magazine called The Nation, ran an ad for a book by Roger Garaudy called "The Founding Myths of Modern Israel." The ad ran for one issue only before it was discovered to be a work of Holocaust denial and pulled. The placing of the ad was a clear and conscious decision by Holocaust deniers to repackage their lies for the left by making the villains not the Jews but "the Zionists" -- even though the ad was placed by the same "Institute for Historical Review" I mentioned above, a group just as happy to blame the Jews. This -- the antisemitic pile of lies called Holocaust denial -- is what Eisen wants to bring to leftist discourse, and his friend Atzmon is happy to help. Anything that makes you hate "Zionists" is fair game, apparently, even when it's repackaged Nazoid horseshit like Holocaust denial. They're hoping you'll be useful idiots. But you can't be a useful idiot if you're not an idiot, and the best way not to be an idiot is to educate yourself. So let's take a look at the real sources of Paul Eisen's Holocaust denial. -- Paul Eisen's essay Let me start out by saying that I've been following the Holocaust denial movement for over a decade, and that related to the David Irving trial I've probably read, all told, somewhere around three thousand pages of reports, submissions, transcripts, etc. I'm not going to footnote every last thing I write in this section, but be assured that I can, and feel free to ask me for details about the source(s) of any particular fact. I am *so* not making this up. Here is an example of what Eisen wrote and Gilad Atzmon was so "happy" to have distributed: "Nothing seems to fit about the gassing story. The numbers of victims crammed into the space, the design and construction of the gassing facilities, the lack of protection for the attendants, the implausibility surrounding the rate of cremation, the huge errors, omissions and disparities in eye-witness accounts -- all these and more, when added to the near total absence of hard affirmative evidence, makes one wonder why anyone believed such a story in the first place..." Let's just take the very first issue, "the numbers of victims crammed into the space." If you followed the Irving trial in any detail, you already know that this is one of the standard gambits of the Holocaust deniers, and has been for decades. Goes like this: "There simply wasn't enough capacity in the supposed gas chambers of Auschwitz to hold all the Jews who were allegedly murdered there, not even enough room to cram them all in." Where does this claim come from? It comes from a guy named Fred Leuchter, the twit Ernst "The Hitler We Loved" Zündel paid $35,000 dollars to in the 1980s to produce a bogus "scientific" refutation of the gas chambers at Auschwitz. Zündel wanted to prove in Canadian court that the Holocaust didn't happen, and he thought that throwing down a bullshit "engineering report" about the gas chambers would help his case. It didn't. But that document, the "Leuchter Report," has the grim historical hallmark of having been the work that made David Irving decide to become a Holocaust denier himself; Irving published it in the UK under his own imprint and repeatedly referred to it in his talks as an irrefutable blow to the Auschwitz "myth." I'm not going to link to the Leuchter report; you can find it at your nearest swastika-kissing site. A detailed demolition of the Leuchter report can be found here: http://hdot.org/trial/defense/van/ix. This is a chapter of the expert report submitted by Auschwitz historian Robert Jan van Pelt as part of the Irving v. Lipstadt trial, and it chops the Leuchter Report into bits. Well, say what you want about whether or not Leuchter is an antisemite, but he's certainly an idiot, and his "Report" is full of appalling idiocies, many of which have been taken up by Paul Eisen and spread, in turn, by Gilad Atzmon. Leuchter made his calculation of the gas chamber capacity at Auschwitz and concluded that there just wasn't enough. His calculation is, as van Pelt shows, full of all sorts of stupid assumptions and errors -- Leuchter vastly overestimated fatal HCN concentration levels, he ignored the presense of a ventilation system Leuchter didn't notice, vastly overestimated the minimum possible time between gassings, etc., etc. But maybe the single dumbest factor of Leuchter's calculation is this: he assumes that -- despite eyewitness accounts of how packed the "showers" were -- that each person, required *nine* square feet of standing room within the gas chamber, man, woman, or child. Why such a ridiculously large figure? Because he wasn't trying to get at the facts; he wasn't "studying" the chambers; he was instead trying to force his numbers to fit his pre-ordained conclusion, as bought and paid for by Ernst "The Hitler We Loved and Why" Zündel. So he lied. And Ernst Zündel picked up that lie ("not enough floor space") and ran with it. Why not? He paid for it. And then David Irving picked it up as well, when he started selling copies of the Leuchter report in the UK. And the lie wound its way through the Holocaust denial movement as a standard part of the "gas chambers wouldn't work" saga. And it is as part of that saga that the Holocaust denier Paul Eisen picked it up -- without mentioning its source -- and put it into his love letter to Ernst Zündel, the very same "Holocaust Wars" essay Gilad Atzmon was so "happy" he circulated for his "good friend."|
|PJMedia What are the limits to academic discourse? Are lies and calumnies from academics protected speech outside the classroom, as well as inside? Does “protected” mean immune from criticism or from direct consequences? Are there distinctions between statements made within one’s “field of expertise” and those made outside? When do such distinctions become hairsplitting rationalizations or mere defensiveness, as opposed to valuable exercises in reasoning and in defense of a noble enterprise? search terms: Professor of literature and communications at Lincoln University, Philidelphia, Jews have taken over America by devious and immoral means, offensive views, look at both sides, part of being a professor, moral certainty, juncture, Cary Nelson, Holocaust denial merits a hearing before a committee of his peers. Is his professional fitness at issue? ... a deluded idealogue, extracurricular remarks, line that must not be crossed, Holocaust denial raises the question of a faculty member’s] overall professional competence — the capacity to weigh evidence, to undertake rational analysis, to perform academic responsibilities reliably. MORE|
ABC News Holocaust survivor and historian Randolph
L. Braham said Sunday he is returning a high state award to Hungary to
protest what he says are government efforts to rewrite history and exonerate
the country from its role in the Holocaust. Braham also asked the Holocaust
Memorial Center in Budapest to remove his name from the BrahamTheque
Information Center, which collects his research results and publications.
His two-volume "The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary," from
1981, is considered one of the most important books about the subject. He
received the Medium Cross of the Order of Merit of the Hungarian Republic in
2011. Braham, Professor Emeritus at the Center for Jewish Studies at the
Graduate Center of the City University of New York, said in an open letter
addressed to executives of the memorial center that the "straw that broke
the camel's back" leading to his decision was the government plan to erect a
memorial commemorating the March 1944 invasion of Hungary by the Nazis.
Braham said the memorial was "a cowardly attempt to detract attention from
the Horthy regime's involvement in the destruction of the Jews and to
homogenize the Holocaust with the 'suffering' of the Hungarians — a German
occupation, as the record clearly shows, was not only unopposed but
generally applauded." Miklos Horthy was Hungary's autocratic leader from the
1920s through most of World War II. Prime Minister Viktor Orban's government
has also been criticized by Jewish groups for tolerating statues of Horthy
being set up by far-right groups in several places.
|Duke, David Duke Amazon By Dr. David Duke, incorporating the writings of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Frank Britton and others. The single most important work on the ethnic origins of the Russian Revolution and the greatest Holocaust in the history of mankind: Soviet Communism and its tentacles which spread out all over the world. This book rips aside the curtain which to expose the dedicated, fanatic and murderous ethnic group which founded and controlled this "worldwide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization" (as Churchill called it): Jewish Supremacists. Read how Jewish Supremacists created the Communist movement, from its germination, to the "Russian" Revolution, the seizure of Eastern Europe, America, Britain, South Africa and even in early Communist China. Contents Introduction 1 Communism with the Mask Off 2 The Ethnic War On the Russian People 3 Communism & Zionism 4 Bloody Sunday & the 1905 Revolution 5 The First World War 6 The March 1917 Revolution 7 The Origins of the Bolshevists 8 The Ground is Prepared 9 The Sixth Party Congress 10 Trotsky to Power 11 Encyclopedia Judaica on the "Russian Revolution" 12 Winston Churchill 13 American Intelligence 14 The London Times 15 The Executioners of the Red Terror 16 Exporting the Revolution 17 Trotsky in Decline 18 Lazar Kaganovich & the Holodomor 19 The "Soviet Zion" and Plans for a Jewish Homeland 20 The Greatest Mass Murderers in all of Human History 21 Iron Curtain Dictators 22 Russians Rise & Zionism Surges 23 Jews Come to America 24 The U.S. Communist Party 25 A Communist Defector in America Spills the Beans 26 Spies, Spies and more Spies in America 27 Atomic Treason 28 The Tribal Shift: Spying Now for Israel 29 Communism in Hollywood 30 A Tribal Media 31 The Communist Origins of Neoconservatism 32 The Communist Movement in Britain 33 South African Marxism: The Usual Suspects 34 Spreading of Communism to China 35 The Key to Communism: Jewish Tribalism 36 Final Words from Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn|
|Behind Communism, Frank L. Britton excerpt from Iamawitness|
To understand the total problem of Communism it is necessary that we
trace the course of the movement from it’s beginning down to the present. We
must understand who it’s originators were, and what they were, and we must
gain some idea as to the forces which influenced and shaped their
Unfortunately, any deep-down discussion of Communism and Marxism involves the Jewish question. We cannot honestly discuss the subject without revealing—and commenting on—the fact that the founders of Russian Communism were Jewish. Neither can we ignore the fact that all but a few of the top leadership of the American Communism party—including the recently convicted spies— are of the same race. These are facts of history over which we have no control. But we are faced with the very serious problem of how to reveal these facts without being labeled—and treated—as "anti-Semites."
The main reason why so little is known concerning the true nature of Communism stems from this problem. Historical writers have been understandably reluctant to hold forth on the subject for fear of marking themselves as "race haters" and "bigots." For this reason the entire subject has been placed beyond the pale of discussion. One simply does not use the word "Jew" and "Communism" together.
The result is, of course, censorship. In this work we have decided to breach the wall of silence at whatever the cost, and to treat the subject as fairly and as honestly as we know how. No attempt is made to single out individuals because they happened to be born to a certain race: neither have we exempted anyone from criticism for that reason. It was decided that since Communism and Judaism are so irretrievably bound one to the other, a history of the Jewish people would contribute substantially to an understanding of the present communist menace.
NOTE [BY FRANK BRITTON]:
Encyclopedia Britannica is used as a reference source because of its ready availability to the average reader. It is not an "anti-Semitic" publication. In fact, the Encyclopedia Britannica Corporation was purchased by the (Jewish) Julius Rosenwald interests in 1920, and since then all material pertaining to the Jewish question his been re-written to conform to the Jewish outlook.
The Funk & Wagnall's Jewish Encyclopedia is uniformly referred to throughout this work as the "Jewish Encyclopedia." Consisting of 12 volumes, it is available in all major libraries. It should not be confused with the 10 volume "Universal Jewish Encyclopedia," published by Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Inc., New York, 1939. Both, however, are authoritative Jewish publications, compiled by and for Jews.
Valentine's Jewish Encyclopedia, Shapiro Valentine Co., London - 1938. England.
Outline of History, third edition, by H. G. Wells.
THE PERSECUTION MYTH
With Shrill Insistence
We cannot undertake even this brief history of the modern Jew without taking note of a phenomenon which has confounded gentile societies for twenty centuries. This is the ability of the Jewish people to collectively retain their identity despite centuries of exposure to Christian civilization. To any student of Judaism, or to the Jews themselves, this phenomenon is partly explained by the fact that Judaism is neither mainly a religion nor mainly a racial matter, nor yet is it simply a matter of nationality. Rather it is all three; it is a kind of trinity. Judaism is best described as a nationality built on the twin pillars of race and religion.
All this is closely related to another aspect of Judaism, namely, the persecution myth. Since first appearing in history we find the Jews propagating the idea that they are an abused and persecuted people, and this idea is, and has always been, central in Jewish thinking. The myth of persecution is the adhesive and cement of Judaism; without it Jews would have long since ceased to exist, their racial-religious nationality notwithstanding.
Jews do not always agree among themselves, and it is only in the presence of their enemies—real or imagined—that Jewish thinking crystallizes into unanimity. In this respect they differ not at all from other peoples: Adolph Hitler solidified German opinion around the idea that Germany was wronged at Versailles, that the German people were abused and victimized by the Allies, and that only by holding together could they prevail against the overwhelming might of their enemies ...
For twenty-five centuries the Jewish mind has been conditioned by the same appeal. Through all Jewish thinking and all Jewish history the refrain of persecution has sounded with shrill insistence. Thus we find every accident of fortune being chronicled, enhanced, and passed on to succeeding generations as another example of gentile cruelty to the chosen race. And almost inevitably we find opposition to Jewish aspirations and ambitions being translated into these same terms of persecution, and all Jewish shortcomings being excused on the same basis.
Now it is a fact that the Jewish people have suffered numerous hardships in the course of their history, but this is true of other peoples too. The chief difference is that the Jews have kept score—they have made a tradition of persecution. A casual slaughter of Christians is remembered by no one in 50 years, but a disability visited upon a few Jews is preserved forever in Jewish histories. And they tell their woes not only to themselves, but to a sympathetic world as well ...
THE JEW IN EUROPE
Even The Coins Were Jewish
We find the first Jews filtering into Europe some time before the Christian era, particularly in the region of Greece. The ancient Greeks spoke of these Asiatic invaders with considerable bitterness. Very quickly they spread throughout the Roman Empire and into Europe proper. The Jewish merchant, artisan, and slave trader appear on the Roman scene with increasing frequency after the second century A.D. and there can be no doubt that their position in the Roman world was one of growing importance even as the Empire drifted to destruction. Under Justinian, says the Jewish Encyclopedia,
"They enjoyed full religious liberty, in return for which they assumed all a citizen's duty toward the state; minor offices were also open to them. Only the synagogues were exempt from the duty of quartering soldiers. The trade in slaves constituted the main source of livelihood for the Roman Jews, and decrees against this traffic were issued in 335, 336, 339, 384, etc."
[Funk & Wagnall's Jewish Encyclopedia, page 460, vol. 10]
Seneca, in his writings, bitterly assailed the Romans of his day for aping the Jews, and some historians (notably Gibbon in his monumental Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) have ascribed the downfall of Rome to their corrupting influence. Nero's wife, Poppaea, was a converted Jewess. As Rome reeled into decline and final collapse, and as the Dark Ages descended over Western civilization, we find the Jew taking a strangle-hold over what remained of European commerce. Says Encyclopedia Britannica:
". . . there was an inevitable tendency for him to specialize in commerce, for which his acumen and ubiquity gave him special qualifications. In the dark ages the commerce of western Europe was largely in his hands, in particular the slave trade, and in Carolingian cartularies Jew and merchant are used as almost interchangeable terms."
[Encyclopedia Britannica, page 57, vol. 13—1947.]
This hold over European commerce finally became so utterly complete that few gentiles engaged in trade at all; it had become almost entirely a Jewish monopoly. In Poland and Hungary, the coins bore Jewish inscriptions ...
Throughout the Medieval period, ["Dark Ages," "Medieval Period," and "Middle Ages" are synonymous terms used to describe the period of decline which characterized western civilization between 500-1300 A.D.] which lasted from 500 A.D. to 1300 A.D., the Jew merchant was dominant all over Europe (except Scandinavia, where he was never permitted to enter) and this dominance included control over the eastern trade routes to the Levant. There was to be no relief from this situation until the Jews were evicted from Europe in the century directly preceding the Renaissance.
In 1215 the Catholic Church, at the Fourth Lateran Council, broke the back of European Jewry with a set of restrictions designed to curb their commercial monopoly. These decrees restricted Jews to residence in their own communities, prohibited absolutely their hiring of Christian employees and prohibited them from engaging in many types of commercial activity.
The Fourth Lateran Council restricted Jewish commercial advantage but it did not end the Jewish problem. Beginning in the latter part of the 13th century, one European country after another expelled its Jewish population as the only final solution to the problem. First to take the step was England which banned them in 1290. Fifteen years later in 1306 the French followed suit. In steady succession the various states of Europe emulated this example with Spain being one of the last to enforce the ban in 1492. The situation in Spain is worth noting. Says Encyclopedia Britannica: [page 57, vol. 13 - 1947]:
"... The 14th century was the golden age of their history in Spain. In 1391 the preaching of a priest of Seville, Fernando Martenez, led to the first general massacre of the Jews who were envied for their prosperity and hated because they were the king's tax collectors."
Ferdinand and Isabella, after uniting Spain and driving out the Moors turned their attention to the Jewish problem, with the result that they were evicted completely in 1492. In 1498 Portugal evicted its Jewish population also.
A great deal has been said about the "persecution" of the Jews in Europe and elsewhere, and they have pretty well convinced the world (or at least Americans) that these hardships were inflicted on an innocent people. But these rich Spanish Jews we see being evicted in 1492 were not down-trodden folk. They were the wealthy, the privileged, the exploiters: they were the well-fed merchants and the gouging tax collectors ...
So it was in Portugal; in that country we find that the deportation of the Jews ...
"deprived Portugal of its middle class and its most scientific traders and financiers."
[Encyclopedia Britannica, page 279, vol. 18 - 1947.]
Undeniably this class of traders and financiers was put to hardship by this banishment, but it does not follow that they were victims of discrimination in the accepted sense, nor were they underprivileged in any way. Rather we see a wealthy merchant group being ousted from its seat of vested privilege by a thoroughly outraged, and a thoroughly exploited Christian society ...
The situation in England was similar. The Jews had come to England in the wake of the Norman conquest and had quickly gained a position of wealth and prosperity. SaysValentine's Jewish Encyclopedia of this period:
"Their numbers and prosperity increased, Aaron of Lincoln being the wealthiest man in England in his time ... his financial transactions covering the whole country and concerning many of the leading nobles and churchmen ... On his death his property passed to the crown and a special branch of the exchequer had to be created to deal with it."
England, ironically enough, was the last country to be invaded by the Jews and the first to evict them. After the Fourth Lateran Council the Jews had become increasingly difficult to deal with and there were a number of anti-Jewish riots. Perplexed by the problem posed by this alien minority which seemed well on its way to corralling the kingdom's wealth, and failing in an attempt to force its assimilation. Edward I confiscated all Jewish wealth and evicted them permanently in 1290. Not until 1655 was a Jew legally permitted to re-enter England. Britain thus established the precedent for the later eviction which soon followed on the continent.
In France too the Jews were dominant in trade and finance and had been since before Charlemagne's time. Under Philip the Fair (1285-1314) one of the last, and certainly one of the greatest of the Capetian line, France had become the greatest power in Europe. It was Philip's need for money which led him to seize Jewish wealth and drive them from the country. He had already before 1306 taken desperate measures to raise money, which was in short supply, by forbidding the export of gold and silver from France. The same need for money brought him into conflict with the Templars, whose wealth he also seized. But it was the Jews who controlled the greatest supply of floating wealth. In 1306 Philip solved his financial problem—and France's Jewish problem—by expropriating their wealth and evicting them. Thus ended the centuries-long commercial dominance of the Jew in France. Later a few were permitted to return and these were in turn ejected in 1394.
RETURN TO THE EAST
Space does not permit a detailed discussion of the other evictions which followed and which resulted in the banishment of the Jews from virtually every country in Western Europe in the succeeding centuries but here in chronological order is a list of the evictions:
ENGLAND: Jews expelled in 1290 by Edward I. Not permitted to re-enter till 1655.
FRANCE: Expelled in 1306 by Philip the Fair. A few were permitted to return but were again evicted in 1394. Jewish settlements remained in Bordeaux, Avignon, Marseilles, (from where they were evicted in 1682) and in the northern province of Alsace.
SAXONY: Expelled in 1349.
HUNGARY: By 1092 the Jews were in control of Hungary's tax collections. In 1360 they were expelled but later returned. In 1582 they were again expelled from the Christian part of Hungary.
BELGIUM: Expelled in 1370. A few settled there again in 1450, but no large numbers came till 1700.
SLOVAKIA: Ousted from Prague in 1380. Many settled there again after 1562. In 1744 Marie Theresa expelled them again.
AUSTRIA: Expelled in 1420 by Albrecht V.
NETHERLANDS: Expelled from Utrecht in 1444.
SPAIN: Expelled in 1492.
LITHUANIA: Expelled in 1495 by Grand Duke Alexander. They later returned.
PORTUGAL: Expelled in 1498.
PRUSSIA: Expelled in 1510.
ITALY: Expelled from Kingdom of Naples and Sardinia in 1540.
BAVARIA: Banned permanently in 1551.
Jews were not permitted to enter Sweden until 1782. None were permitted to enter Denmark before the 17th century and they were not allowed in Norway after 1814. Today only a handful reside in all Scandinavia.
Back to Poland
By 1500 all of Western Europe except northern Italy, parts of Germany, and the Papal possessions around Avignon, had been rid of the Jewish invasion. For a while, at least, Europe was free of the Jews; not until 1650 did they return in any numbers. SaysEncyclopedia Britannica: [page 57-58, vol. 13 - 1947.]
"The great mass of the Jewish people were thus to be found once more in the East, in the Polish and Turkish empires . . The few communities suffered to remain in western Europe were meanwhile subjected at last to all the restrictions which earlier ages had usually allowed to remain as an ideal; so that in a sense, the Jewish dark ages may be said to begin with the Renaissance."
As the Jew Departed ...
The period marked by the evictions—1300 to 1650—also marks the period of the Renaissance which broke over Europe as the Jews departed. Starting at first in the trading cities of northern Italy in about 1300, there began a great rebirth of culture and learning which at first was based almost entirely on the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Very quickly this renascent culture spread over Europe and when the age had ended, in about 1650, Europe was by comparison with her former status, enlightened and civilized. Quite obviously all this could not have taken place had it not been for a great upsurge of commercial activity which occurred simultaneously with, and as an adjunct of, the Renaissance. Not until the nations of Europe had wrested commercial control from the ghetto did this rebirth of western civilization occur.
"Wherever Jews have settled, since the beginning of the Diaspora, they have proceeded to create their own communal organizations. Various factors of an internal character—religious, cultural, social, and economic—as well as external factors, have contributed to this factor"
(Page 201, The Jewish People, Past and Present, by the Central Yiddish Culture Organization (CYCO), New York).
It is virtually impossible to comprehend the character of Judaism without some knowledge of the nature of the Medieval Jewish community. (Kahal; Ghetto). Probably one of the commonest fallacies extant today concerns the true origin of the ghetto. Most history books defer to Jewish sensibilities by giving the Jewish version, namely that the Jewish people were for centuries forced to reside in a special quarter of the city as a result of the bigotry and intolerance of the Christian majority. This is not true, and no scholar of Judaism believes it to be.
Valentine's Jewish Encyclopedia describes the origin of the ghetto as follows:
"At any rate the word became general for a Jew's quarter. Already in antiquity the Jews voluntarily occupied special quarters; In the Middle Ages, Jew's streets or Jewries were to be found from the end of the 11th century, but the motive of their concentration was no longer religious or social: trade caused them to settle near the market, or danger made them seek the protection of the reigning prince, the protector also wishing to have them together for the easier collection of taxes. It was not until the 13th century that the Jew's quarter was turned into a compulsory Ghetto. ... The concentration of Jews in Ghettos, although unintended, had its good result. It preserved the communal feeling and the traditional Jewish culture."
As a point of fact these ghetto-communities existed only because the Jews wanted them to exist—they represented a desire on the part of Jewry to remain aloof and exclusive of Christian Society. Says Valentine's Jewish Encyclopedia [p 589]:
"There were as a rule officially recognized authorities in the Jewish communities in Europe during the Middle Ages to regulate their own affairs and to treat as a body with the civil government. Even with no other incentive but that of living up to the requirements of Judaism the Jews of a locality were compelled to organize themselves into a community (Kahal; Kehilla), in order to regulate ritual, educational and charitable institutions. Courts of law were also a necessity, since Jewish litigants were expected to obey the civil code of the Talmud."
The ghetto was not merely a place of residence; it was in the fullest sense a community within a community. Here the Jews maintained their culture, their religion, and their tradition of solidarity. Here they nursed their age-long hatred for Christian civilization. Says Encyclopedia Britannica [p 59, vol. 13 - 1947.]:
"All these activities necessitated a great deal of legislation and in this the autonomous Jewish community was granted the widest latitude. Ordinances were enacted by Jews governing every phase of life: business, synagogue attendance, social morals, policing, prescriptions for dress, and a detailed regimentation of amusements ... The characteristic common to the medieval Jewish community were: self imposed discipline, the considering of all religious, philanthropic, educational, and self defense problems as common concerns, and a strong sense of solidarity fortified by a uniform way of life."
For ten centuries preceding the great evictions, in virtually every Christian nation of Europe (and in Mohammedan Spain, Africa, and Asia Minor) these Jews settled into these parasitic ghetto-communities and here they nurtured and maintained a culture which was quite a thing apart from the culture of the European. When finally they were driven from Western Europe in the centuries preceding the Renaissance, we find them settling and establishing ghetto-communities in Poland and Russia which have lasted down to the present day. The Medieval ghetto did not disappear with the ending of the Dark Ages—it was transferred, unimpaired, to Eastern Europe, where the majority of the world's Jews settled.
The institution of the ghetto has enabled two basically different cultures and peoples to remain side by side—one Asiatic and Judaic, the other European and Christian—without becoming integrated. It is primarily for this reason that the Jew has remained an alien in spite of centuries of exposure to Christian civilization. And that is why the Spanish Jew remained a Jew first and a Spaniard second, and why the Polish Jew, the Russian Jew, and the German Jew, have given their first allegiance to Judah and rendered a sort of second-hand loyalty to the country of their abode.
The modern Jew is descended from a mixture of Asiatic peoples, largely Semitic in origin, but not Hebraic. This map is based on Britton's reproduction from Funk & Wagnall, itself based on Atlas de Géographie Historique by Schrader. Shading showed Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics, Mohammedans, Jews, and Pagans. I've indicated the boundaries, on the same map, of the Khazars, the Pale, and Russia; and emphasized where Ukraine is. The rectangle corresponds to the maps of Poland, below.
The modern Jew with his Yiddish culture and rapacious financial traditions should not be confused with the biblical Hebrews, who were mainly a pastoral people. The international Jew of modern times is indeed the bastardized product of a bastardized past. He does not truly worship the Bible, but the Talmud; he does not speak Hebrew, but Yiddish; he is not descended from Israel, but from the scum of the eastern Mediterranean. This is vividly illustrated by H. G. Wells in his great Outline of History:
"The Jewish idea was and is a curious combination of theological breadth and an intense racial patriotism. The Jews looked for a special saviour, a Messiah, who was to redeem mankind by the agreeable process of restoring the fabulous glories of David and Solomon, and bringing the whole world it last under the benevolent but firm Jewish heel. As the political power of the peoples declined as Carthage followed Tyre into the darkness and Spain became a Roman province, this dream grew and spread. There can be little doubt that the scattered Phoenicians in Spain and Africa and throughout the Mediterranean, speaking as they did a language closely akin to Hebrew and being deprived of their authentic political rights, became proselytes to Judaism. For phases of vigorous proselytism alternated with phases of exclusive jealousy in Jewish history. On one occasion the Idumeans, being conquered, were all forcibly made Jews. (Josephus). There were Arab tribes who were Jews in the time of Muhammad, and a Turkish people who were mainly Jews in South Russia in the ninth century. Judaism is indeed the reconstructed political ideal of many shattered peoples—mainly Semitic. It is to the Phoenician contingent and to Aramean accessions in Babylon that the financial and commercial tradition of the Jews is to be ascribed. But as a result of these coalescences and assimilations, almost everywhere in the towns throughout the Roman Empire, and far beyond it in the east, Jewish communities traded and flourished, and were kept in touch through the Bible, and through a religious and educational organization. The main part of Jewry never was in Judea and had never come out of Judea."
[Outline of History page 493-494, third edition, by H. G. Wells. Section 'Christianity and Islam', with a footnote recommending the Cambridge Medieval History.]
The "Turkish" people whom Wells mentions were the Chazars [Chazar=Khazar], who built an empire in south Russia in the 9th century A. D. This Chazar empire was infiltrated by large numbers of Byzantine Jews. By process of intermarriage and conversion these Chazars became identified as Jews and in all Jewish histories and encyclopedias the words "Chazar" and "Jew" are used interchangeably. In the tenth century a succession of invasions destroyed the Chazar empire and large numbers of these Chazar-Jews settled in the area of what is now Poland. Others found their way to western Europe and Spain, where they mingled with the already bastardized conglomeration of European Jewry.
These Jews we find settling in Poland in the early 14th century came there at the invitation of Casimir I, who seems to have been under strong Jewish influence. As early as the 10th century the Jews (chiefly of Khazar origin) were influential in Poland, and by the 12th century they were well enough entrenched to monopolize the coinage of Poland's money. Says the Jewish Encyclopedia: [Funk & Wagnall's Jewish Encyclopedia, page 56, vol. 10]
"Coins unearthed in 1812 in the Great Polish village of Glenbok show conclusively that in the reigns of Mieczyslauw III (1173-1209), Casimir, and Leshek (1194-1205), the Jews were, as stated above, in charge of the coinage of Great and Little Poland."
It is interesting to note that these coins bore Jewish as well as Polish inscriptions.
The history of Poland for the next 3 centuries revolves around the struggle for supremacy between the native Polish people and the Jews. During the greater part of that time Poland was more or less dominated by the Jews—a situation most beneficial to all, according to Jewish history books. But when, as occasionally happened, there was a lapse in Jewish fortunes, these same histories are replete with accounts of gentile cruelty and bestiality to the chosen race. And because these laments have been repeated often enough and loudly enough there is a widely held belief that Poland has been a land of oppression for Jewry ...
It has been the unhappy fate of Poland to be saddled for the greater part of its history with a large proportion of the world's Jewish population. This, more than anything else, accounts for the tragic disunity which has kept Poland from taking its place among the great nations of the earth.
In 1793 (third partition) Poland was divided between Prussia and Russia and thus ceased to exist as a nation. Russia thus fell heir to a full fledged Jewish problem.
The third partition of Poland was an event of paramount significance in Russian history because as a by-product of the partition she acquired the world's largest Jewish population. From this moment on Russia's history became hopelessly intertwined with the Jewish problem, and eventually, as we shall relate, the Jews brought about the downfall of Imperial Russia.
No one can possibly understand the nature of present day communism, nor of Zionism, without some knowledge of the situation existing in Russia in the century preceding the October revolution of 1917. We have already noted the presence of Khazar Jews in Poland in the 10th century, and these same Khazar Jews are to be found in Russia from that time on. But whereas Poland had invited the evicted Jews of western Europe to settle in vast numbers within its boundaries in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, the Imperial Russian government had permitted no such immigrations, and had in fact sealed its borders to them. As would be expected, therefore, the Imperial government was something less than enthusiastic over this sudden acquisition of Poland's teeming masses of Jews.
Pale of Settlement
The Pale of Settlement extended from the Crimea to the Baltic Sea, encompassing an area half as great as western Europe. By 1917, seven million Jews resided there, comprising perhaps half the world's total Jewish population. It was within the Pale of Settlement that the twin philosophies of Communism and Zionism flourished. Both movements grew out of Jewish hatred of Christian civilization (persecutor of the "chosen race"), and both movements have spread wherever Jews have emigrated. The Pale of Settlement has been the reservoir from which the world-wide forces of communism have flowed. It is worth noting that half of the world's Jewish population now resides in the U.S., and that all but a handful of these are from the Pale, or are descendants of emigrants from the Pale.
From the very beginning the Tsarist government imposed a set of restrictions designed to protect Russia's economy and culture from the inroads of the Jew. It was decreed (in 1772) that Jews could settle in Greater Russia, but only in certain areas. Within this "Pale of Settlement" Jews were more or less free to conduct their affairs as they pleased. But travel or residence beyond the Pale was rigidly restricted, so that in 1897 (date of Russia's 1st census) 93.9% of Russia's Jewish population lived within its boundaries, and only 6% of the total resided in other parts of the Empire. To prevent smuggling, no Jew was permitted to reside within 50 versts of the border.
From the standpoint of Jewish history, the Pale of Settlement ranks as one of the most significant factors of modern times. Here within. a single and contiguous area the greater part of Jewry had gathered, and was to remain, for something like 125 years. For the first time Jewry was subjected to a common environment and a common ground of experience. Out of this common experience and environment there evolved the Yiddish speaking Jew of the 20th century. Here too were born the great movements of Zionism and Communism.
We have already remarked upon the habit of Jewry from ancient times of establishing and maintaining their own tribal community (kahal) within the framework of Christian society. We have noted also that as the Jew was driven from Western Europe, he brought with him to Poland this ancient custom. The Kahal was an established institution in Poland, and as the Jews settled within the Pale they set up these autonomous communities here too.
At first the Imperial government recognized the autonomous Kahal organization permitting them to raise taxes and set up courts of law, where only Jewish litigants were concerned. In addition to the individual communities, there were district Kahal organizations which at first were permitted to assess local Jewish communities with taxes. In 1786 these privileges were drastically curtailed and Jews were there after obliged to appear before ordinary courts of law and the Kahal organization was restricted to matters of religious and social nature. Although Jewish propagandists have complained long and loudly of being oppressed by the Imperial government, it is a fact that up until 1881 they prospered beyond all expectation. Jewry settled in the Russian economy like a swarm of locusts in a field of new corn. Very quickly they achieved a monopoly over Russia's liquor, tobacco, and retail industries. Later they dominated the professions as well. Under the reign of Alexander I many of the restrictions against residence beyond the Pale of Settlement were relaxed, especially for the artisan and professional classes. A determined effort was made to establish Jews in agriculture and the government encouraged at every opportunity the assimilation of Jews into Russian national life.
Alexander's successor, Nicholas I, was less inclined to favor Jewry, and in fact viewed their inroads into the Russian economy with alarm. He was much hated by the Jews. Prior to his reign, Alexander I had allowed any male Jew the privilege of escaping compulsory military duty by paying a special draft-exemption tax. In 1827 Nicholas abolished the custom, with the result that Jews were for the first time taken into the Imperial armies ...
In 1844 Nicholas I further antagonized Jewry by abolishing the institution of the Kahal, and in that same year he prohibited by law the traditional Jewish garb, specifying that all Jews should, except on ceremonial occasions, dress in conformity with Russian standards. These measures, and many others like them, were aimed at facilitating the assimilation of Jewry into Russian life. The Tsarist government was much concerned by the Jew's failure to become Russianized, and viewed with extreme hostility the ancient Jewish custom of maintaining a separate culture, language, mode of dress, etc.—all of which contributed to keep the Jew an alien in the land of his residence. It is to this determination to "Russianize" and "civilize" the Jew that we can ascribe the unusual efforts made by the Imperial government to provide free education to its Jews. In 1804 all schools were thrown open to Jews and attendance for Jewish children was made compulsory. Compulsory education was not only a novelty in Russia, but in any country in the early 19th century. In Russia education was generally reserved for a privileged few, and even as late as 1914 only 55% of her gentile population had been inside a school. The net result of the Imperial government's assimilation program was that Russian Jewry became the best educated segment in Russia. This eventually worked to the destruction of the Tsarist government ...
The reign of Alexander II marked the apex of Jewish fortunes in Tsarist Russia. By 1880 they were becoming dominant in the professions, in many trades and industries, and were beginning to filter into government in increasing numbers. As early as 1861 Alexander II had permitted Jewish university graduates to settle and hold governmental positions in greater Russia, and by 1879 apothecaries, nurses, midwives dentists, distillers, and skilled craftsmen were permitted to work and reside throughout the empire.
Nevertheless Russia's Jews were increasingly rebellious over the remaining restraints which still bound the greater part of Russian Jewry to the Pale of Settlement, and which, to some extent at least, restricted their commercial activities. Herein lay the dilemma; the Imperial government could retain certain of the restrictions against the Jews, and by doing so incur their undying hostility, or it could remove all restraints and thus pave the way for Jewish domination over every phase of Russian life. Certainly Alexander viewed this problem with increasing concern as time went on. Actually it was a problem capable of being solved. [sic]
Alexander II lost a considerable amount of his enthusiasm for liberal causes after an attempt was made to assassinate him in 1866. He dismissed his "liberal" advisors and from that time on displayed an inclination toward conservatism. This is not to say he became anti-Jewish, but he did show more firmness in dealing with them. In 1879 there was another attempt on his life, and another in the following year when his winter palace was blown up. In 1881 a plot hatched in the home of the Jewess, Hesia Helfman, was successful. Alexander II was blown up and so ended an era.
The New Policy
The reaction to the assassination of Alexander II was instantaneous and far reaching. There was a widespread belief in and out of the government, that if the Jews were dissatisfied with the rule of Alexander II—whom the crypto-Jew, D'Israeli, had described as "the most benevolent prince that ever ruled Russia"—then they would be satisfied with nothing less than outright domination of Russia.
Up to 1881 Russian policy had consistently been directed in an attempt to "Russianize" the Jew, preparatory to accepting him into full citizenship. In line with this policy, free and compulsory education for Jews had been introduced, repeated attempts had been made to encourage them to settle on farms, and special efforts had been made to encourage them to engage in the crafts. Now Russian policy was reversed. Hereafter it became the policy of the Imperial government to prevent the further exploitation of the Russian people by the Jews. Thus began the death struggle between Tsar and Jew.
All through 1881 there was widespread anti-Jewish rioting all over the empire. Large numbers of Jews who had been permitted to settle beyond the Pale of Settlement were evicted. In May of 1882 the May Laws (Provisional Rules of May 3, 1882) were imposed, thus implementing the new governmental policy.
The May Laws shook the empire to its foundations. The following passage is taken fromEncyclopedia Britannica [page 76, volume 2, 1947]:
"The Russian May Laws were the most conspicuous legislative monument achieved by modern anti-Semitism ... Their immediate results was a ruinous commercial depression which was felt all over the empire and which profoundly affected the national credit. The Russian minister was at his wit's end for money. Negotiations for a large loan were entered upon with the house of Rothschild and a preliminary contract was signed, when ... the finance minister was informed that unless the persecutions of the Jews were stopped the great banking house would be compelled to withdraw from the operation ... In this way anti-Semitism, which had already so profoundly influenced the domestic policies of Europe, set its mark on the international relations of the powers, for it was the urgent need of the Russian treasury quite as much as the termination of Prince Bismarck's secret treaty of mutual neutrality which brought about the Franco-Russian alliance."
Thus, within a period of 92 years (from the 3rd partition to 1882) the Jews, although constituting only 4.2% of the population, had been able to entrench themselves so well in the Russian economy that the nation was almost bankrupted in the attempt to dislodge them. And, as we have seen, the nation's international credit was also affected.
After 1881 events served increasingly to sharpen the enmity of Jewry toward Tsarism. The May Laws had not only restricted Jewish economic activity, but had attempted—unsuccessfully, as we shall see—to preserve Russia's cultural integrity. Hereafter Jews were permitted to attend state-supported schools and universities, but only in ratio to their population. This was not unreasonable since Russia's schools were flooded with Jewish students while large numbers of her gentile population were illiterate, but to the Jews this represented another bitter "persecution," and all the world was acquainted with the enormity of this new crime against Jewry ...
On May 23rd a delegation of Jews headed by Baron Gunzberg called on the new Tsar (Alexander III) to protest the May Laws and the alleged discrimination against Jewry. As a result of the investigation which followed, Tsar Alexander issued an edict the following Sept. 3rd, a part of which is given here:
"For some time the government has given its attention to the Jews and to their relations to the rest of the inhabitants of the empire, with a view of ascertaining the sad condition of the Christian inhabitants brought about by the conduct of the Jews in business matters ...
During the last twenty years the Jews have gradually possessed themselves of not only every trade and business in all its branches, but also of a great part of the land by buying or farming it. With few exceptions, they have as a body devoted their attention, not to enriching or benefiting the country, but to defrauding by their wiles its inhabitants, and particularly its poor inhabitants. This conduct of theirs has called forth protests on the part of the people, as manifested in acts of violence and robbery. The government, while on the one hand doing its best to put down the disturbances, and to deliver the Jews from oppression and slaughter, have also, on the other hand, thought it a matter of urgency and justice to adopt stringent measures in order to put an end to the oppression practised by the Jews on the inhabitants, and to free the country from their malpractices, which were, as is known, the cause of the agitations."
[Russia and Turkey in the 19th Century by E. W. Latimer, page 332. A. C. McClury & Co., 1895.]
It was in this atmosphere that the twin movements of Marxism and Zionism began to take hold and dominate the mass of Russian Jewry. Ironically, both Zionism and Marxism were first promulgated by westernized German Jews. Zionism, whose chief advocate was Theodore Herzl, took root in Russia in the 1880s in competition with Marxism, whose high priest was Karl Marx, grandson of a rabbi ... Eventually every Russian Jew came to identify himself with either one or the other of these movements.
THE TERROR SECTION
As an outgrowth of this political fermentation, there appeared at the beginning of the century one of the most remarkable terroristic organizations ever recorded in the annals of history. This was the Jewish dominated Social Revolutionary Party, which between 1901 and 1906 was responsible for the assassination of no less than six first ranking leaders of the Imperial government, including Minister of Education Bogolepov (1901); Minister of Interior Sipyagin (1902); Governor of Ufa, Bogdanovich (1903); Premier Viachelav von Plehve (1904); Grand Duke Sergei, uncle of the Tsar (1905); and General Dubrassov, who had suppressed the Moscow insurrection (1906).
Chief architect of these terroristic activities was the Jew, Gershuni, who headed the "terror section" of the Social Revolutionary Party. In charge of the "fighting section" was Yevno Azev, son of a Jewish tailor, and one of the principal founders of the party.
Azev later plotted, but was unable to carry out, the assassination of Tsar Nicholas II. He was executed in 1909 and Gershuni was sentenced to life imprisonment. This marked the end of the terroristic activities of the party, but the effect of these political murders was far reaching. Never again was the royal family, or its ministers free from the fear of assassination. Soon another prime minister would be shot down—this time in the very presence of the Tsar. This was the backdrop for the revolution of 1905.
Wikipedia Semitic ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical "Shem", Hebrew: שם, translated as "name", Arabic: ساميّ) was first used to refer to a language family of West Asian origin, now called the Semitic languages. This family includes the ancient and modern forms ofAhlamu, Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian), Amharic, Ammonite, Amorite, Arabic, Aramaic/Syriac, Canaanite/Phoenician/Carthaginian,Chaldean, Eblaite, Edomite Ge'ez, Hebrew, Maltese, Mandaic, Moabite, Sutean, Tigre and Tigrinya, and Ugaritic, among others. As language studies are interwoven with cultural studies, the term also came to describe the extended cultures and ethnicities, as well as the history of these varied peoples as associated by close geographic and linguistic distribution ... The word "Semite" and most uses of the word "Semitic" relate to any people whose native tongue is, or was historically, a member of the associated language family. The term "anti-Semite", however, came by a circuitous route to refer most commonly to one hostile or discriminatory towards Jews in particular. Anthropologists of the 19th century such as Ernst Renan readily aligned linguistic groupings with ethnicity and culture, appealing to anecdote, science and folklore in their efforts to define racial character. Moritz Steinschneider, in his periodical of Jewish letters Hamaskir (3 (Berlin 1860), 16), discusses an article by Heymann Steinthal criticising Renan's article "New Considerations on the General Character of the Semitic Peoples, In Particular Their Tendency to Monotheism". Renan had acknowledged the importance of the ancient civilisations of Mesopotamia, Israel etc. but called the Semitic races inferior to the Aryan for their monotheism, which he held to arise from their supposed lustful, violent, unscrupulous and selfish racial instincts. Steinthal summed up these predispositions as "Semitism", and so Steinschneider characterised Renan's ideas as "anti-Semitic prejudice". In 1879 the German journalist Wilhelm Marr, in a pamphlet called Der Weg zum Siege des Germanenthums über das Judenthum ("The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism") began the politicisation of the term by speaking of a struggle between Jews and Germans. He accused them of being liberals, a people without roots who had Judaized Germans beyond salvation. In 1879 Marr's adherents founded the "League for Anti-Semitism" which concerned itself entirely with anti-Jewish political action. However, Antisemitism can also apply to other Semitic peoples also. In Iran, the minorities of Assyrians and Arabs in the country, as well as Jews, have suffered varying degrees of Antisemitism. It is not just the bearded extremists of Chabad that have such supremacist sentiments, many of the publicly acknowledged, most influential Jews of the United States. A perfect example is Stephen Steinlight. He served for five years as the Director of National Affairs for the largest and most powerful Jewish organization in the United States, the American Jewish Committee. He made the following remarks in an article on immigration in a national Jewish magazine in October of 2001: I’ll confess it, at least, like thousands of other typical Jewish kids of my generation, I was reared as a Jewish nationalist, even a quasi-separatist. Every summer for two months for 10 formative years during my childhood and adolescence I attended Jewish summer camp. There, each morning, I saluted a foreign flag, dressed in a uniform reflecting its colors, sang a foreign national anthem, learned a foreign language, learned foreign folk songs and dances, and was taught that Israel was the true homeland. Emigration to Israel was considered the highest virtue, and, like many other Jewish teens of my generation, I spent two summers working in Israel on a collective farm while I contemplated that possibility. More tacitly and subconsciously, I was taught the superiority of my people to the gentiles who had oppressed us. We were taught to view non-Jews as untrustworthy outsiders, people from whom sudden gusts of hatred might be anticipated, people less sensitive, intelligent, and moral than ourselves. We were also taught that the lesson of our dark history is that we could rely on no one. …
Islamic Awakening on on Chabad Lubavitch ... Steven Steinlight, If any Gentile politician dared to say that “typical Jewish kids” are deliberately taught that their real loyalty is not to America but to Israel; and that Jews say they are superior to Gentiles in intelligence and morals, he would be mercilessly condemned by the media and hounded out of politics as an anti-Semite. Yet, this stark admission is by the former head of National Affairs for the American Jewish Committee. It should be emphasized that Steinlight’s words are not from an off-handed or careless conversation, but are his carefully chosen words from a major article he wrote for Jewish consumption, called “The Jewish Stake in America’s Changing Demographics.” I’ll confess it, at least, like thousands of other typical Jewish kids of my generation, I was reared as a Jewish nationalist, even a quasi-separatist. Every summer for two months for 10 formative years during my childhood and adolescence I attended Jewish summer camp. There, each morning, I saluted a foreign flag, dressed in a uniform reflecting its colors, sang a foreign national anthem, learned a foreign language, learned foreign folk songs and dances, and was taught that Israel was the true homeland. Emigration to Israel was considered the highest virtue, and, like many other Jewish teens of my generation, I spent two summers working in Israel on a collective farm while I contemplated that possibility. More tacitly and subconsciously, I was taught the superiority of my people to the gentiles who had oppressed us. We were taught to view non-Jews as untrustworthy outsiders, people from whom sudden gusts of hatred might be anticipated, people less sensitive, intelligent, and moral than ourselves. We were also taught that the lesson of our dark history is that we could rely on no one. …
fusion table page
The same power structure
that brought us "Operation Paperclip
brought us 9/11, JFK assassination
and the Holocaust Hoax
The same power structure that brought us "Operation Paperclip" brought us 9/11, JFK assassination and the Holocaust Hoax.