Saturday, 16 August 2014



Now you will understand why the western warmongers and destroyers of past and present civilisations systematically invade, bomb and destroy all lands that can and will prove their "history" wrong!  One example: Iraq

Neda' Al Surat- Kidnap of the Prophets Geography
Al- Hijaz, Homeland of Abraham and the Israeli prophets
An Arab’s geographical map for Abraham's journey based on Arabia historical accounts

T. Ahmed, Ammar Rajab

Al-Tajdeed Cultural and Social Society
Kingdom of Bahrain

June 2006
Second edition- July 2006

Al- Hijaz, Homeland of Abraham and the Israeli prophets

An Arab’s geographical map for Abraham's journey

based on Arabia historical accounts

T. Ahmed, Ammar Rajab
Al-Tajdeed Cultural and Social Society
Kingdom of Bahrain

Second edition- July 2006

To download the PDF file click on the icon

Note: This paper has been presented at the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies held at Amman- Jordon. It represents an abstract of a comprehensive research work published by Al-Tajdeed Society in an Arabic book of 550 pages, entitled "Neda' Al Surat- Kidnap of the Prophets Geography". The book is readily available for downloading from the society's website. Most of the Arabic originating references quoted in this paper are currently unavailable in English; hence the relevant references are cited in the original language only.


By the end of the last century, new stunning hypothesis emerged amongst theologians and historians advocating that the prevailing common understanding of the Israeli prophets' geographical homelands and journey routes were radically erroneous. The new hypothesis suggests that Asir province (situated in the southern part of Al-Surat Mountains, stretching alongside the western coastal border of Arabia, bounded between Yemen’s northern borders and the holy city of Makkah) was indeed the actual geographical theater which accommodated most of the Israeli prophets’ birthplaces, revelations, preaching, and burials. Subsequent research work narrowed down the prophets lands to Makkah county situated within the Hijaz and Asir Surat Mountains. This holy city emerged as the real and the only homeland of Abraham, Lot, Sara, Hagar and Ishmael as revealed in this paper. This whole hypothesis stemmed from the inconceivable inconsistencies in the biblical accounts of geographical landscapes traversed by the prophets, besides the lack of any supporting archeological evidences to date either in Palestine, Syria, Iraq or Egypt. Interestingly enough, all the researchers who have concluded that south west Arabia was the actual homeland of the Israeli prophets have reached their findings through different research and analysis methodologies. This paper, however, seeks to address missing elements that are needed to complement the ongoing research work in this field, namely:

  1. None of the present research work conducted an in-depth analytical study in the ancient Arabic historical literatures to provide Arabic historical evidences confirming that the Israeli prophets were actually Arabic people who reside in Arabia.
  2. None of the researchers has explained when and how the prophets' real whereabouts had been shifted from their real geographical positions in Arabia towards the north and systematically projected over another vast Arabian land stretching from the River Euphrates in Iraq all the way to the River Nile in Egypt.
  3. None of the researches so far has identified the entity that created the prevailing illusions masking the real whereabouts of the Arabic Israeli prophets, nor clarified what their motives were.

In addition to addressing the above issues, this paper concludes that Arabic historical literature do contains substantial evidences indeed supporting the hypothesis in question. Moreover, it presents a draft of a new geographical map illustrating Abraham’s journey based on ancient Arabic accounts on these events, as an alternative to the controversial widespread biblical geographical map printed on the back cover of contemporary published bibles.


In his book entitled "The Bible Came from Arabia" published in 1984, Kamal Al Salibi caused a stir. He concluded that the events and narratives of the Old Testament did not originate in Palestine as internationally accepted but rather in the province of Asir, in the south-west of Arabia, precisely between Makkah and Yemen. Al-Salibi was astonished at the number of biblical places' names found in the Asir province. Unlike the blatant inconsistencies between the biblical narratives and the supposedly corresponding places in Palestine, he found a more coherent geographical correlation between the regions holding the same biblical names in Asir and the distances traveled by the prophets, as narrated in the old testaments tales. Despite adopting different research methodologies, the same conclusion was reached by Dr. Ahmed Dawood who published his findings in 1991 in a book entitled "The Arabs, the Samies, the Hebrews, the Israelis and the Jews". Alongside many stunning revelations published in his book, Dr. Dawood presented a blueprint of a tiny landscape in Asir south of Makkah, where he pinpointed the actual whereabouts of the biblical Misr (referred to afterwards as Egypt) the homeland of Moses and the Israeli tribe, and the nearby Yerushalayim - the legendary Dawood temple. Furthermore, during 1994, Dr. Ziad Mouna also published a book illustrating his findings as denoted in the title of his book “The Torah Geography- Misr and the Israelis in Asir”. Overlooking fine details, these eastern scholars along with many other contemporary western historians and researchers have all came to agree on the conclusion that the Torah's geographical emplacement is not south Syria, as commonly understood, but further deep to the south in the Arabian Asiri mountains. However, this concurring conclusion has left behind a trail of unresolved questions and consequential discrepancies, such as why the written Islamic history is not only contradicts this conclusion but also stresses its synergy with the common geographical knowledge preached by the bible? What is the extent of political and religious impact on the region if this theory ultimately gets substantiated and internationally recognized? When and who shifted the biblical geographical emplacement to the wrong location? What are the motives behind such an international falsification? How did the perpetrators succeed in convincing multinational generations to accept this false biblical geography? On the other hand, this new paradigm shift helps in resolving many old and new mysteries, such as why all archeological attempts to-date have failed to decisively identify Moses’ Pharaoh from amongst the unearthed Egyptian kings? Why the western nations, unlike Easterners, are still unaware of the simple fact that Abraham had lived and resided most of his lifetime in Makkah and its nearby surroundings? And why, for that matter, doesn't Abraham's journey exhibited in western maps show any reference to Makkah? And how does all this relate to the evolution of the prevailing Arab Israeli political and military conflict over the same land?

This paper aims to focus on two prime questions with the sole objective of qualifying or otherwise disqualifying the recent theories shifting the biblical geography. The other questions listed above, as well as many other related issues, have been thoroughly addressed in a book written in Arabic, published and distributed by Al-Tajdeed Cultural and Social Society situated at the Kingdom of Bahrain. The two main arguments of concern in this paper are:

  1. Assuming that the biblical geographical setting has been shifted at some stage in history from it's original homeland in Asir mountains to Palestine; an assumption contemplated recently by many eastern and western theologians and historians, then the question arises as to why doesn't the written Arab history reflect this presumed transgression of their heritage? Or does it? Why have the Arabs remained silent before such a historical sabotage since they were and still are the natives and inhabitants of Arabia where Asir is situated?
  2. The proposed shifting theory cannot be substantiated unless the perpetrators are identified and their motives are determined. So who are those who embarked in what looked more like a "mission impossible" and worked hard on re-documenting significant historical events to make them sound and appear as if they had occurred in different places? And what were their motives?

Overview of the Actual Journey of the Patriarch Abraham:

Following a comprehensive research in the Arabic pre-Islamic historical narrations, and through a bold critical analysis of many contradicting and incoherent narratives, a new map showing the most likely route of Abraham’s journey is emerging slowly. Unlike the popular vividly detailed map exhibited at the back cover of the holy bible, the proposed map in this paper ismostly bound between the start and end points of this journey, and requires more fill-in the gaps and fine-tuning details which necessitate further research, field inspection and possibly archeological exploration. What makes the proposed map credible, unique and of value for future study and research is that it is built from many fragmented narratives of the Arabic pre-Islamic documented history as narrated by ancient Arabic historians. It resolves inherent inconsistencies between the followers of the three most recent religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) and relieves them from the persisting dilemma of "sacred" narratives that contradict reality in terms of time and place. Most importantly, the new map is entirely consistent with the teachings of the Holy Quran and the core of the Syriac Torah.

Photo 1: Aerial picture of the Red sea and the Hijaz region at the west border of Saudi Arabia, illustrating Abraham’s Journey route between Horan and Makkah.

As illustrated in the satellite photo 1, the proposed map for Abraham's journey suggests that his trajectory commenced at Horan valley, which is located at about 300 km south of the holy city of Makkah. Horan was the place, which sheltered Abraham during his infancy through adolescence age. He was taken there most likely on foot by his mother seeking protection from their near by village – Ur- where he was born. Horan's physical location still appears on Saudi Arabia's modern maps under the name of “Horan Valley” وادي حوران ( Approx. 19o 46’ 01” N - 42o 22‘ 04” E ), see figure 1. 

Figure 1: Horan in the modern Saudi Arabia maps.

He grew up as a shepherd in the neighborhood of this Hijazi Mountain until he came to confront his ancestor's beliefs, which led to the death sentence pronounced against him; however he miraculously escaped this death and left that area accompanied by his young wife Sarah and his nephew Lot. They headed north following the traders' route and sought shelter at Arapha city (عرفة) (Ar-bah' or Arba as inscribed in the Greek Torah). Arapha valley is now a well-known location for it is one of the main holy places that Muslim pilgrims have to visit as part of their annual pilgrimage rituals. In this area, Abraham and his companionship settled down in a tiny terrain that belonged then to a tribal sheikh named Abu Mallek (أبو مالك), precisely near a cluster of trees under the care of a Hijazi Arab by the name of Namera (نمرة) or (Mamre as inscribed in the Greek Torah), see photo 2. 

Photo 2: Aerial view of Makkah area showing Mamre (Namera) location 17km east of Beit Allah (Bethel) at Beer Sheba wilderness known today as Makkah (Mecca).

The spot of land (Approx 21o 21’ 08” N – 39o 58’ 04” E) where Abraham installed his tents next to Namera's trees was since then named after the owner of the trees, i.e. "Namera نمرة". This name remained adjacent to this land until this very moment, and has been historically marked with stone landmarks and humble structures generation after generation until a huge mosque was recently built in the place and named "Namera" mosque (see photo 3). Millions of pilgrims gather around this mosque every year during the annual Hajj in memory of the place where Abraham and Sarah spent most of their lifetime. At his old age Abraham housed his second wife Hagar and his infant son Ishmael in a barren waterless valley located at about 17 Km to the west of his tents at Namera, thus paving the way to the revitalization of a long forgotten holy site initially established by the nucleus of the first human race - Adam and Eve.

The first spot of land that witnessed the first man’s repentance, and housed the first worship ceremony ever experienced by mankind, is geographically still preserved and is known until today as Beit Allah بيت الله (or Bethel as inscribed in the Greek Torah) which literally means in both Syriac and Arabic - the Mighty Lord's House. Beit Allah is now situated at the heart of the city of Makkah where Islam evolved and spread. Beit Allah is approximately located at coordinates 21o 25’ 19 N – 39o 49’ 34” E. see image 1.

Image 1: At Makkah precisely at Beit Allah (Bethel) Millions of pilgrims, roam around Al Kaba (Kadish) since Abraham time.

On their way to Arapha from Horan, Young Abraham and his small company had to cross many flowing rivers as well as dry riverbeds. The most famous of which was the Phorat· river فرات)) (or Euphrates river as inscribed in the Greek Torah) which runs from the Garden of Eden, downhill on the eastern cliffs of the Hijaizi Surat mountains. The famous Phorat River is dry today, however the great riverbed or valley it carved behind is clearly discernible as shown in photo 4. The commonly known river, pronounced “Phorat“ by easterners and “Euphrates” by westerners, which runs along the west half of Iraq is not the original river nor is its twin river bearing the name Dijlah (دجلة) (or Tigris· as inscribed in the Greek Torah) in fact both their names belong to the original rivers springing specifically from the Garden of Eden. This legendary lost garden is located somewhere on the top of Surat Mountains or inside them closer to Makkah where Adam and Eve resided as narrated in the Ancient Arabic History.

Photo 3: Namera Mosque at Arapha valley erected in memorial of Abraham’s’ first house where he lived with Sarah. Millions of pilgrims in white clothing still visit the site during the annual Hajj.

The above is a quick and brief overview of Abraham's journey as emerged from Al Tajdeed Society's extensive research on the pre-Islamic Arabic history. Contrary to the common belief, this map does not contain any reference to Egypt, Iraq or Syria as no credible evidences were found to support this claim apart from conflicting and contradictory narratives, all of them traced back to one single source - the Geek Torah.

Photo 4: Satellite image showing the riverbed left behind the Al Phorat (Euphrates) river in Saudi Arabia.

To understand how this map emerged, one needs first to examine the authenticity and credibility of the current map internationally distributed on some bible’s back covers. Once it is demonstrated that the map in question is inconsistent and unauthentic only then the right questions should be asked in quest for the right answers. A good starting point is to examine the claim that Abraham and his Patriarch sons visited or dwelt in Egypt.

Egyptology – The Deactivated History:

While viewing the pyramids during his visit to Egypt, the Israeli Prime minister Mr. Menachem Begin was reported to have said that his ancestors participated in the building of the Pyramids ’. These comments disturbed many Egyptian officials as reflected in the following news agency report, "The Egyptian minister of Culture Farouk Hosni is reported to have refuted once again Israel's claims on the role played by Jews in building al-Jiza pyramids and their contribution to building certain archaeological areas in al-Fantin island (Jazirat al_fantin) in Aswan. Hosni told journalists " The Jews did not take part in building the pyramids which are considered royal tombs, and it was not permitted to those who follow a religion other than that of the Pharaoh, the King, to take part in building these holy tombs and temples. Hosni added, "The Jews entered Egypt with our Master Abraham (Ibrahim) and some of them left after the defeat of the Hexos and they had no mentionable role in building the Pharos civilization." Mr. Hosni’s statement is a representative sample of the dilemma that Egyptian officials and scholars have to endure when confronted with allegations alienating them from the best of their legacy and heritage. At one end the Egyptian officials confirm that Jews had indeed entered and settled in Egypt during Abraham or Yusuf times; basing this confirmation on few Islamic historical references. The Egyptians also label their ancient sociopolitical system using the Torah term "Pharaoh's” civilization. In addition, they identify their own ancient kings by the title "Pharaohs" which is an Old Testament trademark. On the other hand, the Egyptian scholars deny the Jewish claimed role in building the pyramids or any other significant landmark while they were enslaved by the Egyptian dignitaries!

It is safe to say that the Egyptian public at large, and scholars in particular, have not yet actively considered their own advanced and well documented national history but relied instead on a a highly controversial foreign historical source – the Torah - in order to track down the sequence of events that took place in their own land during the times of the Patriarchs* (1700-1300 B.C). This conclusion can be easily asserted by asking the Egyptian archeologists, historians and scholars few fundamental decisive questions. These questions relate to the core of the major biblical events claimed to have occurred in Egypt, namely:

  1. Do the countless Egyptian excavations, archeological sites and unearthed heritage show any evidence or reference to a non-Egyptian figure named "Abraham" who alleged to have resided in Egypt anytime between the years 1800 and 1700 B.C?
  2. Is there any evidence suggesting that a non-Egyptian figure named Yusuf assumed a treasurer position around1600 B.C.?
  3. Does any ancient Egyptian papyrus or manuscript mention anything about an Israeli leader named Moses who confronted one of the prominent Egyptian kings around 1300 B.C?
  4. Do the Egyptian ancient documents mention that the king who confronted Moses drowned in the red sea 400 km from his capital or even the Nile River or any other watercourse?
  5. Are there any traces of references found in the thousands of ancient Egyptian scripts mentioning the detailed biblical exodus of more than half a million people around the year 1300 B.C?
  6. Does any papyrus refer to the famous miraculous sea-crossing of more than half a million fleeing people?
  7. Have any reference been found between the years 5000 and 32 B.C. indicating that the kings of Egypt were called or referred to as "Pharos" other than the dubious "big house" notion?

The answers to all questions above have been negative to date. Dr Firas Sawah, a prominent Syrian scholar, summed it all up in one of his books when he wrote As regards the exodus time, the consensus is that it occurred around 1260 B.C during Ramses II time... however and despite all scholars dedicated efforts, no credible Egyptian historical proof has thus far been secured to support the exodus tale from Egypt … and the Egyptian ancient manuscripts remain absolutely silent with regards to this eminent Torah originated simply can’t believe that six hundred thousands enslaved Jewish families suddenly evacuate from the Egyptian delta heading towards the Suez border where they confronted the Egyptian King and Army in a retreat skirmish contact, and eventually caused his death and his army's defeat in a miraculous manner without the slightest reference to such a drastic sequence of events in the well documented and preserved Egyptian historical records?! Furthermore, one would expect that identifying the famous “Pharaoh” mummy in view of the specified chronological order which associates him with Ramses II or to his immediate son Merenptah should be an easy task. This is because the tombs and the historical records of those two particular kings have been found, red and translated longtime ago. Despite these archeological findings, there is yet no evidence or any shred of reference correlating any of these kings to Moses and the Israelis as narrated in the Greek Torah. Dr. Zahi Hawas - Secretary General of the Supreme Council for Antiquities - sums up this arguments in a press interview saying …the examination of all relevant royal mummies proved that none of them fits Moses Pharaoh. No conclusive evidence is yet at hand to identify the pharaoh … In its simplest form and under normal academic circumstances, these mere facts would be more than sufficient to immediately alienate the possibility of the biblical exodus taking place in Egypt. Consequently, whoever emphasized that the major biblical events had indeed taken place in Egypt should have submitted their tangible proof, otherwise all such claims, based on Egyptology, are to be dismissed and with all objectivity and common sense considered unfounded until credible evidences are made available. For the independent and free mind observers, the current situation is clearly running the other way around. The accurate and credible history of a highly civilized nation has been positioned at the passenger seat and restricted to attract tourists, while a literally stranger historical source – the Old Testament that originated outside Egypt - is placed at the driving seat to steer the country towards its predetermined fate. This obscure and difficult to comprehend status quo managed so far to prevail due to several factors; namely:

  • Those who are supposed to defend their national history are not doing so! The Egyptians themselves, being a historically religious nation, would naturally hold on to the privilege and honor of hosting the Patriarchs. Therefore, they would mentally and emotionally favor waiting as long as it takes to extract from their own national history evidences to support foreign historical claims suggesting that the Patriarchs had dwelt in their lands. Thus, they waited for more than 2300 years in vain and no one is prepared to draw a conclusion and close this file.
  • The Patriarchs and the land of their eventful life are mentioned in the holy Quran. Having Egypt associated with the Patriarchs meant that their homeland gained another blessing by having it referred to in the Islamic holy book. This is clearly noticed from the banner posted at the Cairo airport which holds a welcome statement extracted from the holy Quran.
  • The post Islamic historians to date have kept on stressing that the Israeli Patriarchs and the Israeli people entered and resided in Egypt, which has added more weight in favor of the biblical claims.
The predicament experienced by the scientific community is that, on one hand, millions of Jewish, Christian and Moslem masses are persistently insisting that Egypt was indeed a geographical central point in the Patriarchs' lives especially for Moses; while on the other hand, the Egyptian history does not offer the slightest tangible evidence of any of these major claimed events! The believers resolved this contradiction by mentally marginalizing the genuine and authentic land history with idolatry or paganism terms as biblically preached, in the hope that the holy biblical claims will ultimately get substantiated. Equally, the researchers and archeologists are increasingly perplexed while observing the widening divide between what they actually discover and what they ought to discover under the believers pressure. As it stands, and due to the holy nature of their references, it hardly occurred to the believing masses that the Egyptian history is the credible genuine source of information that needs to be seriously considered, and since this history has remained obstinately silent about the biblically claimed events, then it is obvious that such events may had occurred but certainly not in Egypt. It hardly occurred to the scholars of the three religions that it is about time they embarked on a major paradigm shift by returning back to their own source of information, be it holy revelations or historical quotations, to review their understanding of how for example have they concluded that the exodus had occurred in Egypt geographically. The researchers at Al-Tajdeed Society embarked on this paradigm shift and consequently re-examined the Arabic and Islamic history books and references and critically analyzed tens of contradictory quotes and texts. The outcome was stunning; for it was found that unlike what is being preached by many Islamic religious scholars, the holy Quran not only didn't vindicate that the Patriarchs were in Egypt, but also sought to correct this erroneous widespread understanding by refuting this claim all together. Furthermore, it was found that Islamic historians did not corroborate these claims but were simply reiterating the mistaken misunderstanding traced back to the biblical tales which shaped the public awareness and knowledge in Arabia more than 800 years before the Quran was revealed. It also turned out that the pre-Islamic history contains a variety of information indicating that the biblical geographical scenes were in fact in Arabia itself. To unfold our "Da Vinci code" version in this paper, let us start by reviewing the Holy Quran verses that are considered by the Moslem scholars as the unequivocal proof that the Israeli exodus headed by Moses had indeed occurred in Egypt.
Misr vs. Egypt - The overlooked key fact:
As narrated in both the Quran and the Old Testament, Musa [Moses] confronted a person named Fir'awn [Pharaoh]. One verse in the Quran cites a statement made by Fir'awn to his people mentioning a key geographical location. The official translation of the verse in question is: "[51] And (Fir'awn) proclaimed among his people, saying: "O my people! does not the dominion of Egypt belong to me, (witness) these streams flowing underneath my (palace)? what! see ye not then?" [52] "Am I not better than this (Musa), who is a contemptible wretch and can scarcely express himself clearly?" (Az-Zukruf, Ch 43 verse 51-52) In this given context, western English readers could reasonably conclude that Muslims are in accord with the biblical account on Mose’s geographical emplacement, i.e. Egypt. What most western readers won't realize however is that they are reading a mistranslation of the holy verse, one which doesn't echo what the verse actually says in Arabic! The Arabic version of the same verse doesn't mention the name Egypt at all. What it mentions all over is the name "Misr". The correct translation ought to read "… "O my people! Does not the dominion of Misr belong to me? …". In fact, it is not adequate to translate proper names since they are an expression of a distinctive identity of a person or a place, and therefore should solely be vocally transliterated in translations; just like the names of Musa and Fir'awn as indicated in the above verses. Why was the name "Misr" transformed into "Egypt" during the translation process? The answer to this particular question will be revealed later, but first let us consider the following scenario: Had the translation mentioned the real name i.e. Misr as the homeland of both Fir'awn and Musa, then the western readers would naturally inquire about where this place "Misr" was? If the answer was: it is the country known by the name Egypt, then another questions will raise, which is why are Muslims calling an ancient worldwide known country by the name "Misr" while the rest of the world identifies it by the name "Egypt"? If someone said that probably this country was called Misr during Musa time around 1300 B.C, then this will raise another series of questions such as called Misr by whom? And why? Why is there no reference in the Egyptian records during that era, i.e. under Ramses II, that Egyptian kingdom was named “Misr” nor in era before or after the 19th dynasty to which Ramses II is assigned? Why are there no such references in the historical records of all ancient Egypt's contemporary neighboring civilizations to support the claim that their ancient neighbor was named "Misr", despite the active political and economical relationships between them? If the answer is that it was called Misr after Islam by the Muslim nations, then another set of questions will surface, such as since when has this name been projected on Egypt? What does this name "Misr" mean? And why have the Muslim nations in particular, named this ancient valley by the name “Misr”? Why has the rest of the world retained the old name and not changed it to "Misr” in turn? These questions and many others have not been raised by western ancient as well as contemporary scholars and theologians simply because they were all under the impression that Muslim nations are in agreement with the biblical geography as transpires from the readily available translations of he holy Quran. This inadvertent oversight from the translators of the Quran had deprived western scholars from raising authentic arguments to the conflicting information they inherited from the Greek Torah via the Christian church. Equally, Muslim nations views and beliefs remained for centauries unquestioned and unchallenged by any other nation, which eventually hardened their inherited inaccurate understanding of the Patriarchs geographical locations mentioned in the holy Quran. This cycle contributed in shadowing the Christian and the Muslim worlds, as well as many Jewish communities, in a long term illusion which has been challenged to date only by the holy Quran and Egyptology revelations.

On the reasons that led Muslim translators to transform the name "Misr" to "Egypt", the answer goes back to the fact that Egypt currently has two formal names. One is recognized by non Muslims which is "Egypt", while the other is "Misr", which is recognized by all Muslims in the world including Egyptians themselves who introduce themselves as "Misries" to the Muslims and as "Egyptians" to the rest of the world. Realizing that most westerns are unaware that Egypt is called Misr amongst the Muslims, the translators of the Quran decided to simplify the issue by systematically replacing every "Misr" in the Quran with “Egypt”, so that the western readers would understand which land the Quran refers to, as they imagined. The translators had obviously good intentions, but did the holy Quran really need any help to identify which land it meant? Why should Muslims assume that whenever the Quran literally mentions the name "Misr" it actually means "Egypt"? Is this long-established central assumption accurate? Or is it about time that it is subjected to a critical analysis and review?

The main rational evidence supporting the contemporary Muslims belief that Egypt was Yusuf’s land and Moses’ exodus ground, is that the Quran states that Pharaoh and the Patriarchs were in Misr as mentioned above, and since Egypt is known amongst the Muslims by the name "Misr", then it follows that Egypt must be the land of Moses and Yusuf. This deduction may sound perfectly logical. The argument, however, is irrespective of what Egypt is called today, since the Pharaoh declared to his people that he was the owner of Misr as stated in the verse above, then what really matters is to prove that during the year 1300 B.C. Egypt was indeed called Misr by its people. If this argument is substantiated than one could safely conclude that the Muslims reasoning is soundly proven. For some reasons, Muslim nations thought that this fundamental argument has been addressed and settled long time ago. However, it came out that this argument has never been seriously addressed, and if investigated, it would reveal to Muslims that their current belief with respect to the Patriarchs’ geography is not only unfounded but also in discord with the teachings of the Quran!

The cumulative discoveries available to the public prove that Egypt was not called Misr during the 19th Egyptian dynasty. There isn't a single Egyptian record that mentions the upper and or the Lower Egypt by a single name pronounced "Misr" or any other name phonetically close to it. In fact there is no evidence to prove that the name Misr was used to identify Egypt at any recorded era let alone during the 19th dynasty. On the contrary, what is mentioned in Egypt’s ancient history, as narrated in Osiris and Isis myths is the name Koptos or Coptoª which were gradually converted in to Gebt (قبط) and then to El-Gibt (القبط) and finally E-gypt as pronounced by the westerns. As to the records of the ancient western civilizations, all the mythical literatures and maps refer to this land under no name but Egypt or Egipt. The Greek Danaos Daughters’ myth is a good example, which proves that the name "Egypt" is extremely old and it resisted any attempts to change it. As to the ancient eastern nations, all of them referred to Egypt under the same name "Gebt "قبط except for the early Muslims who for some reason decided to discontinue using it. This fact necessitates an investigation on the time when Muslims started calling El-Gibt القبط by the name Misr مصر and the reasons of this mutation. According to the Arabic history, during the times of prophet Mohamed (pbuh) (570-632 A.D), Egypt was known amongst the people of Arabia by the name Al-Gipt (القبط) .This is obvious from the message that the prophet sent to the Egyptian ruler Al-Mokawkas inviting him to embrace Islam, see figure 2 for an image of the preserved original hand-written manuscript. What interests us from this letter are the following extracts " In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. From Mohammed Ben Abdullah to Al-Mokawkas the chief of Gipt, … If you decline you will bear the burden of the Gipties sins … ، This particularly valuable letter clearly indicates that Al-Gipt was Egypt’s formal name up to the time of prophet Mohammed (pbuh). The reply that came from Al-Mokawkas also confirms that the Egyptians at that time introduced themselves to Arabia as Gipties: “… To Mohamed Ben Abdulla from Al-Mokawkas the chief of Gipt … I honored your messenger and I sent you appreciation presents and two bondwomen whom are highly valued in Gipt،

Figure 2: The manuscript of the Message sent by the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) to the Egyptian ruler showing the words Al-Gipt ( E - gypt) with no mention of the name Misr.

Despite the fact that the Egyptians didn't recognize the name "Misr" for their land, as reflected in the reply, yet the people of Arabia during the prophet's time were referring to Egypt amongst themselves as "Misr"! This is inevitably demonstrated in many records and correspondences from that era. For example, the second caliphate Omer Ben Al Khataab sent a letter to his army leader Amro Ben Al Aas, advising him to treat the Giptis kindly. Interestingly, the letter referred to this same land by both names: … let it be known to you that Misr land is spared from Khoms… and the prophet Mohamed praised the Giptis…” The use of the name "Misr" amongst early Muslims and not using it in their correspondences with the Egyptians themselves indicate that the early Arabian Muslims used two names to identify the land of the Nile. Other historical references indicate that both names existed in their daily dialogue before even the Islamic era. The difference between the two names is significant. "Misr" is used within Arabia only and has a biblical origin. "Gipt" however is used with the Egyptians and the rest of the world which does not recognize Misr as a name of Egypt. Phonetic analysis of the name "Al-Gipt" reveals that it is actually equivalent to "Egypt". In other words, the Arabian people until the dawn of Islam shared the same ancient name that identified this land with the rest of the world. It was sometime after the entry of Arabian Muslims into Al-Gipt, that the internationally known name was gradually replaced by "Misr" and remained so until now· . Therefore one concludes that Misr is not Egypt’s original name and that it is not old enough to apply to the pharaoh’s statement when he declared to his people of his time that he is the owner of Misr. Therefore, by searching for pharaoh and Musa in Egypt While the Quran clearly states that they were in a place called Misr, the Muslims are actually looking in the wrong place. The question now is: if Muslims are looking in the wrong place, why have the ancient as well as the contemporary Jews and Christians been considering Egypt as the homeland of Musa and Pharaoh as well?

The Septuagint – Egypt’s holy dungeon:

While Arabia was directly receiving the heavenly revelations one after the other, the European nations, like other nations, were also receiving the same revelations but through the traders and scholars who traveled or migrated to their lands carrying along the news and knowledge of the latest heavenly revelations. Like the Quran, the Torah in the form of the Ten Commandments was first revealed in Arabia, it was documented at some stage in the Arabic Syriac language. During their exile in Babylon (586 B.C) the Israeli Rabbis produced what they called the Torah containing the Ten Commandments in addition to historical accounts of the Israeli tribes. That Syriac Torah might have been the first recognized written holy book produced by Israeli Rabbis. In that Syriac book, Mizraim / Mitsrayim was the documented name of the place where Musa and the Pharaoh lived. This name is consistent with the holy Quran account as indicated in the above-mentioned verse¨ . The geographical locations of the major events were obviously clear and well-known to the ancient believers until the appearance of the Septuagint (السبعونية) - the Greek Torah. 

The Septuagint is the first Greek translation of the Syriac Torah. It could be the first translations of the Arabic Syriac Torah to any other foreign language. It was compiled in Egypt around 282 B.C only shortly after it fell under Alexander the Great's control. Ptolemy Ben Philadelphus, the Greek sovereign, requested that the latest revelation at that time be translated to Greek. A team of seventy rabbis produced the translation and it is reported that within seventy days the Greek Torah was ready for publishing. In that Geek book, a slight alteration was introduced during the translation process. Every Arabic Syriac word which reads “mzarm” was translated to this Greek word "Αγπτου" which reads “Ae-gypti” ,i.e Mizraim was transformed during the translation process to Ae-gypti. This indescribable act was all that was needed to create a large scale long-life illusion. Unlike Misr or Mizeruim, Ae-gypti or E-gypt as pronounced today has always referred to an internationally well-known vast and highly civilized ancient country. The moment the Greek Torah was approved by Ptolemy Ben Philadelphus, Egypt was portrayed as “Israeli land” in the subconscious of the Europeans as well as all Geeks’ widespread colonies. Consequently, since 282 B.C, generation after generation passed on the false “sacred” information on Egypt's role in the Patriarchs eventful geography until it became an irrefutable fact. This was happening on an international scale, whereas the ancient Egyptians themselves have not seriously resisted this infiltration and fictitious implantation of scenes and events into their history and heritage. In fact, they might have viewed the Septuagint’s claim that the Patriarchs had dwelt in their land as another privilege to the Egyptian already glamorous historical fame. What the ancient Egyptians missed, however, is that by accepting this foreign forged addendum into their unwritten history, they have in fact accepted, in the long term, to give away their land and civilization to a little insignificant tiny Arabian tribe, while their great Egyptian civilization is being absorbed into the “promised land” saga alongside Iraq and Syria. This ancient deal is the source of today’s confusion and frustration of Egyptian scholars when every now and then someone arrives from overseas to insolently boast his ancestors presumed role in building the great pyramids! This will sadly remain the case until Egyptian scholars and officials decide to establish independent research teams to review their history from the time the Septuagint was issued, and objectively examine the damage inflected by this Greek Torah on the their kings' reputation and civilization achievements. This might be the only way for the Egyptian nation to escape the Septuagint sacred dungeon.

The Egyptian pharaoh – The living Holy Hoax:

In his numerous lectures, Dr Zahi Hawas keeps on utilizing the Torah word “Pharaohs” when making references to his country's greatest ancient kings. Equally, he confirms that despite the exhausting national and international archeological missions, there are not to date any objective scientific evidence to the assumption that Remeses II or his son Marnabtah were the Torah’s described Egyptian king during Musa time. The case usually stops at this dead-end point, and indications are that this will not change unless a sharp detour is made. The answer to this impasse was spotted by a well-known Islamic historian named Al-Masooedy ( *** - 946). As reported by the Al-Atabaki, Al-Masooedy documented his findings following a personal investigation. He wrote … I have asked a group of Gipti (اقباط) scholars while I was at Al-Saeid (الصعيد )(Upper Egypt) about the meaning of the name Fir'awn (pharaoh). They didn’t know the meaning of the word nor did it exist in their Gipti language!! ... The same meaningless "Pharaoh" word in Gipti language was also reported by Ibn Khaldun . This is the answer to the impasse which the majority of contemporary as well as past scholars might find difficult to submit to. As linguistically confirmed , there is no word pronounced "Pharaoh" in the Gipti language nor is it a written or used word amongst the Gipti public, let alone a famous Royal title. The closest pronunciation to the word Pharaoh most scholars are holding to is “per-aa” as explained by Marie Parsons … it should be pointed out that "pharaoh", the most popular "title" of the Egyptian King, is not Egyptian at all. That is to say, the Egyptians did not call their King "Pharaoh" until very late in their history, and then only as non-Egyptians took up the word. "Pharaoh" is a Hebrew pronunciation of the Egyptian word, per-aa, meaning Great House, and was first used as a label for the king himself around 1450 BC. ..” This highly controversial solution has been refuted by many other scholars and researchers such as M S M Saifullah, `Abdullah David & Elias Karim . Michael S. Sanders sums up the topic saying…As can be readily seen it just is not possible to translate Pir’u as Pharaoh unless one has a predilection to so do...

Despite the confirmation that the word Fir’awn doesn’t belong to the Gipti language nor was it the title of Egyptian kings, it remains true that this word is repeatedly mentioned in the holy Quran as well as the Bible. This persisting contradiction should have instigated researchers to look for this name outside Egypt. It was nearly effortless to find out that the name exists indeed and it has an unambiguous meaning in Arabia. The linguistically compound word needs to be first disassembled to its original root. The root of this Arabic word Fir’awn (فرعون) is Far’a (فرع), this linguistic rooting system is customary in the Arabic language. For example the root of word Sidoon (صيدون)is Saida (صيدا), and for Sa'dwoon (سعدون) is Sa’d (سعد ) and for Babylon (بابلون) is Babel (بابل) etc. By looking up the Arabic dictionary for the meaning of the root Far’a(فرع) the answer is immediately evident. Amongst the many meanings this root holds, one finds the following fundamental meaning “The top or the chief of something i.e. be it land, mountain, body, people etc” This means that the word Fir’awn is not a name but a title of social order. The Arabian history and language provides further stunning personal information regarding Fir’awn himself which supports this finding. Ben Asaker, Ben Kathir and Al-Majlessy report the following information to the fact that Fir’awn was married to an Arabian lady “… Fir’awn’s wife was Asia (اسيا)daughter of Mozahim (مزاحم) Ben Abdullah (عبد الله) Ben Al Rayan (الريان) Ben Al Walid (الوليد), Mozahim was Misr’s Fir’awn during Yuousf’s time…،، These names are reported to have been confirmed by the prophet Mohamed (pbuh) himself. For those familiar with Arabic names, they would immediately realize that such names could not be found in ancient Egypt as they can only be found to-date in their Arabia homeland. To the surprise of our researchers, many Arabic historians have indeed reported a name for Fir’awn himself. The following is a quote found in several references … I asked Mousa Ben Jaffer to explain to me the meaning of the following Quranic verse requesting Musa and Haron to approach Fir’awn ([43] Go, both of you, to Fir’awn (Pharaoh), verily, he has transgressed. [44] And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear Allâh." Jaffer replied that the meaning of “And speak to him mildly” is to address him during the speech by his title Abu Musaab (ابا مصعب) as Fir’awn name was Al Walied (الوليد) Ben Musaab (مصعب) ،،. These names and title are closely related to Arabian tribes. Al Hamawi wrote in his book the following details about Fir'awn, revealing his personal astonishment: " Fir’awn was from Bialie Arabs, he was short with fair skin and long beard, he ruled Misr 500 years then Allah perished him in the water and his name was Mussab (مصعب) , some people claimed that he was a Gipti descendent, and not from the Amalek (العمالقه) !?" This quote indicates that during the author's time, other sources were claming that Fir’awn was Gipti which was surprising to the narrator. Sadly today, what he quoted is causing astonishment and what he questioned became internationally common knowledge! The Amalek, to whom Fir’awn belongs, has been mentioned in the Torah as well as the Arabian history. They are a well know ancient tribe that lived in Makkah and nearby as reported by Dr. Ahmed Amin "… The Akhbariyen (Ancient Arab historians) mentioned that the Amalek inhabited Makkah, Madina and Hijaz, they were tyrants and Musa confronted them. The Jews dwelt in Hijiaz after the fall of the Amalek". Al Shibani, however, reported that Fir’awn's name was actually Kaboows (قابوس). He wrote "… then Misr was ruled by Kaboows (قابوس) Ben Musaab (مصعب) Ben Moawya (معاوية) Ben Nomir (نمير ) Ben Al Salows (السلوس) Ben Qarn (قاران) Ben Amro(عمرو) Ben Amalek (عملاق)" So Fir'awn first name could be Musaab or Kaboows and both names are of Hijaizi origin and are not expected to be found amongst the royal Gipti names. The same information was also known to some Arab Jews and Christians as narrated by al Qurtabi and Al Shookani whom wrote: “Wahab· (وهب) reported that the people of the book¨ knew Fir’awn by the name Al Walid (الوليد) Ben Musaab (مصعب) Ben Al Rayan (الريان) and his title was Abu Morah (ابو مره) ، This quote indicates that not all "the people of the book" were fully influenced by the Septuagint fake dogma. However, the total absence of Fir’awn's name from their documents, or at least those documents made available to the public, indicates that Fir’awn's identity was systematically kept out of reach.

The amount of Arabic history or history-related references that mentioned Kaboows or Musaab or Al Walid as the first name for Moses’ Fir’awn are more than staggering fifty. Here is a list for the researchers' reference:


This abundantly cited historical information on Fir’awn's identity will most likely come across as surprising for many Muslim readers as well as Christens and Jews. This is because some of the early post-Islamic historians have adopted and documented the Septuagint originated forged details preached by most Arab Jewish and Christen tribes for more than 800 years before the Islamic revelation. Their historical documents became Islamic references for the forthcoming generations of historians until today. The contradicting details between the pre-Islamic original information and the post-Islamic borrowed ones generated palpable discrepancies, the solution for which was to gradually deactivate the original Arabian history like was the case with the Egyptian history in favor of the prevailing inaccurate western one.

Having discovered Fir’awn's full name from the history of the land where he lived and later ruled, there is no point in looking for him among the list of Gipti royal names. Doing so is like looking for a king named Abdullah among medieval Christian Scottish Royal family list. What are the chances of finding such a name in such a place, position and time?

To sum up, against the schemes of Ptolemy and the 70 rabbis, Egyptology resisted the implantation of the Tyrant Fir’awn in its Gipti heritage. Equally, Arabian history rejected this forgery and resisted the amputation of Musa from Arabia by retaining enough historical information to trace the origin of biblical events. It is high time we realized that there were no Pharaohs in Egypt and this expired title should be returned back to where it had always belonged, in Arabia.

In Search for the Patriarch in Arabia – Uncovering the desert sand:
As explained earlier, the Geek Torah committed a forgery. The word "Misr" in the original Syriac text has been intently replaced during the translation process by the word Al Gipt. Consequently, the low profile word “Misr” never been mentioned to the westerns believers while it started to fade away in the eastern believers' minds and awareness in favor of the high profile “Egypt”. Despite its insignificant size, Misr was however the theater of major biblical events. So where was Misr located? 

Arabian history vindicated by the holy Quran states that Abraham lived in Makkah. In fact both he and his son Ishmael constructed Beit Allah- the Ka'bah as mentioned in this verse: [127] And remember Ibrahim and Isma'il raised the foundations of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah( (with this prayer): "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: for Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing (Al-Baqarah - Ch1 verse: 127). Many other important events took place around Makkah including the site where Ishmael was offered in sacrifice· [102] Then, when (the son) reached (the age of) (serious) work with him, he said: "O my son! I see in vision that I offer thee in sacrifice: now see what is thy view!" (the son) said: "O my father! do as thou art commanded: thou will find me, if Allah so wills, one practicing Patience and Constancy!" (Asl-Safat - Ch 37 verse: 102). The location of the sacrifice place is still preserved and has been since known under the name Mena(منى) or Ishmael Altar, where millions of Muslim pilgrims offer oblations every year from the time of Abraham. Mena Altar is located 6 km east Makkah (see photo 5) next to the Arapha (عرفة) valley which contains Namera Mosque. According to Arabia history we read ... Gabriel said to Abraham carry enough water with you. They went to Mena valley, then to Arapha valley.He erected his tents in Namera- This place since then was marked with white stones to preserve it, and it was anciently known as Abrahams Masjed (prayer place) the same place is now annexed to the Namera Mosque...،، These places are mentioned in the Torah but geographically shifted outside their real locations and systematically scattered allover Palestine. 
Photo 5: Close up satellite image of the most important sites of Abraham’s eventful life which are also sites for the annual Islamic Hajj rituals.

Abraham, according to Arabian history was a stranger to Makkah area. His dialect was Syriac while the tribes there were speaking 'irebah (عاربة) ; both different dialects originating from one mother language known for the purpose of this research as Arabic. He crossed the Surat Mountains and settled in Namera, as mentioned in the Torah. Therefore he was labeled with the title they usually assign those strangers whom they allow to settle down amongst them as will be detailed latter. The transient boundary can be roughly estimated from a quote reported by Al-Andulsy (الاندلسي) who wrote: “Tohama (تهامة) is the region stretching along side the red sea including Makkah and al 'iber ¨ العبر)) , Al towr (الطور) and the island. So the Al a’br is the area between the Phorat river (Eupharteª )(الفرات) and the Arab desert…”.By constructing a map of this description in Arabia we can identify the area, which includes the Surat Mountains overlooking Arapha valley, see photo 6· .

Since Abraham was one of those who crossed the mountains and descended in the valley of Arapha, he was titled with the Arabic word “‛ibrîy” (عبري) which literally means “the person in transit or the person who crossed over a natural topography such as mountain, river or sea”. The Syriac pronunciation of the same word is also “‛ibrîy” as both are dialect of the same language and people. The local people of Arapha labeled him with this title for a long time until, as mentioned in the Torah; it was changed from “‛ibrîy to Ibrahim إبراهيم” as he became a formal resident of Makkah. By adding the Syriac definition article to the word ‛ibrîy, which is the letter “H”, the word becomes H‛ibrîy or H-'ibrew (العابر) which literally means "The person in transient". With time, this simple denomination transformed into the famous word “Hebrew” and was inflated beyond its original meaning to denote the identity of a nation with a distinctive language and religion. The Torah itself clearly indicates that being Hebrew does not necessarily mean one is Israeli (i.e. son of Jacob). This is obvious from Mose’s direct teachings to the Israelis “If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.” It is forbidden to enslave a fellow Israeli as per Judaism teachings. Therefore, this only means that the word “Hebrew” is originally an expression used for Israeli as well as any other person as long as he/she is in transit (traveler or crosser). This term simply never meant to be an expression of a distinctive religion, nationality or identity and using it in such a context is a historical abuse.

Photo 6: Light filtered satellite image showing the Phorat riverbed (Euphrates) (shown in fine green line) stretching from the top of the Surat Mountains to south Iraq. The river is bounding the "Arab desert" situated between the A’ber (Surat Mountains) and the great river valley.

At this stage we can address another key question: Where from did Abraham come to Arapha valley? According to the holy Quran he didn’t come from far away “[48] "And I will turn away (seclude) from you (all) and from those whom ye invoke besides Allah: I will call on my Lord: perhaps, by my prayer to my Lord, I shall be not unblest." (Maryam Ch 19 verse 48) This verse reveals a conversation between Abraham and his people after they tried to execute him. He indicated that he will not migrate but rather seclude اعتزلكم)) which implies that he can still conveniently get in touch if he chooses to. The holy Quran did mention many other conversations between Abraham and his father after the fire execution attempt, which proves that his fathers land was not geographically far away from Makkah where he secluded. 

According to the prophet Mohamed (pbuh), Abraham was kept off site by his mother in a place called Horan, as per this quote "… Abraham's mother took her child Abraham and fled during the night to protect him from the Tyrant Nimrod. She placed him near three trees on a fast flowing river called Horan …"،،،، . In line with the Septuagint proposed geography, some of the early Jewish scholars claimed that this “Horan” was located in northern Syria to the east bank of the Iraqi Euphrates River at approximately 1600 km from Makkah, see photo 7. 

Photo 7: The Real Horan (Abraham Fathers' home) in Asir Compared to the location of Horan as successfully forged by the Septuagint Rabbis.

However, there are many places called Horan in Arabia. One of them is on a river bank near the Phorat river (the original Euphrates river) and is only 300 km south of Makkah located at 19o 46 " 19' North and 42o 22" 04' East. Examining the satellite images for this Horan, one can immediately spot the riverbed valley which is dry today, and can observe its proximity to Makkah, which demonstrates how Abraham was able to travel between Makkah and his father's land conveniently. This Horan is also located at the south of the river Phorat, which springs from Adam’s Eden Garden, located on the top of the Surat Mountains and flows all the way down eastwards to collect on a huge dry lake situated at the lowlands of south Iraq, as shown in figures 3 ,4. The place of the dried lake is named Najaf (نجف)§ . Proving that this ancient giant Arabian river was the famous Phorat, which lost its name and identity to that running from Turkey to Iraq has been comprehensively addressed in two of the Al Tajdeed research work. Abraham had to cross the Phorat River in his way to Makkah; a detail mentioned in the Torah and the Arabic historical documents. We therefore have very good reasons to believe that this is most likely the real Horan mentioned in the Torah.

On the question about where Abraham headed from Horan, it is revealed in this verse [99] He said: "I will go to my Lord! He will surely guide me! [100] "O my Lord! grant me a righteous (son)! (Al Saffat Ch 37 verses 99-100). He went to Namera located in the vicinity of Beit Allah, the House of The All Mighty Lord at Makkah. According to the Quran, he was young when he left Horan and he had his first son at an old age while he was in Namera. He apparently did not know where was the exact location of the house [26] And (remember) when We showed Ibrâhim (Abraham) the site of the (Sacred) 

House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me (Al Haj Ch 22 verse 26). Once he realized where the sacred site was, which was then an empty dry barren valley, he had to own it in order to publicizes it for all worldwide believers to be. Consequently, he intentionally and purposely moved Hagar and his son Ishmael to the sacred valley 17 km to the west of Namera where his wife Sarah lived [37] "O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Thy Sacred House; in order, O our Lord, that they may establish regular Prayer: so fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them, and feed them with Fruits so that they may give thanks. (Ibrahim Ch 14 verse 37) The Torah indirectly confirms the short distance between where Abraham lived at Namera and the sacred place through this quote “..And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba.”.

As mentioned, the trip from Namera to the final destination to Beersheba required only "bread, and a bottle of Water" which implies that the distance traveled by the child and his mother was far more shorter than the trajectory suggested by the Septuagint, which stretches as far as 1250 km from Palestine all the way to Beersheba at Paran· . The Torah further indicates that once the bottle of water dried out shortly after arriving to the sacred valley of Beersheba, water supply was miraculously made available: “And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink”. 
Figure 3:  Numerous ancient maps shows the presence of giant river traversing Arabia from the Surat Mountains to a lake  south of Iraq. This is the real Phorte  فرات(Euphrates) river springing from Eden garden south of Makkah.

Figure 4: Satellite image clearly showing the riverbed of the same great Phorat (Euphrates) river drawn in the ancient maps. The low land at the Iraqi Ahwar was the lake collecting the flowing water springing from Paradise.

According to Arabs historians, this well of water sprung underneath Ishmael feet and is called today Beer Zimzum. It still provides water to the annual multimillion pilgrims and is located only few meters from Beit Allah (Al Ka’aba). The Torah however indicates that this well was later called Beerª sheba (بير شبعة) . “Sheba” was the name given by Abraham to the well as mentioned in this quote “And he said, For these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand, that they may be a witness unto me, that I have dug this well Wherefore he called that place Beersheba; because there they sware both of them.”. It should not be surprising to note that according to Arab historians Beer Zimzum was actually called Beer Sheba at some stage, as revealed in this conclusive unnoticed quote “ Amongst the old names of Beer Zimzum are Gabriel foot mark (ركضة جبريل), Ishmaels dug hole (حفيرة اسماعيل), Wabra (وبرة), Sheba (شبعة), …”’’’’’’. Other historians quote the same name as (شباعة) "Shebah"،،،،،،،،،، This is the genuine well-known Beersheba mentioned in the Torah, and can be seen in photo 8. Furthermore, and in accordance with the Arabic history, the association of Hagar with Makkah is engraved even in the Jewish memory as commented by Ibn Ezra "…Or 'Well of the lifegiving vision,' (HaKethav VeHaKabbalah); 'Well of the vision of the Living One' (Rashi; Targum); or 'Well to the Living One who sees me' (Ibn Ezra). Ibn Ezra identifies this with Zimum (or in other versions, Zimzum), where the Arabs hold an annual festival (Haj). This is Zemzem near Mecca. According to this, however, Hagar headed into the Arabian Peninsula rather than toward Egypt

Photo 8: Pilgrims still access beer Sheba (Zimzum) for fresh water. The beer (water well) is located next to Beit Allah (Bethel).

As to the exact location where Ishmael and his mother Hagar lived, it is specified in the following Torah quotation "And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt." Ignoring the Septuagint-originated word "Egypt" in the above quote, let us investigate where Paran wilderness was? Paran or Pharan is reported in the Arabic memory as follows "... Pharan is the Hebrew name for Makkah Mountains…"''' Other Arabic historians quote "... Pharan is an Arabic pronunciation of a Hebrew origin word, which is associated with Makkah old names mentioned in the Torah. It is also said that it is the name for the Makkah's mountains…" ، Ben Katheer also adds one more important piece of information to the following quote which reveals how close Mamera, where Sarah's house was, in relation to Abraham's second wife’s house at the sacred valley of Beersheba; "... and Abraham used to frequently check up on the welfare of his family at Pharan…" Bearing in mind that Abraham was very old when he had his first son Ishmael, so one shouldn't expect such anticipated frequent family visits to have taken place by traveling a regular return trip of about 2500 km from Makkah to Palestine. Consequently, Beersheba has been deliberately shifted with the rest of the other key places to end up scattered all over south Syria (Palestine) creating an archeological "mission impossible" to find evidence supporting the chronology and geography of the events in question. 

The damage inflicted through shifting the Patriarchs’ homeland from the south to the north of Arabia did not only affect the names of places but the tribes' identity as well. We will mention here one tribe only which had to be shifted to north Arabia because of its simultaneous existence with the Patriarchs. The "Canaanite الكنعانيون" for example has been repeatedly mentioned in the Torah. Their first encounter with the Patriarchs is quoted here “And Abram passed through the land to the place of Sichem, to the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land” Investigation revealed that the Canaanites (الكنعانيون) is a clear one letter mispronunciation of the famous Arabic ancient tribe named "Kananites الكنانيون" this Arab tribe was living in the Arapha area. In fact they left behind their name on the landscape they inhabited which stretched between makkah valley to Mena valley (Ishmael Altar) located at the direct proximity of Arapha Valley. Ben Jumhoor wrote … Al Mohasab (المحصب) is the valley between Makkah and Mena, it is also known the plane of Makkah and the low land of the Kananites ((الكنانيون tribe…” As to the claim that even the Canaanite were the ancient inhabitants of south Syria, Dr Dawood strongly refutes this unfounded claim despite its propagation. He commented: “ It is amazing how the genuine history of the ancient Arab Syrians who inhabited this land for more than 10 thousand years is being masked and concealed and replaced by the Torah mentioned Canaanites tribe. This is being done while every scholar is aware that no such name existed in the ancient Syrian history...” He also added “… Dr Ali Asaf stressed in his book (The ancient Syrian kingdoms) that none of the ancient Syrian kingdoms identified itself by the name or the title Canaanites or Amorites. In fact when Sankhow (سانخو) issued his book (Phoenician History) in 9 volumes during Musa time in the 14th century B.C, no mention of the name " Canaanites " was made anywhere in his history. The same is true with Herodotus who never cited the word "Canaanites" when mentioning the Syrians or the Phoenician


Figure 5: Al Taneium or Tuwa valley at Makkah city 6 km from Beit Allah (Beer Sheba)

In fact the Arabian pre -Islamic historical narrations offer much more coherent information only if they were made to surface. For example, Muslims believe that the prophet Mohamed did not initiate the annual Hajj, which was rather initiated by his great grand father Abraham and was practiced since then on a wide national and international scale, which included for example the Persians. Al Massodi and AL Homawi wrote …the Farsi people (Persians) in ancient times used to come from Fars (Iran) to Beit Allah in Makkah with great offerings in appreciation to the holiness of Abraham and they consider Beit Allah the most sacred temple on earth.. ، But who were expected to perform the pilgrimage (Hajj) in its first initiation stages? They must be Abraham’s sons, the Patriarchs Isaac, Ishmael and Israel (Jacob) and their descendants. This is also clearly mentioned in the following quote …Al-Zobeir (الزبير) reported that “..about seventy thousands of the Children of Israel (بني أسرائيل) used to take off their shoes at Al Taneium and walk bear footed to Beit Alla to perform Hajj.. , Al Taneium, is situated about 6 km from Beit Allah ,see figure 5, it contains now a large mosque and is considered one of the purification stations for Muslims (mostly children of Ishmael) who intend to perform Hajj, where they take off their shoes and normal clothing and take a shower before wearing the 2 pieces white pilgrim clothing in preparation before heading to Beit Allah. So both the Children of Israel and the children of Ishmael used to perform Hajj at Beit Allah revealed by their Grandfather. The interesting part is that the children of Ishmael continued performing Hajj at the same valley identified by Abraham which happened to be located at the incense Yamani trade route. While, the children of Israel before Christ time decided to make themselves a duplicate Bethel at a convenient place in south Syria located at the Chinese silk trade route. Muslims abandoned this duplicate position forever when Prophet Mohammed converted the Islamic prayer's direction – Al Qibla (القبلة) - from Palestine back to Makkah. Unfortunately, the prophet's valiant act was not fully understood or properly studied. Consequently, the early Muslims' explanation to that stunning act was that “the Prophet liked to face Makkah during prayer and the Lord answered his prophet’s beseech!” and this crucial and highly revealing prophecy act was closed at this level of shallow rationalization!

Another interesting clarification found in the Arabian history is related to the whereabouts of the place were Musa had a dialog with the Lord. The holy Quran recounts this notable event in the following verse “[12] "Verily I am thy Lord! therefore (in My presence) put off thy shoes: thou art in the sacred valley Tuwa.” The valley of Tuwa is the same valley which contains Taneium Mosque mentioned above as clearly evident from the following quote “Before they enter Beit Allah, the Children of Israel used to take of their shoes once they reached du Tuwa.. . Taneium has always been a sacred place during both pre and post Islamic era, but most Arabs are unaware that this extraordinary manifestation could be the foundation for the inherited sanctity. The other precise information that the Torah missed out is the exact location where the visiting Angles met Abraham. This sacred extraordinary meeting was mentioned in the Quran as well as the Torah “[69] There came Our Messengers to Ibrahim with glad tidings. They said, "Peace! "he answered, "Peace!" and hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf. [70] But when he saw their hands went not towards the (meal), he felt some mistrust of them, and conceived a fear of them. They said: "Fear not: we have been sent against the people of Lot." According to Arabic resources the location of this meeting is revealed in this prayer quote: “...In your glorious and generous name by which you appeared to Musa at Tur Sina and to Abraham at Musageed Al-khief before, and to Isaac at Beersheba, and to Jacob at Beit eal (Beit Allah)...” ' Masjeed Al-khief is visited by Muslims annually during Hajj and it is located at Mena valley's border, refer to photos 5 & 9.

Photo 9: Al-khief mosque near Ishmael Altar at Mena valley erected in memory of the place where the three angles visited Abraham.

The above verse mentioned Lot’s people in the messengers' dialog with Abraham. Lot moved to where those wicked people dwelt seeking grassland for his cattle: "And there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram's cattle and the herdsmen of Lot's cattle: and the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelt then in the land". Such strife between herdsmen shouldn't have made Lot to move farther than 1250 km away from Makkah as sketched in the Septuagint's account. Few kilometers from Paran / Makkah area would provide enough grassland for Lot’s cattle; a fact that stressed evidently in the holy Quran "[133] So also was Lot among those sent (by Us). [134] Behold, We delivered him and his adherents, all [135] Except an old woman who was among those who lagged behind: [136] Then We destroyed the rest. [137] Verily, ye pass by their (sites) by day, [138] And by night: will ye not understand?" (As safat ch 37 verses 133-138) These verses were direct informative speech to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) while he was at Makkah. The verse in question informed him and his followers that "ye pass by their (sites) by day, [138] And by night: will ye not understand?" Surely, he understood how close Sodom was from Makkah. Furthermore, the Quran clearly called for investigation and when reading this verse "[35] And We have left thereof an evident Sign (of Sodom), for any people who (care to) understand" (Al – Ankabut ch 29 verse 35). Unlike the Christens driven expedition missions, the Muslims barley showed any interest in looking for Sodom in fulfillment of the above verse. The advise however, offered here for the Christians investigators is that looking for Sodom on the floor of the Dead sea is a total waste of time and effort as one cannot consider a concealed village under layers of hard crystal salt at the bottom of the Dead Sea as an "evident sign" that one can look for! According to both the Quran and the Syriac Torah, one has to look for Sodom within few kilometers around Makkah / Paran. It should not be hard to find it if only the Septuagint's falsified information is declined as a source of sacred sites geographical locater.

Misrs – The Traders’ service villages:

The word "Misr" is repeated 5 times in the holy Quran. Four times in reference and one time description as we read in the following verse which reveals a dialog between Musa and the children of Israel that took place during the exodus from Misr to the holy land "[61] And remember ye said: "O Musa! We cannot endure one kind of food (always); so beseech thy Lord for us to produce for us of what the earth growth its pot-herbs, and cucumbers, its garlic, lentils, and onions." He said: "Will ye exchange the better for the worse? Go ye down to any town, and ye shall find what ye want!"... " (Al-Baqarah ch 2 verse: 61). The expression "any town" in the verse is pronounced in the Quran Arabic text as “Misra” and is mentioned in the Torah as Mosera· . This indicates that the word “Misr” is not a distinctive expression but rather a descriptive one. This is exactly what it meant to be as far as the Arabic language is concerned. Misr in Arabic means destination and it is used to describe any urban village or town, which used to mark the travelers and traders final or transitory destination. Accordingly, any urban village or town interconnected with the traders' national and international routes network is described as “Misr” to distinguish such urban stations from the others rural landscapes.

In addition to this descriptive meaning, Misr is also a word used to describe the process of urbanization. When used in this context the pronunciation is "Missr" (مصّر). Both uses of the word Misr is evident in the early Arabic descriptions of the rural urbanization process as we read in this quote " …the Khalifate Omer Ben Al Katab managed to urbanize (Missr مصّر)) few Misrs (الامصار) and he said: the known Misrs are seven, Al Madina is a Misr, Al Sham (South Syria) is a Misr, Al Khoofa is a Misr, Al Basrah is a Misr …." Unlike Muslims who almost confined the term Misr to naming a land as vast as Egypt, the Quran presented the word in its proper context when mentioning Misr. Therefore as per the verse above, Misr means any urban area where Goods are stored and traders can congregate along the trade routes to sell, buy or exchange Goods, as well as to rest or to re-water and re-stock the camel caravans with food supply. Plenty of research works has been devoted to such important economical stations in the ancient world especially Arabia. Such stations are described as "Misrs" and each is called “Misra” as per the Quran or Mosera as per the Torah. This implies that there should be tens of Misrs scattered all over Arabia headed by tens of different Kings or Fir’awns or Sheiks. Accordingly, since we have already mentioned the full name of Mose’s Fir’awn, what about Abraham’s Fir’awn? He also visited a Misr during his time as per the Torah. The Arabic history confirms this visit and provides the required name: …Abraham then decided to leave…He arrived at Misr controlled by one of the Fir’awns and his name was Sinan (سنان) Ben Alwan (علوان) Ben Abuid (عبيد) Ben Owlag (عولج) Ben Amelak (عملاق) Ben Lawd (لاوذ) Ben Sam (سام) Ben Noah (نوح) It is said that he was the brother of Al Dahak (الضحاك) whom appointed him to head Misr." Another set of genuine Hijazi Arabian names. This raises the following question: Was Abraham's Misr different from his grandson's Yusuf? And the same question applies to Mose's Misr as well?

What we concluded from the previous sections is that Abraham resided at Beersheba (Makkah). His son Ishmael was born at Namera (Mamre) and he therefore must have had his other son Isaac and grandson Jacob at Beersheba as well. Jacob didn't live far away from Beit Allah since he and his 12 sons (the Israelis nucleus) dwelt in an area close to the trade route around Makkah. This is obvious from the verse mentioning a dialogue between the brothers of Yusuf, [10] Said one of them: "Slay not Yusuf, but if ye must do something, throw him down to the bottom of the well: he will be picked up by some caravan of travelers." (Yusuf ch 12 verse 10). The caravan travelers picked him up and went to their next destination which is the next Misr on their trade route. What escaped Yusuf’s brothers is the possibility that he will be sold at a Misr close to Makkah where they lived. This is obvious from this verse [19] Then there came a caravan of travelers: they sent their water-carrier (for water), and he let down his bucket (into the well). He said: "Ah there! good news! here is a (fine) young man!" so they concealed him as a treasure! but Allah knoweth well all that they do! [20] The (Brethren) sold him for a Miserable price, for a few dirhams counted out: in such low estimation did they hold him!" (Yusuf ch 12 verse: 20).

Figure 6: Misr as locations as per both Dawood and Salibi. Both locations are on top of the Surat Mountains in Asir south of Mokkah

Here is another mistranslation based on a misunderstanding of what the Quran narrated. The Quran didn't mention who were the sellers of Yusuf at a Miserable price. All it mentioned was "They sold him". The early Muslims assumed that the "They" was referring to Yusuf’s brothers based on Jews false information. In fact "They" is referring to the merchants as the brothers cleared the area once they dropped Yusuf in the well. Selling the Goods at low price meant the merchants wanted to get rid of the new unexpected traveler. He had to be watered and fed and carried over a camel. Therefore, within few traveling days they offered him for sale in one of the Misrs along the route at low price to get ride of him. Therefore, we have good reasons to believe that this Misr should not be far away from Makkah.

Dawood suggested in one of his books that Misr is located at the top of the Surat mountains about 250 km south of Makkah, see figurer 6, while Kamal Al Salabi findings puts it further south in the midway between Al Baha and Al Namas. We believe that both could have been Misrs at some stage, but none should necessarily be the Misr in which Yusuf was sold. However, we can add one certain point here which is that the king of Yusuf’s Misr name indicates that he must have been from the proposed region as indicated in this quote "...Yusufs lived in al Aziz (العزيز) house for thirteen years and when he was thirty years old he was appointed as head of Misr by the king then, who’s name was Al Rayan (الريان) Ben Al Walied (الوليد) Ben Thoran (ثوران) Ben Arashah (ارشة) Ben Amro (عمرو ) Ben Amelak (عملاق) Ben Lawad (لاوذ) Ben Sam (سام) Ben Noah (نوح)"،، Another blatant Hijazi full name, which Egyptology will deny the presence or incrustation in Egypt.

Misr during Yusuf’s time was a mix of multi tribal Arabs. The Torah called them Mizris. The Israelis were the new settler at that Misr as they were invited by Yusuf to reside in the Al Rayan Misr. The Israelis total number on the planet earth then was exactly 13 Arab people, Israel (Jacob) and his 12 sons including Yusuf in addition to their children who, as per the Torah, mounted up to 70 persons. Knowing that approximately 200 years separate Yusuf from Moses, How many progeny can 12 persons multiply in the span of 200 years? The Torah’s exaggerated number is a staggering 600,000 persons when in fact they should not exceed 3000 at extreme most, including children, men and women of all ages. Nevertheless, according to many believers and politicians, those were the "strong workforce" whom are claimed to have built the mighty pyramids in ancient Egypt!

Photo 10: The real Misr that has been projected to the world as the mighty Kingdom of Egypt most likely looked more of a small fort on the trade route similar to this image.

It is note worthy too that only few of the total Israelis believed in Moses and hence only few of them accompanied him in the exodus as revealed in the Quran "[83] But none believed in Musa except some children of his People, because of the fear of Fir'aun and his chiefs, lest they should persecute them; and certainly Fir'aun was mighty on the earth and one who transgressed all bounds" (Yunus ch 10 vers 83). Accordingly, the rest of Israelis remained in Misr and became the new property owners when the news of the pharaoh's death reached Misr; [59] Thus it was, but We made the Children of Israel inheritors of such things." (As shurura ch 26 verse: 59). The rest of the Misris also had a share in the Misr, as stated in this verse "[28] Thus (was their end)! and We made other people inherit (those things)!" (Ad-Dukhan ch 44 verse 28). What concerns us here is the size of this Misr that was occupied by 3000 Israelis only and say another 3000 non Israelis. That was the capacity of the land of what is claimed to be the great kingdom of Egypt, when in fact it was nothing more than a village located near a small fort situated on the main trade route similar to the one shown in photo 10.

Assuming that Misr's location was to the south of Makkah, as per Dawood and Al Salibi, then where was Moses heading to when he left the Misr of the Fir’awn Kabwoos? According to the Torah they headed to the promised holy land which can't be mistaken for any other place but Makkah for it contained Beit Allah and Abrahams new home, "…Send for thee men, and they spy the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the sons of Israel; one man, one man for the tribe of his fathers ye do send, every one a prince among them.` 13:3 And Moses sendeth them from the wilderness of Paran by the command of Jehovah; all of them are men, heads of the sons of Israel they are," Here we read the familiar names again, Paran (فاران) and Canaan/ Kanan (كنان) of which we already demonstrated the association with Makkah, based on the Arabian historical records. Equally, it should not be surprising to learn that the long Arabian history preserved such narrations which describe a region containing Pharan area …the passenger would travel the distance of two stations (Misrs) in the wilderness area until he reaches Pharan's sea coast where Qaran city was. There the Pharaoh drowned. The wilderness is about forty square Farsakhs (فرسخ) in which the Israelis spent 40 years in wandering (التيه) ، In another narration we read … it is reported that Musa confronted Arab tribes such as Tasum (طسم) and Jadys (جديس) and Amalek (العماليق) and Jurhm (جرهم) and the people of Madun (اهل مدين) and he reached Pharan (Paran) mountain which is Makkah ….All these tribes are Arabs who dwelt in Arabia and Makkah region. In fact Ishmael's wife was from Jurhm tribe as engraved in the Arabian memory whereas the Greek Torah claimed her as “Egyptian”. Moreover, the name Kadish (قادش) (Holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering) where Musa arrived at the end of the exodus trip is nothing but one of Makkah’s old name as reported by the Arab ancient historians … Kadis (قادس) is one of the names of Beit Allah. It was called so to express holiness and the place of purification from sins، Furthermore, we read this quote “I recall sixteen names for Makkah, one of them is Makkah, Kuthy (كوثي) … Kadis (قادس)”. Regarding the names Gerar (جرار) and Gaza (غزة), they are to-date two neighborhoods in Makkah pronounced respectively as “Gerwal” (جرول) and “Gaza” (غزة , refer to figurer 5, and both are close to Beersheba which is known today by the name Beer Zimzum.

The concealed fact: Paran is the old name for Makkah Mountains surrounding Beit Allah (Bethel). While Abraham was dwelling Namrea with his first wife Sarah, 17 km away, he erected another house for his second wife Hagar next to Beersheba or as know today beer Zimzum in order to revive the most sacred place on earth since Adam and Eve time.

How did the Septuagint do it? – How to hide a mountain in a desert?

Undoubtedly, the shifting theory is obvious based on the Arabian historical scripts. The remaining question is how this historical forgery managed to spread worldwide and become a holy illusion. The answer lies in the following Quranic verse "[79] Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say: "This is from Allah," to traffic with it for a Miserable price! Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby." (Al-i-IMran Ch 3 verse 79). The Quran confirms that the forged information was successfully trafficked because it was daredevilry marketed under the name of "Allah". Obviously, this emotionally masking approach shrouded the common sense of people and hindered their analyzing abilities leading to the acceptance of many contradictions and inconsistencies. The scholars of all three religions chose to ignore the blatant contradictions, or in extreme cases opted to resolve the resulting ambiguities with supernatural answers. For instance, to rationalize the notion that Abraham was traveling between Makkah and Palestine in the Torah given circumstances, one comes across such narrations as "… While at Palestine Abraham was requested to take Ishmael and Hagar to Makkah. He therefore boarded them on the Al-Buraq· and carried with him water in a goat skin bottle and some dry dates, and headed to Beit Allah "'' 

Bearing in mind how the forged information was trafficked, we can put forth a scenario for the sequence of events since the Septuagint was released. During 282 B.C, and while Egypt was under Greek occupation, the Greek ruler in collaboration with 70 rabbis translated the Syriac Torah. The following verse most likely was addressing this particular drastic event "[78] There is among them a section who distort the Book with their tongues: (as they read) you would think it is a part of the Book, but it is no part of the Book; and they say, "That is from Allah," but it is not from Allah: it is they who tell a lie against Allah, and (well) they know it!" (Al-i-IMran Ch 3 verse 78). The translation which was called the Septuagint concealed the word "Misr" and replaced it with "Egypt". Ptolemy Ben Philadelphus would make financial benefits once Egypt becomes a holy land in the eyes of the western world, while the Jews rabbis would secure a bigger and more strategic lands for their future offspring under the made up "Promised - land" saga located on the rich Silk Trade Route as a substitute for the hard to get Incense Trade Route. The Greek and western people in general started to learn and educate their children with these forged accounts thinking they were authentic. The successive Roman empires also adopted the Septuagint as a source of holy teachings and once they grew into a universal super power, they effectively enforced and effectively spread the fake history in the old world. The fragmented and militarily weak Eastern generations were confused between what their ancestors' memory held with respect to the geographical locations and that preached by their contemporary successive western superpowers, namely the Greek and the Romans. The result was apparently the retrogression of the eastern genuine history in favor of the Roman church which insisted that Egypt was the land of the exodus and Iraq was the birth place of Abraham as they learned it from the Septuagint. This was the case for about 800 years before the Quran was revealed. The Quran like the New Testament stated that forged information had already spread and settled in the people's belief system and called for correction. Saturated with the inherited forged information, the early Muslims appeared not only unaware of the extent of damage done, but also started to explain the Quran verses in view of what they have already learned from the early Arab converted Jews who were saturated with the Septuagint teachings. Consequently, the forged teachings managed to reach the Muslims contemporary mosques and schools curriculums. What made it worse is that after the Islamic conquest of Egypt, it gradually lost its ancient name in favor of another name "Misr" which happened to resemble the biblical name for the place of the exodus. This made the Muslim generations strongly believe that Egypt, which they exclusively call Misr, was truly the exodus place. 

Reversing the cycle – Diffusing the holy delusion:

Approximately 2280 years had elapsed since the Septuagint was published. Three main factors combined to facilitate the successful domination of the forged information on the ancient as well as the contemporary worlds. These factors are: 1- Presenting the forged information through sacred channels (70 Rabbis & Torah) 2- The existence of a political superpower prepared to promote the forged information amongst the public (Geek Ptolemies followed by the Roman Empires) 3-The believers' ignorance of the fact that their absolute fatalist submission could be the gateway to their abuse and control (a common behavior amongst most believers). These pivotal factors are still controlling factors against any attempt to diffuse the prevailing illusion. The publication of the Septuagint based bibles will continue regardless of the opposing archeological discoveries or the denial of the Egyptology findings. Today's images of Ptolemy Ben Philadelphus discovered the latent power of the old established "holy" forgery and embarked on making full use of it. Consequently, the implantation of the “Promised Land” forged legend in the Arab world is systematically pursued by the highest political powers and organizations not for religious purposes but rather for political and commercial strategic intentions the main of which is to physically split the African Arab nations from the Asian ones. This was the unannounced outcome of the 1905 London conference, which drafted the Arabic world current state of affairs. The only hope left is educating the believers of all three religions (Jews, Christians and Muslims) of the nature and the extent of the historical abuse committed by international politicians and bankers against their sacred sites and beliefs. However, this is not attainable unless the scholars, researchers and scientists establish study research task teams, and make their findings available to the followers of the three most resent religions.


Around 282 B.C., masses of ancient Europeans primarily the Greeks followed by the Romans started to learn the heavenly teachings through a Greek book translated from a Syriac origin Torah. Seventy Rabbis were the translators of this book, which contained forged teachings concerning the geographical whereabouts of the Israeli prophets. The successful trafficking the forged teachings in a holiness shroud resulted in the creation of tow Bethel (House of God), two Beersheba, two Kadesh, two pilgrimage places, two Gaza, two kingdom of heavens, and two centers of earth … etc. The only explanation of the obvious similarities of events and site names between the Old Testament, which advocates south Syria as the main biblical theater, and the ancient Arabian History which indicates that Makkah region was the principal scene, lies in the conclusion that targeted places had been deliberately shifted from their original locations. The obvious contradictions and inconsistency of some details within both the Greek Torah and the post Islamic Arabian history support this conclusion. Through this paper, it was demonstrated that the Septuagint authors are to be held accountable for the prevailing universal illusion with respect to the Patriarchs geography. In fact, they were the intellectual team that deliberately replaced the name "Misr" with the name "Egypt" in order to pave the way for the mass removal of the entire holy sites from their original emplacement and project them all over Iraq, Syria and Egypt in preparation to activate the "holy" promised-land ideology. This serious copy and past type forgery could not have been trafficked successfully without the political will power of Greek Ptolemy Ben Philadelphus who supported the falsification most probably for tourism and religious attraction purposes. The holy Quran as well as the New Testament had repeatedly stated that grave falsification had occurred before the Islamic and Christian eras, which remained unaddressed until this very moment. The consequences of this ignorance was and is entirely tragic, as genuine holy places faded away from the majority of believers' awareness especially the westerns, and false sites erected in place for others, ancient· nations identities were lost or exchanged, wars waged and political and military conflicts over land and historical made-up rights stirred. The entire Arabic world is politically unstable primarily due to made-up disputes over delusive "holy" lands and sites. This will remain the case as long as today's Ptolemies are in support of the ancient Septuagint illusion for whatever financial and/or political drives. Fortunately, the world is rapidly shrinking into a small village, concealing the truth is becoming increasingly difficult. Unfortunately, the only other foreseeable way out of the pressed for “promised land” saga and its inescapable aftermath is dreadfully through the promised Armageddon.

For any required information or further clarifications, please contact the research and studies division in the Al-Tajdeed Cultural and Social Society – Kingdom of Bahrain. Email :

  1. Egypt & the Israelites in south west Arabia-Ziad Mouna – UK- ISBN:1-85513-247-8
  2. Genesis 35:27 ( ); Genesis 23:2; Joshua 15:16; 15:61;18:18;18:22-
  3. Genesis 13:18 (; Genesis 14:13;14:24;18:1;23:17;23:19;25:9 ....
  4. Genesis 12:8 ( ) ; Genesis 13:3; 28:19; 31:13; 35:3; 35:6 ….
Euphrates is the Greek pronunciation of the Syriac originating word Perâth.

  1. Genesis 2:14 ( ) ; Genesis 15:18, ….
  2. Refer to "Paradise and the Surat mountains" one of Al Tajdeed Society research work to be published by 2006 year end.

Tiger is the Greek pronunciation of the Syriac originating word Hiddekel. ( )

  1. مختار السويفي- أم الحضارات - ص 127
  2. Arabic news - Egypt renews denial of Jewish participation in building the Pyramids Egypt, History, 4/14/2001

The Patriarchs referred to here are Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Yusuf and Moses.

  1. فراس السواح- الحدث التوراتي والشرق الأدنى القديم- ص 198
  2. News paper article " Was Ramses II Moses Pharaoh?" "رمسيس الثاني هل هو فرعون موسى؟" – جريدة الأيام- العدد 5916- تاريخ 22 مايو 2005- مملكة البحرين

ª The letter "S" is usually added by the Greeks to the names hence it should be dropped when reverting the name to its origin pronunciation.

  1. العلامة المجلسي - بحار الأنوار- ج 2 ، ص 383
  2. جمال الدين الزيعلي - نصب الراية- ج 6 ،ص 564
  3. الأحمدي الميانجي- مكاتيب الرسول -ج 2، ص 424
  4. محمد بن سعد- الطبقات الكبرى- ج 1 ،ص 260
  5. المتقي الهندي - كنز العمال - ج 5 ص 759

· Research shows that the Muslims didn’t call Egypt by the name Misr because it is biblically or Quranically originated, but rather because the new capital at that time "AL Fustat" (الفسطاط) was considered the main fully equipped trading and ruling center and gradually became the travelers destination. Distention in Arabic language is coincidently pronounced and written as "Misr'. Therefore, the Muslims called the Fustat (الفسطاط) city the "Destination" i.e. The Misr. This is how gradually the name Misr originated and spread though out the valley. Refer to the below reference.

  1. جمعية التجديد، مملكة البحرين – نداء السراة - اختطاف جغرافيا الأنبياء – ص 110
  2. Salibi, Kamal, The Bible Came from Arabia, London, Jonathan, 1985
  3. كمال الصليبي - البحث عن يسوع –ص 31

¨ There are other 4 verses which also mention Misr as the homeland of Musa.

  1. المسعودي - التنبيه والإشراف- ص 182
  2. Paleo-Hebrew (Before 585 B.C.)، Genesis 21:21
  3. جمال الدين الأتابكي- النجوم الزاهرة- ج 1 ،ص 61
  4. ابن خلدون- تاريخ ابن خلدون -ج 2 ، ص 74
  5. This site contains the Pyramid Texts pronounced in Gipti language. The word Pharaoh doesn’t exit anywhere in the hundreds of preserved manuscripts:
  6. Royal Titles for Kings of Egypt By Marie Parsons:
  7. Quranic Accuracy Vs. Biblical Error: The Kings & Pharaohs Of Egypt ,M S M Saifullah, `Abdullah David & Elias Karim
  8. PHARAOHS and CAMELS; Only in Arabia!:
  9. فَرْعُ كلّ شيء: أَعْلاه لسان العرب ج8 ص 246
  10. تاريخ دمشق –ابن عساكر ج 61 ص 20
  11. البداية والنهاية- ابن كثير ج1 ص 276
  12. بحار الأنوار-المجلسي ج13 ص 51
  13. علل الشرائع - الشيخ الصدوق ج 1 ص 67
  14. لسان العرب - ابن منظور ج 31 ص 323
  15. الصحاح - الجوهري ج 6 ص 2177
  16. معجم البلدان - الحموي ج 5 ص 140
  17. تاريخ العرب قبل الإسلام - الدكتور أحمد أمين سليم ص 121
  18. الكامل في التاريخ – الشيباني -ج1 ص112

· Wahab is a Jewish scholar. He converted to Islam shortly after the prophet Mohamed death.

¨ The people of the book is a Quranic expression refereeing to Jews and Christians.

  1. تفسير القرطبي-القرطبي ج1 ص 383
  2. فتح القدير-الشوكاني ج1 ص 82
  3. الرحاب الندية في مذهب النصرانية و اليهودية- السيد محمد الموسوي –ص 282
  4. علل الشرائع - الشيخ الصدوق ج 1 ص 67
  5. معاني الأخبار- الشيخ الصدوق ص 50
  6. شرح أصول الكافي - مولي محمد صالح المازندراني ج 9 ص 220
  7. وسائل الشيعة (الإسلامية) - الحر العاملي ج 11 ص 373
  8. الصراط المستقيم - علي بن يونس العاملي ج 2 ص 45
  9. بحار الأنوار - العلامة المجلسي ج 31 ص 15
  10. شرح نهج البلاغة - ابن أبي الحديد ج 01 ص 94
  11. فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير - المناوي ج 3 ص 121
  12. التبيان - الشيخ الطوسي ج 1 ص 220
  13. تفسير مجمع البيان - الشيخ الطبرسي ج 1 ص 203
  14. التفسير الصافي - الفيض الكاشاني ج 2 ص 223
  15. التفسير الأصفى - الفيض الكاشاني ج 2 ص 760
  16. تفسير نور الثقلين - الشيخ الحويزي ج 3 ص 380
  17. تفسير الميزان - السيد الطباطبائي ج 41 ص 161
  18. جامع البيان - إبن جرير الطبري ج 1 ص 385
  19. زاد المسير - ابن الجوزي ج 1 ص 65
  20. تفسير القرطبي - القرطبي ج 1 ص 383
  21. تفسير ابن كثير - ابن كثير ج 1 ص 94
  22. ئفسير الثعالبي - الثعالبي ج 1 ص 235
  23. فتح القدير - الشوكاني ج 1 ص 82
  24. الأخبار الطوال- الدينوري ص 4
  25. معجم البلدان - الحموي ج 5 ص 140
  26. كتاب المحبر- محمد بن حبيب البغدادي ص 467
  27. تاريخ اليعقوبي - اليعقوبي ج 1 ص 186
  28. تاريخ الطبري - الطبري ج 1 ص 272
  29. أخبار الزمان- المسعودي ص 269
  30. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى - القاضي عياض ج 1 ص 98
  31. قصص الأنبياء- الجزائري ص 259
  32. الصحاح - الجوهري ج 6 ص 2177
  33. لسان العرب - ابن منظور ج 31 ص 323
  34. مختار الصحاح- محمد بن عبد القادر ص 259
  35. القاموس المحيط - الفيروز آبادى ج 4 ص 255
  36. مجمع البحرين - الشيخ الطريحي ج 3 ص 391
  37. تاج العروس - الزبيدي ج 7 ص 25
  38. شذرات الذهب- المقدسي ج2 ص 65
  39. مرآة الجنان-اليافعي ج2 ص 96
  40. الكامل في التاريخ –الشيباني ج1 ص 130
  41. المنتظم- أبو الفرج ج1 ص 332
  42. الإنس الجليل – العليمي ج1 ص 74
  43. النجوم الزاهرة- بردي ج 1 ص 58
  44. فتوح مصر وأخبارها- ابن اعين ج1 ص 76
  45. تلقيح فهوم أهل الأثر- ابن الجوزي ج1 ص 332
  46. فيض القدير-المناوي ج3 ص 93
  47. عمدة القارئ - العيني ج2 ص 59

· Unlike the Greek Torah, the Quran confirms that Ishmael and not Isaac was the one offered for sacrifice.

  1. الكافي - الشيخ الكليني ج 4 ص 207 :
  2. الحدائق الناضرة - المحقق البحراني ج 61 ص 350
  3. فقه الصادق (ع) - السيد محمد صادق الروحاني ج 11 ص 357 :

¨ (al 'iber) means the transient borders.

ª The Euphrates river mentioned in the above quote is located in Arabia south of Makkah and has nothing to do with the river in Iraq named after this Arabian genuine river.

  1. معجم ما استعجم - البكري الأندلسي ج 1 ص 10

· Note that it is believed that the revir valley is continuous all the way from the top of the Surat mountains to north Iraq via the Hafr Albatun valley, therefore authors added a connection green line to the valley.

  1. الهداية الكبرى- الحسين بن حمدان الخصيبي ص 98
  2. بحار الأنور-المجلسي ج21 ص40
  3. الفضائل لشاذان- بن جبرئيل القمي ص126
  4. مدينة المعاجز - السيد هاشم البحراني ج 1 ص 52

§ Najaf نجفis a now a well known city in south Iraq. The word consists of two parts "Ny" (ني) and "Jaf" (جف) which latterly means as per the Arabic Akkadia dialect "Dry sea" refer to:

  1. نداء السراة-اختطاف جغرافيا الانبياء –جمعية التجديد الثقافية -2006، الجنة تحت اقدام السراة- جمعية التجديد الثقافية

· Paran motioned in the Torah is defiantly Makkah as will be revealed later.

  1. Genesis 21:19; Same as above

ª Beer is an Arabic word which means water well.

  1. Genesis 21:30-31 Same above source
  2. المحقق البحراني - الحدائق الناضرة - ج 17 ص341
  3. جعفر كاشف الغطاء - كشف الغطاء - ج 1 ص 114
  4. محمد الريشهري - الحج والعمرة في الكتاب والسنة –ص 114
  5. الشيخ الصدوق- الخصال- 454
  6. الحر العاملي – وسائل الشيعة (آل البيت) - ج 13 -ص 246
  7. العلامة المجلسي- بحار الأنوار - ج 96 ص243
  8. السيد البروجردي - جامع أحاديث الشيعة - ج 10 - ص 39
  9. لسان العرب- ابن منظور- ج 8 ص 171
  10. الشعراني- العهود المحمدية ص243
  11. جار الله الزمخشري- الفايق في غريب الحديث -ج2 ص 180
  12. الطبراني- المعجم الكبير- ج10 ص 271
  13. ابن أبي شيبة الكوفي- المصنف-ج4 ص 358
  14. عبد الرزاق الصنعاني- المصنف-ج5 ص 117
  15. الهيثمي- مجمع الزوائد-ج 3 ص 286
  16. الدر المنثور- جلال الدين السيوطي - ج 3 ص 222
  17. سبل الهدى والرشاد- الصالحي الشامي-ج1 ص 182
  18. معجم البلدان-الحموي- ج3 ص 317
  19. النهاية في غريب الحديث- ابن الأثير- ج2 ص 441
  20. صفة جزيرة العرب- الهمداني -ص86
  21. لسان العرب – ابن منظور -ج5- ص43
  22. النهاية في غريب الأثر ج3/ص405
  23. معجم البلدان ج4/ص225
  24. البداية والنهاية - ابن كثير ج 2 ص 231 :
  25. هداية الحيارى في أجوبة اليهود والنصارى- ابن قيم الجوزية 48
  26. تفسير ابن كثير ج4- ص15
  27. الأقطاب الفقهية- ابن أبي جمهور ص 66
  28. العرب والساميون والعبرانيون وبنو إسرائيل و اليهود-أحمد داوود ص184
  29. التنبيه والأشراف- المسعودي ص 95
  30. معجم البلدان - الحموي ج 3 ص 147
  31. أخبار مكة للفاكهي -ج2- ص267
  32. حلية الأولياء للاصبهاني ص298
  33. أخبار مكة للفاكهي ج2/ص257
  34. مصباح المتهجد- الشيخ الطوسي ص 418
  35. بحار الأنوار - العلامة المجلسي ج 78 ص 99

· It is proposed here that the authors of the Septuagint missed this word from the systematic process of replacing Misr with Egypt.

  1. تاريخ اليعقوبي ج: 2 ص: 154
  2. الكامل في التاريخ –الشيباني ج1/ص77
  3. تاريخ الطبري - الطبري ج 1 ص 255
  4. بحار الأنوار - العلامة المجلسي ج 21 ص 282
  5. البداية والنهاية - ابن كثير ج 1 ص 239
  6. المواعظ والاعتبار- المقريزي- ص 268
  7. الروض المعطار في خبر الأقطار-الحميري-ص149
  8. المواعظ والاعتبار-المقريزي-ص 1242
  9. معجم ما استعجم - البكري الأندلسي ج 1 ص 270
  10. سبل الهدى والرشاد - الصالحي الشامي ج 1 ص 170
  11. المجموع - محيى الدين النووي ج 8 ص 3

· Al-Buraq is a legendary flying creature some report it looks like a woman headed flying horse others report it is more of a mix bread between a horse and a mule with 2 wings. All descriptions of this flying creature are originating from Jewish ancient tales.

  1. تفسير ابن كثير ج4/ص15
  2. الروض الأنف- السهيلي ص55
  3. مسخ الصورة- جمعية التجديد الثقافية – مملكة البحرين  -:
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

8:13 PM
Blogger Ammar said...
Thanks for you comment

you can get the books under our website.

We only have it Pdf version

or if you are interested we can even send you the books hard copy.

looking forward to dork together on shared projects.

1:54 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
3:38 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Sorry,there is a mistake in my last post the address must read: (Dr.Ze'ev Herzog )> or in any case type Ze'ev-Herzog in google as I did.. Dear Ammar: I am still searching for your english research work "Paradise and the Surat Mountains"in english,mentionned in your paper "Al_Hijaz_land_of_Abraham.pdf". I can't find it. Can you give me the for it. Your site is very good but it is all in arabic. Try to open a window in english,your work is so important. I want also "Al_Hijaz_"in arabic,even my arab friends can't find it. The english one (this blog) needs serious spellings review: example,you put Geek for Greek several times. Geek is the ancient Ethiopian language not that of Greece! Seriousness must be there if we want to prove the point.We need arabic summary of "SoratalNeda",it is big,but people have little time to read it at first.I wish it was in english for me. Could you at least post a bilingual list of your research works? Tools are important. Many arab friends refuse to believe me when I explain that Ibrahim/prophets were in Hijaz. They think I am "against"Koran! After the creation of the Pharisian,Khazar and anglo-christian "cowboy"zionists now we see the spontaneous emergence of "Arab zionists"who have fully metabolized the zionist propaganda. That is why I call zionism a contagious & dangerous (it kills) mental illness that will destroy the whole world (including them) and the only medicine/antidote is TRUTH & FACTS!...
1:11 AM
Blogger Pol4 said...
Dear Dr.Nur

I am not the one who wrote this paper.

we are a society with many members.

if you are interested.

send me an email to my private email

and i will forward it to the author of this paper.

he will answer all your questions.

and regarding the english yes, we are working on that, and it will be great if you have ideas to assist.

10:05 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
DR.KAMAL-SALIBI'S NOT A THEORY BUT IT IS THE OTHER WAY ROUND: previous post the link is Deconstructing the walls of Jericho
Ze'ev Herzog of Tel Aviv University announced: "the Israelites were never in Egypt, ... In addition, Herzog's colleague, Israel Finkelstein, claims the Jews were nothing more .... Copyright 2007-2009 All Rights Reserved. ...

see Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and
the Origin of Its Sacred Texts
by Professors Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman./( THEY ARE
"There is no trace of evidence after 150 years of search that any
significant Jewish civilisation with some grand Temples ever existed
in Palestine. Thus search for the location of biblical stories has to
be directed southward to central Arabia."
6:54 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
The archaeology of the Land of Israel is completing a process that
amounts to a scientific revolution in its field. It is ready to
confront the findings of biblical scholarship and of ancient history.
But at the same time, we are witnessing a fascinating phenomenon in
which all this is simply ignored by the Israeli public. Many of the
findings mentioned here have been known for decades...

Nevertheless, these revolutionary views are not penetrating the public
consciousness. About a year ago, my colleague, the historian Prof.
Nadav Ne'eman, published an article in the Culture and Literature
section of Ha'aretz entitled "To Remove the Bible from the Jewish
Bookshelf," but there was no public outcry. Any attempt to question
the reliability of the biblical descriptions is perceived as an
attempt to undermine "our historic right to the land" and as
shattering the myth of the nation that is renewing the ancient Kingdom
of Israel. These symbolic elements constitute such a critical
component of the construction of the Israeli identity that any attempt
to call their veracity into question encounters hostility or silence.
It is of some interest that such tendencies within the Israeli secular
society go hand-in-hand with the outlook among educated Christian

It turns out that part of Israeli society is ready to recognize the
injustice that was done to the Arab inhabitants of the country and is
willing to accept the principle of equal rights for women - but is not
up to adopting the archaeological facts that shatter the biblical
myth. The blow to the mythical foundations of the Israeli identity is
apparently too threatening, and it is more convenient to turn a blind
8:24 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
" Deconstructing the walls of Jericho: Who are the Jews?"

NOTICE: Please Read!

By Ze'ev Herzog (Ha'aretz Magazine, Friday, October 29, 1999)

Following 70 years of intensive excavations in the Land of Israel,
archaeologists have found out: The patriarchs' acts are legendary, the
Israelites did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus, they did not
conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David
and Solomon, nor of the source of belief in the God of Israel. These
facts have been known for years, but Israel is a stubborn people and
nobody wants to hear about it

This is what archaeologists have learned from their excavations in the
Land of Israel: the Israelites were never in Egypt, did not wander in
the desert, did not conquer the land in a military campaign and did
not pass it on to the 12 tribes of Israel. Perhaps even harder to
swallow is the fact that the united monarchy of David and Solomon,
which is described by the Bible as a regional power, was at most a
small tribal kingdom. And it will come as an unpleasant shock to many
that the God of Israel, Jehovah, had a female consort and that the
early Israelite religion adopted monotheism only in the waning period
of the monarchy and not at Mount Sinai. Most of those who are engaged
in scientific work in the interlocking spheres of the Bible,
archaeology and the history of the Jewish people - and who once went
into the field looking for proof to corroborate the Bible story - now
agree that the historic events relating to the stages of the Jewish
people's emergence are radically different from what that story tells.

In a September 22nd, 2002 speech to visiting Christian Zionists,
Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon asserted, "This land is ours...
God gave us the title deeds..." However, recent scholarly research,
including discoveries by an archaeological team from the University of
Tel Aviv, not only deconstruct the Biblical Old Testament and Torah
stories upon which this claim rests, but grant previously unthinkable
credence to an ancient historian's claim that the Israelites of Exodus
were actually the Hyksos, and therefore of Asiatic origin.

To trace the foundations of this ongoing Biblical bonfire, we must go
back to 1999.

All hell broke loose in Israel in November of that year when Prof.
Ze'ev Herzog of Tel Aviv University announced: "the Israelites were
never in Egypt, did not wander the desert, did not conquer the land,
and did not pass it on to the twelve tribes". Moreover, the Jewish God
YHWH had a female consort - the goddess Asherah!

His conclusion that the kingdom of David and Solomon was at best a
small tribal monarchy, at worst total myth, has made enemies for him
in the camps of traditional Jewish and Christian belief systems. He
asserts: all evidence demonstrates that the Jews did not adopt
monotheism until the 7th Century BCE - a heresy according to the
Biblical tradition dating it to Moses at Mount Sinai.

Tel Aviv University's archaeological investigation at Megiddo and
examination of the six-sided gate there dates it to the 9th Century
BCE, not the 10th Century BCE claimed by the 1960's investigator
Yigael Yadin who attributed it to Solomon. Herzog, moreover, states
that Solomon and David are "entirely absent in the archaeological
8:28 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
In addition, Herzog's colleague, Israel Finkelstein, claims the Jews were nothing more than nomadic Canaanites who bartered with the city dwellers.

The team's studies concluded that Jerusalem did not have any central
status until 722 BCE with the destruction of its northern rival

However, the real bombshell is Herzog's discovery of numerous
references to Yahweh having a consort in the form of Asherah.
Inscriptions, written in Hebrew by official Jewish scribes in the 8th
century BCE, were found in numerous sites all over the land. For
Yahweh, supposedly the "One God", to have had a female consort and, of
all people, the goddess Asherah, is dynamite of wide ranging

But what does all this do to the validity of the "Title Deeds" from
God that Ariel Sharon refers to? Quite apart from the obvious
conclusion that the god assumed to have given the "promised land" to his chosen people was just one god from a pantheon and not the alleged monotheistic only God of the cosmos, Herzog's findings corroborate
theories that have been "out there" for some time.

The Hyksos

Like Herzog, the historian Josephus (c. 37CE - c. 100CE) denied the
account of the Hebrews being held in captivity in Egypt
, but he went a drastic step further about the racial origins of the Jews, whom he
identified with the Hyksos. He further claimed they did not flee from
Egypt but were evicted due to them being leprous.

It must be said that Josephus has been vilified over the ages as a
Roman collaborator by both Jewish and Christian scholars who have
argued that the dating of the exodus of the "Hebrews" from Egypt in
the Bible positively rules out their identification as Hyksos.

However, Jan Assmann, a prominent Egyptologist at Heidelberg
University, is quite positive in his writings that the Exodus story is
an inversion of the Hyksos expulsion and furthermore that Moses was an

Likewise, Donald P. Redford, of Toronto University, presents striking
evidence that the Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt was inverted to
construct the exodus of the Hebrew slaves story in the Torah and Old
Testament. His book, which argued this theory, "Egypt, Canaan, and
Israel in Ancient Times" was Winner of the 1993 Best Scholarly Book in
Archaeology Award of the Biblical Archaeological Society.

There is irrefutable evidence that the Hyksos, a mixed Semitic-Asiatic
group who infiltrated the Nile valley, seized power in Lower Egypt in
the 17th Century BCE. They ruled there from c. 1674 BCE until expelled
when their capital, Avaris, fell to Ahmose around 1567 BCE.

The Hyksos in Egypt worshipped Set, who like ISH.KUR they identified
as a storm deity.

Under the "inversion theory", Jewish scholars in the 7th Century BCE
changed the story from "expelled" to "escaped" and as a further insult
to their enemy, Ahmose, changed and miss-spelt his name to Moses,
presenting him as leader of a Hebrew revolt. But there is also a
strong possibility of two separate origins to the "Moses" character
being merged into one, which I will come to later.

Ahmose's success in 1567 BCE led to the establishment of the 18th
Dynasty in Egypt. ThotMoses III overthrew the transvestite Pharaoh
Atchepsut, and under ThotMoses IV Egyptian conquests extended beyond
the Sinai into Palestine, Syria, reaching Babylonia and included

By the end of this expansion, Amenophis III (1380BCE) ruled an
Egyptian empire whose provinces and colonies bordered what is now
known as Turkey. This empire would have included the regions in which
most of the expelled Hyksos now lived.
8:30 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
PT3/Amenophis IV succeeded the throne in 1353BCE. He established a new
monotheism cult establishing "Aten" as the one supreme god and he
changed his name to Akhenaton. Married to the mysterious Nefertiti,
Akhenaton declared himself a god on earth, intermediary between the
one-god Aten (Ra) and humanity, with his spouse as partner,
effectively displacing Isis and Osiris in the Egyptian Enead.

Declaring all men to be the children of Aten, historians suspect
Akhenaton planned an empire-wide religion. He banned all idolatry, the
use of images to represent god, and banned the idea that there was
more than one supreme god.

It is alongside Akhenaton and his father Amenophis III that we find
the second Moses.

An important figure during this period was confusingly called
Amenophis son of Hapu. He was First Minister (Vizier) to both kings.
He is generally depicted as a scribe, crouching and holding on his
knees a roll of papyrus. He more than anyone was responsible for
authoring the religion in which the old gods were merged into one
living god, Aten, who had been responsible for the creation of the
Earth and of humanity.

The symbol of this god, the sun disk, represented Ra, Horus and the
other gods in one. The sun disk, in symbolism, was supported between
the horns of a bull. The Son of Hapu says this about creation: "I have
come to you who reigns over the gods oh Amon, Lord of the Two Lands,
for you are Re who appears in the sky, who illuminates the earth with
a brilliantly shining eye, who came out of the Nou, who appeared above
the primitive water, who created everything, who generated the great
Enneade of the gods, who created his own flesh and gave birth to his
own form."

The king's overseer of the land of Nubia was a certain Mermose
(spelled both Mermose and Merymose on his sarcophagus in the British
Museum). According to modern historians, in Amenhotep's third year as
king, Mermose took his army far up the Nile, supposedly to quell a
minor rebellion, but actually to secure gold mining territories which
would supply his king with the greatest wealth of any ruler of Egypt.

Recent scholarship has indicated Mermose took his army to the
neighborhood of the confluence of the Nile and Atbara Rivers and

But who was this Mermose? According to historian Dawn Breasted, the
Greek translation of this name was Moses. Does Jewish tradition
support this identification?
8:33 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
According to Jewish history not included in the Bible, Moses led the
army of Pharaoh to the South, into the land of Kush, and reached the
vicinity of the Atbara River. There he attracted the love of the
princess of the fortress city of Saba, later Meroe. She gave up the
city in exchange for marriage. Biblical confirmation of such a
marriage is to be found in Numbers 12:1. "And Miriam and Aaron spoke
against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married: for
he had married an Ethiopian woman."

.."And 'ALHYM' myhla spake unto 'MSHH' hAZsm Moses, and said unto him,
I am 'YHWH' hvhy: And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto
Jacob, by the name of 'AL SHDY' yrs la, but by my name 'YHWH' hvhy was
I NOT known to them"...

-EXODUS 6: 2-3

The archaeology of the Land of Israel is completing a process that
amounts to a scientific revolution in its field. It is ready to
confront the findings of biblical scholarship and of ancient history.
But at the same time, we are witnessing a fascinating phenomenon in
which all this is simply ignored by the Israeli public. Many of the
findings mentioned here have been known for decades. The professional
literature in the spheres of archaeology, Bible and the history of the
Jewish people has addressed them in dozens of books and hundreds of
articles. Even if not all the scholars accept the individual arguments
that inform the examples I cited, the majority have adopted their main

Nevertheless, these revolutionary views are not penetrating the public
consciousness. About a year ago, my colleague, the historian Prof.
Nadav Ne'eman, published an article in the Culture and Literature
section of Ha'aretz entitled "To Remove the Bible from the Jewish
Bookshelf," but there was no public outcry. Any attempt to question
the reliability of the biblical descriptions is perceived as an
attempt to undermine "our historic right to the land" and as
shattering the myth of the nation that is renewing the ancient Kingdom
of Israel. These symbolic elements constitute such a critical
component of the construction of the Israeli identity that any attempt
to call their veracity into question encounters hostility or silence.
It is of some interest that such tendencies within the Israeli secular
society go hand-in-hand with the outlook among educated Christian
groups. I have found a similar hostility in reaction to lectures I
have delivered abroad to groups of Christian bible lovers, though what
upset them was the challenge to the foundations of their
fundamentalist religious belief.

It turns out that part of Israeli society is ready to recognize the
injustice that was done to the Arab inhabitants of the country and is
willing to accept the principle of equal rights for women - but is not
up to adopting the archaeological facts that shatter the biblical
myth. The blow to the mythical foundations of the Israeli identity is
apparently too threatening, and it is more convenient to turn a blind

Ha'aretz., October 29, 1999
8:35 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

THE Hanifiya
Page 1
A Thesis
presented to
the Faculty of the Graduate School
at the University of Missouri-Columbia
...PAGES 45/46
"In addition to the indigenous traditions discussed above, there was a monotheistic
tradition practiced, what Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham call Hanifiya, “the religion of...

Documents record people who were not necessarily Jewish or Christian but
were distinctly Abrahamic in their beliefs. Unlike other religions discussed in this study,
this monotheistic tradition was not based in a specific community. Rather, the hanif seem
to have lived throughout the peninsula. For example, the name Abraham is found in
unusual frequency in sixth century Negev texts and mosaics.
However, there are also
records of monotheists living in or near Mecca. These were known as hunafā (sing.
Zayd ibn ‘Amr is one of four hunafā listed in the Sīrah. Of the four, he is recorded
as the only one who did not convert to Christianity. However, even before leaving Mecca
to search for knowledge of Hanifiya, it is written that “he abandoned the religion of his
people and abstained from idols, animals that had died, blood and things offered to
idols…saying that he worshipped the God of Abraham.”
The Sīrah also records him
performing sujud before the Ka’ba. According to Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham, Zayd ibn
‘Amr was killed when traveling south through Mesopotamia and never learned of Islam.
Waraqa ibn Naufal ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdu’l-‘Uzzā, a hanif discussed in detail in this
study’s section on Christianity, is reported to have prayed at the Ka’ba, though there is no
record of him prostrating like Zayd. Waraqa is reported to have referred to his
monotheistic god in relation to Zayd (“my Lord is the Lord of Zayd”), making it possible
that Zayd and Waraqa shared similar prayer methods.
Information about the hunafā,
however, must be viewed critically as Uri Rubin writes that “the apologetic nature of
107 Guillaume, 99.
108 Neveo and Koren, 188-9.
109 Guillaume, 99.
110 Rubin, Hanīfiyya and Ka’ba, 284.
Page 54
The Origins of Muslim Prayer
these traditions is obvious, their chief aim being to present the prophet as descended from
noble monotheistic ancestors who allegedly never practiced idolatry.”
The Qur’an refers to prophets who are not mentioned in other Abrahamic
literature. This also suggests a tradition of non-Jewish or non-Christian monotheism in
Arabia prior to Islam. Figures such as Idris, Dhul Kifi, Dhul Nun, Abu Amir Abd Amr
ibn Sayfi and Abu Qays ibn a-Aslat are named as monotheistic prophets of the
Abrahamic tradition. Yet, their historical context is not given, and their presence in other
monotheistic religions is unaccounted for.
This suggests they were specifically Arab
figures, known in the pre-Islamic culture and context, practicing and speaking about a
monotheistic belief system. Information on their practices is unfortunately lacking.
Link below pdf
2:16 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
FROM PREVIOUS POST/IT SHOULD READ: "..what Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham call Hanifiya,the religion of ABRAHAM...".


The Non-Semitic Origins of Contemporary Jews

"Perhaps the next step in the above direction of Biblical Arabian research would be to suggest
that the consonantal spelling and the original semantics of the word `BR (ر ب ع) or (ﬠכּרּ) could
be reexamined as perhaps nothing more and nothing less than a metathesis and a transposition
of the word `RB (ب ر ع) or (ﬠרּכּ) (see also Wolfenson 1929, 164-165). The two words have the
same consonantal roots and are derived from the word “Arabah” (“desert” in Hebrew) which in
Arabic refers to “Arabia” as well as to a specific area “near Medina,” according to Arab
historians as well as to Ibn Mandhoor’s “Lisaan Al Arab” and Fayruz Abaadi’s “Al Qaamoos
Al Muheet.” If such a hypothesis is demonstrated, one can argue that “Arabic” and “Hebrew”
were no more than two Arabian variations (with two different scripts) of the same language as
Ibn Hazm wrote ten centuries ago. In the Bible, the noun “Arabs” (sometimes “Arabians” or
“people of Arabia”) is applied to the Bedouins or Arab nomads (2 Chronicles 17:11; 21:16;
22:1; 26:7; Nehemia 2:19; 4:7; 6:1; Isaiah 13:20; 21:13; Jeremiah 3:2). Genesis 14:13 refers to
Abram “the Hebrew” while Genesis 39:14,17 and Genesis 41:12 refer to Joseph as “this
Hebrew.” The Quran states that Joseph’s family was brought out of “the Bedouin life” or
“from the desert” (Quran 12:100). Moses refers to Israel (Jacob) as a “wandering Aramaean”?
(Deuteronomy 26:5), which can mean an Arab Bedouin. South Arabian inscriptions
(Margoliouth 1924) refer to the word “Arab” as Bedouin and so does the Quran for the word
“A`rāb” (Quran 9:90,97,98,99,101,120; 33:20; 48:11,16; 49:14).."
3:39 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
.."As Biblical history increasingly points to Arabia, the history and ancestry of the bulk of
contemporary Jews increasingly point to a non-Semitic history and ancestry. First, the claim of
a large-scale Jewish migration from Palestine to Europe during the Roman occupation of Judea
in the 1st century A.D lacks historical documentation. It has also been argued that “the fact that
Palestinian Christianity spread to Europe in the absence of mass migration of Palestinian
Christians to Europe suggests that Judaism also could have taken root in many parts of Europe
in the absence of a large-scale Jewish migration” (Wexler 2002, 549). Second, the non-Semitic
origins of contemporary Jews has been strongly and consistently argued in scholarly works
such as Arthur Koestler’s “The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and its Heritage;” Michael
Bradley’s “Chosen People from the Caucasus: Jewish Origins, Delusions, Deceptions and
Historical Role in the Slave Trade, Genocide and Cultural Colonization;” and Paul Wexler’s
four books: (1) “The Schizoid Nature of Modern Hebrew: A Slavic Language in Search of a
Semitic Past;” (2) “The Ashkenazic Jews: A Slavo-Turkic People in Search of a Jewish
Identity;” (3) “The Non-Jewish Origins of the Sephardic Jews;” and (4) “Two-tiered
Relexification in Yiddish: Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian Dialect” (Koestler
1970; Bradley 1992; Wexler 1990; 1993; 1996; 2002). There is also evidence that many
Page 7
Spanish Jews came originally from the north and many North African Jews came from Spain
(Postan 1970; Holmio 1949; Lewis 1986; Aranov 1979). The failure to produce historical
documentation for the Israelites in Palestine or to document that contemporary Jews were
descendants of Jewish migrants from Roman-occupied Palestine opened the door wide to
Biblical archaeology in Palestine.
Biblical Archaeology Found No Trace of the Israelites in Palestine
Zionist historiography asserts that archeology in Israel “has provided a valuable link between
the country’s past and present, with thousands of years of history unearthed at some 3,500
sites” (Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2003c). Yet these unearthed sites did not show
evidence for the Biblical Israelites in Palestine. This was the conclusion repeated by leading
American, British, Arab, and Israeli researchers in Biblical archaeology and history. Biblical
archaeology was initially led by John Hopkins University Professor of Semitic Languages
William Foxwell Albright who came to Palestine in 1919. He must have been encouraged by
the “politically correct” atmosphere created by the Balfour Declaration of 1917 and the British
occupation and Mandate of Palestine (1917-1948) as well as the subsequent creation of the
State of Israel in 1948. His research aimed at “dovetailing” Israelite history with “profane”
history and “scientific rationalism” with “evangelical faith” (Long 1993, 37, 42). He was
anchored at the American Schools of Oriental Research founded in 1900 and renamed after
him in 1970 (American Schools of Oriental Research 2004). But a couple of decades after his
arrival in Palestine, Albright could not hide his disappointment with the potential of the whole
enterprise of biblical archaeology in Palestine: “The scholar finds himself in an anomalous
position as soon as he turns from Egypt and Mesopotamia to Palestine and Syria. /CONTINUED...
3:51 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Virtually all his comparative data from the former land are derived from written documents and mural
reliefs whereas nearly all the material from the latter consists of building remains and artifacts
without writing or pictoral representations” (Albright 1938, 3). This candid observation
continues to provide the best epistemological explanation for the failure of Biblical
archaeology to prove that Palestine was actually the Biblical land of Canaan.
British archaeologist Michael Rice (who worked for decades in the Arab world) concludes that
the efforts of Israeli archaeologists and their European and American colleagues “have
produced nothing of proven archaeological value” that demonstrates that the Israelites were
ever in Palestine (Rice 1994, 114). In addition to the lack of archaeological evidence for David
or Solomon (in the ardently excavated levels of Jerusalem) or for Moses, the captivity in
Egypt, or the Exodus, one also finds that the great Biblical events left no trace in the annals of
the Egyptians and the Babylonians (Rice 1994, 114-116). University of Stirling Professor of
Religious Studies Kith Whitelam presents Biblical studies within the colonial context as “a
discourse of power” and “a rhetoric of representation” passed down without examination and
designed to dispossess the Palestinians of their land and their past (Whitelam 1997, 235). For
instance, the excavation of at least 23 levels of occupation in Jericho (the first walled city)
shows “no sign of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the slavery in Egypt, or anyone wandering in the
desert” and no proof that Jericho’s fabled walls “came tumbling down” after Joshua captured
the city (Adams 1999). American University of Beirut Professor of History Kamal Salibi
comes to similar conclusions: “First, traces of the origins of the Hebrews in Mesopotamia, and
their assumed migration from there to Palestine by way of North Syria, have been diligently
sought for over a century but never actually found. Second, no incontrovertible traces of an
Israelite captivity in Egypt, or of an Israelite exodus from there at any period of antiquity, have
yet been discovered” (Salibi 1985, 24). Salibi added that the place-names mentioned in the so-
Page 8
called “Amarna Letters” were West Arabian place-names and that the Egyptian and
Mesopotamian expeditions and invasions of Sheshonk I, Necho II, Sargon II, and
Nebuchadnezzar were directed against West Arabia, not against Palestine and Syria (Salibi
1985, 24).
These critical findings about ancient history are deepening the crisis of identity in Israel. Haim
Watzman cited one example of the agonizing questions that he thinks haunt the Zionized Jews’
collective and individual identity: “If ABRAHAM, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and David aren’t
proven, how am I supposed to live with that?” He noted that this question came from the
crowded back row of an auditorium at Ben-Gurion University during a conference titled “Has
the Biblical Period Disappeared?” (Watzman 2000, A19-A20).
3:55 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

Tel Aviv University Professor
of Archaeology Ze’ev Herzog’s research on the Canaanite cities in the Late Bronze Age shed
more light on how Zionist ideology influences the interpretation of archaeology because the
latter “served as a tool in building a national identity of modern Israelis.” He argued that “a
thorough examination of the archaeological findings free of preconception displays that the
city of the Late Bronze Age is essentially different from the Canaanite city as it was presented,
and is still presented, by historians, Biblical scholars and archaeologists” (Herzog 2003). He
summed up the major archaeological findings of 70 years of intensive excavations in Palestine:
“The patriarchs’ acts are legendary, the Israelites did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus,
they did not conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David and
Solomon, nor of the source of belief in the God of Israel.

..These facts have been known for
years, but Israel is a stubborn people and nobody wants to hear about it” (Herzog 1999).
Commenting on Herzog’s findings, Tel Aviv University Professor of Archaeology Israel
Finkelstein noted that “today more than 90% of scholars agree that there was no Exodus from
Egypt” (Finkelstein 2004)..
4:00 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

"Zionist fear of this consensus among scholars could well have something to do with the
mysterious and brutal murder of prominent American clergyman and archaeologist Albert E.
Glock after he “became increasingly convinced that Western Biblical scholarship and Israeli
archaeology had collaborated in robbing the Palestinians of their history and rightful heritage”
(Dever 2002). Albert Glock’s predecessor at the American School of Oriental Research in
Jerusalem was University of Arizona Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and
Anthropology William Dever who too attests to the impasse of Biblical archaeology. Dever
has nearly 200 publications and substantive reviews. He has trained a whole generation of
archaeologists, supervised 15 doctoral degrees and 6 master’s degrees, won cumulative post-
doctoral grants amounting to $1.3 million, and earned fellowships and academic honors for
distinction in archaeology from Israel. After such a long and productive career in Biblical
archaeology and a strong commitment to write the history of Israel based on archaeological
evidence, William Dever admits that the Biblical “accounts of escape from Egypt, of
wandering in the wilderness, and of massive conquests in Transjordan are overwhelmingly
contradicted by the archaeological evidence. That may make many uncomfortable, but it is a
fact, one from which no open-minded person can escape” (Dever 2003, 227; 2004)"
4:17 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
The Linguistic Track Leads Biblical Hebrew to Arabia and Zionist Hebrew to Khazaria

The linguistic track for the Semitic claim consists essentially of tracking down the received
consonantal Biblical Hebrew (as distinct from Rabbinical Hebrew) as the language of the
Israelites and Modern Hebrew (hereinafter referred to as Zionist Hebrew) as the language of
the Israelis. There are two major critical findings in this area. The first considers Biblical
Page 9
Hebrew “a virtually unknown language to be deciphered afresh” (Salibi 1985, 27). The second
considers Zionist Hebrew a Slavic language (Wexler 2002, 4). Already eleventh century Ibn
Hazm (994-1064 AD) had compared the linguistic relationship between Arabic, Hebrew, and
Syriac to that between dialects of the same languages (Ibn Hazm 1978, 36). The silence of the
Hebrew Bible about a separate and specific Arabic language and the silence of the Quran about
a separate and specific Hebrew language are quite remarkable and could be interpreted in the
context of Ibn Hazm’s comparison. In modern times D. S. Margoliouth saw the linguistic clue
as “practically the one which we can follow” to trace the Israelites to Arabia (Margoliouth
1924, 13). He wrote that the “extraordinary persistence of the Arabic language” links its
literary forms to remote antiquity and seems to lie behind “the versification” of the Hebrew
Bible, as Arabic grammar lies behind Hebrew grammar (Margoliouth 1924, 44-45). Gotthelf
Bergsträsser has also noticed a great break between Zionist Hebrew and Biblical Hebrew
(Gotthelf 1983, 64).
But it seems that Kamal Salibi was the first to consider both Rabbinical Hebrew and Zionist
Hebrew as derivative languages, which “provide no key for unraveling the mysteries of the
Biblical Hebrew from which they were academically derived” (Salibi 1998, 6). He stresses that
the received consonantal Hebrew Bible has been “consistently mistranslated” and those
involved in its interpretation and vocalization between the sixth and tenth centuries A.D. “did
not know Hebrew as a spoken language” because it had passed out of common usage about
1000 years earlier (Salibi 1985, 3). Therefore the Hebrew Bible was essentially redacted,
compiled, and in some cases authored by scholars and writers (such as the Babylonian and
Palestinian Masoretes as well as those who produced the Septuagint in Hellenistic Alexandria)
whose day-to-day language was not Biblical Hebrew (Salibi 1998, 5). Naturally those writers
faced many problems of interpretation and vocalization while they worked hard to avoid
committing the sacrilege of altering the received consonantal spelling of the Hebrew Bible.
This is why the Masoretes often resorted to producing notes advising that some words are
“written but not to be read” (kethiybh we lo’qerey) whereas other words are “to be read but not
written” (qerey we lo’ kethiybh) (Salibi 1998, 16). Salibi concludes that to read and understand
the consonantal Hebrew Bible, Arabic is better equipped than the academically derived and
never spoken language of Rabbinical Hebrew (let alone Zionist Hebrew). The correct speech
of Arabic was to be learned from the Bedouin Arabs. Quran 33:20 refers to the “A`rāb” and the
Bedouins as almost synonymous. Prophet Muhammad’s biography relates that he was sent
during his childhood to the desert in order that he should learn the pure form of Arabic from
the Bedouins. Tame Bedouins were kept at the court of the early Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad
for the purpose of replying to questions on Arabic grammar (Margoliouth 1924). As the
linguistic track of Biblical Hebrew and its speakers seems to lead to Arabia, the linguistic track
of Zionist Hebrew and its speakers seems to lead somewhere else.
4:24 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Arthur Koestler described Yiddish as “a curious amalgam of Hebrew, mediaeval German,
Slavonic and other elements, written in Hebrew characters” and spoken by Jewish masses in
Eastern Europe (Koestler 1970). To be sure, this description of the hybrid nature of Yiddish
could well be applied to the ethnogenesis of contemporary Jews themselves. Though Yiddish
is now a dying language, it seems that the urgency of the Semitic claim has made it a subject of
much academic research in the United States and Israel in an attempt to reconstruct and plot
the migration of the Jews (Johnson 1996). The early explanation of the origin of Yiddish says
that it began along the Rhine River in Germany. But the most current explanation argues that
Yiddish began when Slavs and Turks converted in mass to Judaism in the Middle Ages
(Johnson 1996)
4:25 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
NOW BEING A FRENCHMAN I WOULD LIKE TO CONTRIBUTE FROM MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE ON THIS POINT:.."the consonantal spelling and the original semantics of the word `BR (ر ب ع) or (ﬠכּרּ) could
be reexamined as perhaps nothing more and nothing less than a metathesis and a transposition


EXAMPLE:AN ARAB/FR.ARABE=(CONS.)RB BECOMES IN COMMON VERLAN A BR PRONOUNCED BEUR (the EU vowel sound is a typical french vowel sound pronounced like u in DUG/BUG which could be a u like "you" in spanish or i in russian etc,..). This language,marginal at first, is now known and used by everybody.
4:58 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
so this tongue is used in special ways and as synonyms or in common sentences from the president to the press etc,..BUT it is not taught in schools,so it has no official history and origins.

The kids from immigrant and suburbian communities who started it intended to have a language of their own to communicate in a code but using the basic lexicon. They intended to show their difference while at the same time their code which was a "lingua franca" of sorts is easily cracked.But not so easily as one needs to train his ear.

A few examples:JEW/FR.=JUIF=FEUJ,

5:29 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
5:54 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

"The early explanation of the origin of Yiddish says
that it began along the Rhine River in Germany. But the most current explanation argues that
Yiddish began when Slavs and Turks converted in mass to Judaism in the Middle Ages
(Johnson 1996).
Page 10
Paul Wexler is perhaps the leading linguist under whose scholarship this explanation is gaining
ground, especially since demographic studies have undermined the Rhine River explanation by
indicating that during the Middle Ages the number of Jews in Western Europe was less than
35,000 (Johnson 1996). Wexler’s research took issue not only with the Jewish Semitic claim
but also with Semitic claims about Yiddish and Zionist Hebrew (Wexler 1990; 1993; 1996;
2002). Using linguistic and ethnographic data, he conducted a thoughtful investigation on the
geography of Jewish ethnogenesis. His findings reject the idea of the continuity of “the Jewish
people” through time and space as well as the widely held views that contemporary Jews have
an ancestral homeland in Palestine with nearly four thousand years of unbroken history.
Therefore, he argued, “it is incorrect to view the contemporary Jews as descendants of the
ancient Palestinian Jews or contemporary Jewish religious expression and folkways as
uninterrupted evolutions of Palestinian talmudic Judaism and folkways” (Wexler 1993, 244).
Moreover, “all contemporary forms of Judaism and Jewish culture are relatively recently
‘Judaized’ non-Jewish constructs rather than direct evolutions of Old Palestinian Judaism and
Jewish culture” (Wexler 1996, 2). Wexler presents his conclusions about Yiddish and Zionist
Hebrew and added that Yiddish offers the most reliable indication of the fate of the “lost”
Khazar Jewry and the most compelling evidence for the claim that contemporary Ashkenazic
Jews are not descendants of Palestinian Jews (Wexler 2002, 4-7):
Yiddish is not a variant of High German, as is commonly maintained. Rather
it is a Slavic language, specifically a form of Sorbian. Yiddish developed
when Jewish speakers of Sorbian made a partial language shift to High
German vocabulary between the 9th and 12th centuries. In the relexification
of Yiddish only the Slavic lexicon was replaced by German, whereas the
original Sorbian syntactic and phonological systems were retained (therefore
keeping Yiddish as a member of the Slavic family of languages).
Modern Israeli Hebrew (or Zionist Hebrew) is not a “revived” form of Old
Hebrew, as is commonly maintained. Rather it is a derivative of Yiddish,
and thus is also a Slavic language. Since the “linguistic revival” is
impossible, Modern Israeli Hebrew cannot be considered a “revived” form
of Biblical Hebrew because it utilizes the syntactic and phonological systems
of Yiddish, with only the vocabulary being of mainly Biblical Hebrew.
Therefore Modern Israeli Hebrew and its genetic parent Yiddish must be
defined as Slavic languages. As a relexified form of Yiddish, Modern Israeli
Hebrew differs only in its predominantly Biblical Hebrew vocabulary.
Yiddish is the first twice-relexified non-creole language to be so identified
(Wexler 1990; 1993, 241-242; 1996, 7-8; 2002, 4-7)"
7:45 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Dr.Bernard-Leeman and his book "Queen-of-Sheba-and-Israel" indepedently confirms Dr.Kamal-Salibi from Geez -language Kebra-Nagast ( ) and for the complete file of Al-hijaz with the satellite pictures download at www.Al_Hijaz_Land_Of_Abraham.pdf also see google/ Dr.Michael-Sanders (Moses-in-Yemen)
5:38 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

5:51 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Ralph Schoenman

The Hidden History of Zionism

Chapter 6
Zionism and the Jews

5. Seizure of the Land | 7. Myth of Security

If the colonization of Palestine has been characterized by a series of
depredations, we should take a moment to examine the attitude of the
Zionist movement not only toward its Palestinian victims (to which we
shall return), but toward the Jews themselves.

Herzl himself wrote of the Jews in the following fashion: “I achieved
a freer attitude toward anti-Semitism, which I now began to understand
historically and to pardon. Above all, I recognized the emptiness and
futility of trying to ’combat’ anti-Semitism." [76] The youth
organization of the Zionists, Hashomer Hatzair (young Guard) published
the following: "A Jew is a caricature of a normal, natural human
being, both physically and spiritually. As an individual in society he
revolts and throws off the harness of social obligations, knows no
order nor discipline." [77] "The Jewish people," wrote Jabotinsky in
the same vein, "is a very bad people; its neighbors hate it and
rightly so ... its only salvation lies in a general immigration to the
land of Israel." [78] The founders of Zionism despaired of combatting
anti-Semitism and, paradoxically, regarded the anti-Semites themselves
as allies, because of a shared desire to remove the Jews from the
countries in which they lived. Step by step, they assimilated the
values of Jew-hatred and anti-Semitism, as the Zionist movement came
to regard the anti-Semites themselves as their most reliable sponsors
and protectors.

Theodor Herzl approached none other than Count Von Plehve, the author
of the worst pogroms in Russia - the pogroms of Kishinev with the
following proposition: "Help me to reach the land [Palestine] sooner
and the revolt [against Czarist rule] will end." [79] Von Plehve
agreed, and he undertook to finance the Zionist movement. He was later
to complain to Herzl: “The Jews have been joining the revolutionary
parties. We were sympathetic to your Zionist movement as long as it
worked toward emigration. You don’t have to justify the movement to
me. You are preaching to a convert." [80] Herzl and Weizmann offered
to help guarantee Czarist interests in Palestine and to rid Eastern
Europe and Russia of those "noxious and subversive Anarcho-Bolshevik
5:54 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
As we have noted, the same appeal was made by the Zionists to the
Sultan of Turkey, the Kaiser in Germany, to French imperialism and to
the British Raj.

Zionism and Fascism

The history of Zionism - largely suppressed - is sordid.

Mussolini set up squadrons of the Revisionist Zionist youth movement,
Betar, in black shirts in emulation of his own Fascist bands.

When Menachem Begin became chief of Betar, he preferred the brown
shirts of the Hitler gangs, a uniform Begin and Betar members wore to
all meetings and rallies - at which they greeted each other and opened
and closed meetings with the fascist salute.

Simon Petilura was a Ukrainian fascist who personally directed pogroms
which killed 28,000 Jews in 897 separate pogroms. Jabotinsky
negotiated an alliance with Petilura, proposing a Jewish police force
to accompany Petilura’s forces in their counter-revolutionary fight
against the Red Army and the Bolshevik Revolution - a process
involving the murder of peasant, worker and intellectual supporters of
the revolution.

Collaborating with the Nazis

This strategy of enlisting Europe’s virulent Jew-haters, and of
aligning with the most vicious movements and regimes as financial and
military patrons of a Zionist colony in Pale/CONT PT3
5:56 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Collaborating with the Nazis
This strategy of enlisting Europe’s virulent Jew-haters, and of
aligning with the most vicious movements and regimes as financial and
military patrons of a Zionist colony in Palestine, did not exclude the

The Zionist Federation of Germany sent a memorandum of support to the
Nazi Party on June 21, 1933. In it the Federation noted:

... a rebirth of national life such as is occurring in German life
... must also take place in the Jewish national group.

On the foundation of the new [Nazi] state which has established
the principle of race, we wish so to fit our community into the total
structure so that for us, too, in the sphere assigned to us, fruitful
activity for the Fatherland is possible ... [81]

Far from repudiating this policy, the World Zionist Organization
Congress in 1933 defeated a resolution calling for action against
Hitler by a vote of 240 to 43.

During this very Congress, Hitler announced a trade agreement with the
WZO’s Anglo-Palestine Bank, breaking, thereby, the Jewish boycott of
the Nazi regime at a time when the German economy was extremely
vulnerable. It was the height of the Depression and people were
wheeling barrels full of worthless German Marks. The World Zionist
Organization broke the Jewish boycott and became the principal
distributor of Nazi goods throughout the Middle East and Northern
Europe. They established the Ha’avara, which was a bank in Palestine
designed to receive monies from the German-Jewish bourgeoisie, with
which sums Nazi goods were purchased in very substantial quantity.
5:57 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Embracing the S.S.

Consequently, the Zionists brought Baron Von Mildenstein of the S.S.
Security Service to Palestine for a six-month visit in support of
Zionism. This visit led to a twelve-part report by Joseph Goebbels,
Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda, in Der Angriff (The Assault) in 1934
praising Zionism. Goebbels ordered a medallion struck with the
Swastika on one side, and on the other, the Zionist Star of David. In
May 1935, Reinhardt Heydrich, the chief of the S.S. Security Service,
wrote an article in which he separated Jews into "two categories." The
Jews he favored were the Zionists: "Our good wishes together with our
official good will go with them."[82] In 1937, the Labor "socialist"
Zionist militia, the Haganah (founded by Jabotinsky) sent an agent
(Feivel Polkes) to Berlin offering to spy for the S.S. Security
Service in exchange for the release of Jewish wealth for Zionist
colonization. Adolf Eichmann was invited to Palestine as the guest of
the Haganah.

Feivel Polkes informed Eichmann:

Jewish nationalist circles were very pleased with the radical
German policy, since the strength of the Jewish population in
Palestine would be so far increased thereby that in the foreseeable
future the Jews could reckon upon numerical superiority over the
Arabs. [83]

The list of acts of Zionist collaboration with the Nazis goes on and
on. What can account for this incredible willingness of Zionist
leaders to betray the Jews of Europe? The entire rationale for the
state of Israel offered by its apologists has been that it was
intended to be the refuge of Jews facing persecution.

The Zionists, to the contrary, saw any effort to rescue Europe’s Jews
not as the fulfilment of their political purpose but as a threat to
their entire movement. If Europe’s Jews were saved, they would wish to
go elsewhere and the rescue operation would have nothing to do with
the Zionist project of conquering Palestine.
5:59 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Sacrificing Europe’s Jews

The correlative to the acts of collaboration with the Nazis throughout
the 1930’s was that when attempts to change the immigration laws of
the United States and Western Europe were contemplated in order to
provide token refuge for persecuted Jews of Europe, it was the
Zionists who actively organized to stop these efforts.

Ben Gurion informed a meeting of Labor Zionists in Great Britain in
1938: "If I knew that it would be possible to save all the children in
Germany by bringing them over to England and only half of them by
transporting them to Eretz Israel, then I opt for the second
alternative." [84] This obsession with colonizing Palestine and
overwhelming the Arabs led the Zionist movement to oppose any rescue
of the Jews facing extermination, because the ability to deflect
select manpower to Palestine would be impeded. From 1933 to 1935, the
WZO turned down two-thirds of all the German Jews who applied for
immigration certificates.

Berel Katznelson, editor of the Labor Zionist Davar, described the
"cruel criteria of Zionism": German Jews were too old to bear children
in Palestine, lacked trades for building a Zionist colony, didn’t
speak Hebrew and weren’t Zionists. In place of these Jews facing
extermination the WZO brought to Palestine 6,000 trained young
Zionists from the United States, Britain and other safe countries.
Worse than this, the WZO not merely failed to seek any alternative for
the Jews facing the Holocaust, the Zionist leadership opposed
belligerently all efforts to find refuge for fleeing Jews.

As late as 1943, while the Jews of Europe were being exterminated in
their millions, the U.S. Congress proposed to set up a commission to
"study" the problem. Rabbi Stephen Wise, who was the principal
American spokesperson for Zionism, came to Washington to testify
against the rescue bill because it would divert attention from the
colonization of Palestine.

This is the same Rabbi Wise who, in 1938, in his capacity as leader of
the American Jewish Congress, wrote a letter in which he opposed any
change in U.S. immigration laws which would enable Jews to find
refuge. He stated:

It may interest you to know that some weeks ago the
representatives of all the leading Jewish organizations met in
conference ... It was decided that no Jewish organization would, at
this time, sponsor a bill which would in any way alter the immigration
laws. [85]

6:01 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Fighting Asylum
The entire Zionist establishment made its position unmistakable in its
response to a motion by 227 British members of Parliament calling on
the government to provide asylum in British territories for persecuted
Jews. The meager undertaking which was prepared was as follows:

His Majesty’s Government issued some hundreds of Mauritius and
other immigration permits in favor of threatened Jewish families.[86]

But even this token measure was opposed by the Zionist leaders. At a
Parliamentary meeting on January 27, 1943, when the next steps were
being pursued by over one hundred members of Parliament, a
spokesperson for the Zionists announced that they opposed this motion
because it did not contain preparations for the colonization of
Palestine. This was a consistent stance.

Chaim Weizmann, the Zionist leader who had arranged the Balfour
Declaration and was to become the first president of Israel, made this
Zionist policy very explicit:

The hopes of Europe’s six million Jews are centered on emigration.
I was asked: “Can you bring six million Jews to Palestine?” I replied,
“No.” ... From the depths of the tragedy I want to save ... young
people [for Palestine]. The old ones will pass. They will bear their
fate or they will not. They are dust, economic and moral dust in a
cruel world ... Only the branch of the young shall survive. They have
to accept it. [87]

Yitzhak Gruenbaum, the chairperson of the committee set up by the
Zionists, nominally to investigate the condition of European Jews,

When they come to us with two plans - the rescue of the masses of
Jews in Europe or the redemption of the land - I vote, without a
second thought, for the redemption of the land. The more said about
the slaughter of our people, the greater the minimization of our
efforts to strengthen and promote the Hebraisation of the land. If
there would be a possibility today of buying packages of food with the
money of the Karen Hayesod [United Jewish Appeal] to send it through
Lisbon, would we do such a thing? No. And once again no! [88]
6:02 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Betraying the Resistance
In July 1944, the Slovakian Jewish leader Rabbi Dov Michael
Weissmandel in a letter to Zionist officials charged with these
"rescue organizations," proposed a series of measures to save the Jews
scheduled for liquidation at Auschwitz. He offered exact mappings of
the railways and urged the bombing of the tracks on which the
Hungarian Jews were being transported to the crematoria.

He appealed for the bombing of the furnaces at Auschwitz, for the
parachuting of ammunition to 80,000 prisoners, for the parachuting of
saboteurs to blow up all the means of annihilation and thus end the
cremation of 13,000 Jews every day.

Should the Allies refuse the organized and public demand by the
"rescue organizations", Weissmandel proposed that the Zionists, who
had funds and organization, obtain airplanes, recruit Jewish
volunteers and carry out the sabotage.

Weissmandel was not alone. Throughout the late thirties and forties,
Jewish spokespersons in Europe cried out for help, for public
campaigns, for organized resistance, for demonstrations to force the
hand of allied Govemments - only to be met not merely by Zionist
silence but by active Zionist sabotage of the meager efforts which
were proposed or prepared in Great Britain and the United States.

Here is the cri-de-coeur of Rabbi Weissmandel. Writing to the Zionists
in July 1944 he asked incredulously.

Why have you done nothing until now? Who is guilty of this
frightful negligence? Are you not guilty, our Jewish brothers: you who
have the greatest good fortune in the world - liberty?

We send you – Rabbi Weissmandel wrote again – this special
message: to inform you that yesterday the Germans began the
deportation of Jews from Hungary ... The deported ones go to Auschwitz
to be put to death by cyanide gas. This is the schedule, of Auschwitz
from yesterday to the end:

Twelve thousand Jews - men, women and children, old men,
infants, healthy and sick ones, are to be suffocated daily.

And you, our brothers in Palestine, in all the countries of
freedom, and you ministers of all the Kingdoms, how do you keep silent
in the face of this great murder?/NEXT...
6:04 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Silent while thousands upon thousands, reaching now to six million
Jews, are murdered? And silent now, while tens of thousands are still
being murdered and waiting to be murdered? Their destroyed hearts cry
out to you for help as they bewail your cruelty.

Brutal, you are and murderers, too, you are, because of the
coldbloodedness of the silence in which you watch, because you sit
with folded arms and do nothing, although you could stop or delay the
murder of Jews at this very hour.

You, our brothers, sons of Israel, are you insane? Don’t you know
the hell around us? For whom are you saving your money? Murderers!
Madmen! Who is it that gives charity: you who toss a few pennies from
your safe homes, or we who give our blood in the depths of hell? [90]

No Zionist leader supported his request, nor did the Western
capitalist regimes bomb a single concentration camp.

A Pact Against Hungary’s Jews

The culmination of Zionist betrayal was the sacrifice of Hungary’s
Jews in a series of agreements between the Zionist movement and Nazi
Germany which first became known in 1953. Dr. Rudolph Kastner of the
Jewish Agency Rescue Committee in Budapest signed a secret pact with
Adolf Eichmann to "settle the Jewish question" in Hungary. This took
place in 1944. The pact sealed the fate of 800,000 Jews.

It was to be revealed later that Kastner was under the direction of
the Zionist leaders abroad when he made his agreement with Eichmann.
The agreement entailed the saving of six hundred prominent Jews on the
condition that silence was maintained about the fate of Hungarian

When a survivor, Malchiel Greenwald, exposed the pact and denounced
Kastner as a Nazi collaborator whose "deeds in Budapest cost the lives
of hundreds of thousands of Jews", [91] Greenwald was sued by the
Israeli government, whose leaders had drawn up the terms of the
Kastner pact.
6:06 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
The Israeli Court came to the following conclusion:

The sacrifice of the majority of the Jews, in order to rescue the
prominents was the basic element in the agreement between Kastner and
the Nazis. This agreement fixed the division of the nation into two
unequal camps, a small fragment of prominents, whom the Nazis promised
Kastner to save, on the one hand, and the great majority of Hungarian
Jews whom the Nazis designated for death, on the other hand. [92]

The court declared that the imperative condition of this pact was that
neither Kastner nor the Zionist leaders would interfere in the action
of the Nazis against the Jews. These leaders undertook not only to
eschew interference, but they agreed they would not, in the words of
the Israeli court, "hamper them in the extermination."

Collaboration between the Jewish Agency Rescue Committee and the
exterminators of the Jews was solidified in Budapest and Vienna.
Kastner’s duties were part and parcel of the S.S. In addition to its
Extermination Department and Looting Department, the Nazi S.S. opened
a Rescue Department headed by Kastner. [93]

Saving Nazis, Not Jews

It is not surprising that it was to be revealed that Kastner
intervened to save S.S. General Kurt Becher from being tried for war
crimes. Becher was one of the leading negotiators of the deal with the
Zionists in 1944. He was also an S.S. Major in Poland, a member of the
Death Corps "that worked around the clock killing Jews." "Becher
distinguished himself as a Jew slaughterer in Poland and Russia." [94]
He was appointed Commissar of all Nazi concentration camps by Heinrich

What happened to him? He became president of many corporations and
headed up the sale of wheat to Israel. His corporation, the
Cologne-Handel Gesellschaft, did extensive business with the Israeli
6:06 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
A Military Pact with Nazism

On January 11, 1941, Avraham Stern proposed a formal military pact
between the National Military Organization (NMO), of which Yitzhak
Shamir, the current Prime Minister of Israel, was a prominent leader,
and the Nazi Third Reich. This proposal became known as the Ankara
document, having been discovered after the war in the files of the
German Embassy in Turkey. It states the following:

The evacuation of the Jewish masses from Europe is a precondition
for solving the Jewish question; but this can only be made possible
and complete through the settlement of these masses in the home of the
Jewish people, Palestine, and through the establishment of a Jewish
state in its historical boundaries ...

The NMO, which is well-acquainted with the goodwill of the German
Reich government and its authorities towards Zionist activity inside
Germany and towards Zionist emigration plans, is of the opinion that:

1. Common interests could exist between the establishment of a
New Order in Europe in conformity with the German concept, and the
true national aspirations of the Jewish people as they are embodied by
the NMO.
2. Cooperation between the new Germany and renewed
folkish-national Hebraium would be possible and
3. The establishment of the historical Jewish state on a
national and totalitarian basis, and bound by a treaty with the German
Reich, would be in the interest of a maintained and strengthened
future German position of power in the Near East.

Proceeding from these considerations, the NMO in Palestine, under
the condition that the above-mentioned national aspirations of the
Israeli freedom movement are recognized on the side of the German
Reich, offers to actively take part in the war on Germany’s side. [95]
6:08 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Zionism’s Perfidy

Zionism’s perfidy - the betrayal of the victims of the Holocaust - was
the culmination of their attempt to identify the interests of the Jews
with those of the established order. Today, the Zionists join their
state to the enforcement arm of U.S. imperialism - from the death
squads of Latin America to the covert operations of the C.I.A. on four

This sordid history is rooted in the demoralization of the founders of
Zionism, who rejected the possibility of overcoming anti-Semitism
through popular struggle and social revolution. Moses Hess, Theodor
Herzl and Chaim Weizmann chose the wrong side of the barricades - that
of state power, class domination and exploitative rule. They
propounded a putative disjunction between emancipation from
persecution and the necessity of social change. They fully understood
that the cultivation of anti-Semitism and the persecution of the Jews
were the work of the very ruling class from whom they curried favor.

In seeking the sponsorship of the anti-Semites themselves, they
revealed several motives: the worship of power with which they
associated strength; a desire to end Jewish "weakness" and
vulnerability, ceasing to be perpetual outsiders.

This sensibility was a short step to assimilating the values and ideas
of the Jew-haters themselves. The Jews, the Zionists wrote, were
indeed an undisciplined, subversive, dissident people, worthy of the
scorn they had earned. The Zionists catered shamelessly to racist
Jew-hatred. Worshipping power, they appealed to the anti-Semitic
desire of the von Plehves and the Himmlers to be rid of a victim
people long radicalized by persecution, a people who filled the ranks
of revolutionary movements and whose suffering drew their best minds
to intellectual ferment offensive to established values.

The dirty secret of Zionist history is that Zionism was threatened by
the Jews themselves. Defending the Jewish people from persecution
meant organizing resistance to the regimes which menaced them. But
these regimes embodied the imperial order which comprised the only
social force willing or able to impose a settler colony on the
Palestinian people. Hence, the Zionists needed the persecution of the
Jews to persuade Jews to become colonizers afar, and they needed the
persecutors to sponsor the enterprise.

But European Jewry had never manifested any interest in colonizing
Palestine. Zionism remained a fringe movement among the Jews, who
aspired to live in the countries of their birth free of discrimination
or to escape persecution by emigrating to bourgeois democracies
perceived as more tolerant.
6:09 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Zionism, therefore, could never answer the needs or aspirations of the
Jews. The moment of truth came when persecution gave way to physical
extermination. Put to the ultimate and sole test of their real
relationship to Jewish survival, the Zionists did not merely fail to
lead resistance or defend the Jews, they actively sabotaged Jewish
efforts to boycott the Nazi economy. They sought, even then, the
sponsorship of the mass murderers themselves, not merely because the
Third Reich appeared powerful enough to impose a Zionist colony, but
because the Nazi practices were consonant with Zionist assumptions.

There was a common ground between the Nazis and the Zionists,
expressed not merely in the proposal of Shamir’s National Military
Organization to form a state in Palestine on a "national totalitarian
basis." Vladimir Jabotinsky, in his last work, The Jewish War Front,
(l940) wrote of his plans for the Palestinian people:

Since we have this great moral authority for calmly envisaging the
exodus of Arabs, we need not regard the possible departure of 900,000
with dismay. Herr Hitler has recently been enhancing the popularity of
population transfer. [96]

Jabotinsky’s remarkable declaration in The Jewish War Front
synthesizes Zionist thought and its moral bankruptcy. The slaughter of
the Jews gave Zionism "great moral authority". - For what? "For calmly
envisaging the exodus of Arabs.” The lesson of Nazi destruction of the
Jews was that it was permissible now for Zionists to visit the same
fate upon the entire Palestinian population.

Seven years later, the Zionists emulated the Nazis, whose backing they
sought and even at times achieved, and they covered bleeding Palestine
in multiple Lidices [97], driving 800,000 people into exile.

The Zionists approached the Nazis in the same spirit they had Von
Plehve, acting on the perverse notion that Jew-hatred was useful.
Their purpose was not rescue, but forced conscription of the select
few - the rest to be consigned to their agonizing fate.
6:10 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Zionism sought bodies with which to colonize Palestine and preferred
Jewish corpses in their millions to any rescue that might settle Jews

If ever a people could be expected to grasp the meaning of
persecution, the pain of being perpetual refugees and the humiliation
of slander, it ought to have been the Jews.

In place of compassion, the Zionists celebrated the persecution of
others, even as they first betrayed the Jews and then degraded them.
They selected a victim people of their own on whom to inflict a
conquering design. They aligned the surviving Jews with a new genocide
against the Palestinian people, cloaking themselves, with savage
irony, in the collective shroud of the Holocaust.


76. Marvin Lowenthal, ed., The Diaries of Theodor Herzl, p.6. Cited in
Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (Westport, Conn.:
Lawrence Hill, 1983) p.6.

77. From Our Shomer “Weltanschauung”, Hashomer Hatzair, December 1936.
Originally published in 1917, Brenner, Zionism, p.22.

78. Brenner, The Iron Wall.

79. lbid., p.14.

80. Ibid.

81. Brenner, Zionism, p.48.

82. Ibid., p.85.

83. Ibid., p.99.

84. Ibid., p.149.

85. Ibid.

86. Rabbi Solomon Schonfeld, Britain’s chief Rabbi during World War
II. Faris Yahya, Zionist Relations with Nazi Germany (Beirut, Lebanon:
Palestine Research Center, January 1978), p.53.

87. Chaim Weizmann reporting to the Zionist Congress in 1937 on his
testimony before the Peel Commission in London, July 1937. Cited in
Yahya, p. 55.

88. Yitzhak Gruenbaum was chairperson of the Jewish Agency’s Rescue
Committee. Excerpted from a speech made in 1943. Ibid., p.56.

89. Ibid., p.53.

90. Ibid., pp.59-60.

91. Ibid., p.58.

92. Judgment given on June 22, 1955, Protocol of Criminal Case 124/53
in District Court, Jerusalem. Ibid., p.58.

93. Ibid., p.59.

94. Ben Hecht, Perfidy (New York: 1961), pp.58-59. Ibid., p.60.

95. Proposal of the National Military Organization - Irgun Zvai Leumi
- Concerning the Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe and the
Participation of the N.M.O. in the War on the side of Germany.
Original text found in David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German
Politics. 1889-1945. (Ramat Gan, Israel: Bar Ilan University, 1974),
pp.315-317, Brenner. Zionism, p.267.

96. Brenner, The Iron Wall, p.107.

97. Lidice was a Czech village razed to the ground by the S.S. It
became a symbol of Nazi brutality and was singled out as a war crime
during the Nuremberg Trials.

6:11 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
The consensus was formed around three general issues: a) the history of ancient Israel , b) the sources of the Torah, and c) the biblical text. ... - Cached " (TITLE):
" Down with History, Up with Reading: The Current State of Biblical Studies[1] "

By Gary A. Rendsburg, Cornell University

MAIN THESIS:" .. .[10] Accordingly, the Genesis stories are the inventions of Jews during the Babylonian exile when such customs were the way of life. And why have patriarchal stories at all? Why have Abraham originating in Mesopotamia and emigrating to Canaan? BECAUSE THIS WAS EARLY ZIONIST PROPAGANDA to get Jews to leave their homes in comfortable Babylon to make the long journey to begin a new and arduous life in the land of their forefathers. It is clear from Second Isaiah and Ezra and Nehemiah, and from Babylonian textual remains—I refer here to the Murashu documents which describe affluent Jewish businessmen in Mesopotamia during this period—that not all Jews wanted to return to Israel. Thus was Abraham invented.."
5:05 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
AND THESE ARE OTHER BIG POINTS IN INDIRECT SUPPORT TO DR.KAMAL-SALIBI EXODUS-WAS-NOT-FROM-EGYPT:"...As such, the Israelites had never been to Egypt (well, perhaps a small number of them had, but they were insignificant in the ethnic composition of the new people of Israel). The Bible’s foundational story about the Israelites as slaves in Egypt is not a reflection of any historical reality, but rather a reflection of the fact that Israel had been slaves in the land of Canaan, slaves to Canaanite urban centers..."AND OTHER BIG POINT "..The fact that the Israelites originate as Canaanites explains why there is so much polytheism present in the Bible’s description of the people of Israel. Israel was not a monotheism or a monolatry fighting polytheistic tendencies among its people under the influence of their Canaanite neighbors, but rather just another group of Canaanite polytheists, albeit one with a small but vocal and in the end successful group of radical thinkers conceiving of the idea of one god. ... " PROBABLY A FINAL NAIL IN ZIONIST MYTHS'COFFIN FOR HONEST TRUTH SEEKERS OF ANY FAITHS...
5:11 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

Now according to Isaiah 38:7,8, the prophet Isaiah (early eighth
century BC) tells King Hezekiah in Jerusalem that ‘the Lord’ will give
him a ‘sign’, namely this: “I will bring again the shadow of the
degrees, which is gone down in the sun dial of [your father, King]
Ahaz, ten degrees backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which
degrees it was gone down.”

This retrograde motion of a shadow cast by a gnomon (i.e., a sundial
pointer) has traditionally been regarded as a ‘miracle’, because at
the latitude of the present-day Jerusalem (31 degrees 47 minutes north
of the Equator), such a motion would be impossible. However, and I
quote a respected figure, the English mathematician/astronomer Thomas
Keith (1759-1824): “If a horizontal dial, which shows the hour by the
top of the perpendicular gnomon, be made for a place in the torrid
zone [i.e. the tropics], whenever the sun’s declination exceeds the
latitude of the place, the shadow of the gnomon will go back twice in
the day, once in the forenoon and once in the afternoon, and the
greater the difference between the latitude and the sun’s declination
is, the farther the shadow will go back.” Thomas Keith, A New Treatise
On The Use Of The Globes. Revised Edition. London, 1855, pp. 336-7.

Now according to Professor Salibi, the original Jerusalem of Isaiah’s
time will not have been in today’s Palestine, but in Asir, and within
the torrid zone. Therefore the retrograde shadow on the ‘dial of Ahaz’
will not have been a ‘miracle’, but a fact. And no doubt an experiment
could be set up in Asir at the present time to prove this. (
1:30 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
June 21, 2010 6:32 AM
Kamal Salibi said...


Dr. Nurdin al-Mustaqim has conducted an experiment today, which is the
summer solstice, in the city of Abha, in Asir (17-19 degrees North of
the Equator), to demonstrate this point, and has kindly reported to me
the following:


Relayed to my readers with many thanks to Dr. Nur for his patient work

Kamal Salibi
June 21, 2010 7:05 AM
Dr.Nur said...

June 24, 2010 1:32 PM
Kamal Salibi said...

I owe a great debt of gratitude to Dr. Nur who spent three days in
Abha observing the movement of the shadow of what stood from the
gnomon of a sundial. By means of this experiment, he demonstrate
beyond the shadow of a doubt that the astronomical event occurring in
Old Tesament Jerusalem, as reported in Isaiah 38:7,8 and 2 Kings
20:18-12 and explained by Mr. Anthony Lias in terms of a 'Jerusalem'
located in Asir rather in Palestine, is the sort of astronomical event
that occurs regularly in the tropical land of Asir, twice a day,
during the period of the summer solstice. The same event cannot
possibly occur at any time of year in a Jerusalem located in
Palestine, well within the temperate zone. From now on, with the
astronomical postulation of Mr. Lias demonstrated by Dr. Nur on the
ground in connection with a hitherto forgotten Jerusalem of Asir, I
cannot but endorse the statement of Dr. Nur that this new vision of
Biblical geography must be taken by academe, as by mankind, "as a
working basis, with all that goes with it."
June 24, 2010 11:47 PM
Dr.Nur said...
1:32 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
June 24, 2010 1:32 PM
Kamal Salibi said...

I owe a great debt of gratitude to Dr. Nur who spent three days in
Abha observing the movement of the shadow of what stood from the
gnomon of a sundial. By means of this experiment, he demonstrate
beyond the shadow of a doubt that the astronomical event occurring in
Old Tesament Jerusalem, as reported in Isaiah 38:7,8 and 2 Kings
20:18-12 and explained by Mr. Anthony Lias in terms of a 'Jerusalem'
located in Asir rather in Palestine, is the sort of astronomical event
that occurs regularly in the tropical land of Asir, twice a day,
during the period of the summer solstice. The same event cannot
possibly occur at any time of year in a Jerusalem located in
Palestine, well within the temperate zone. From now on, with the
astronomical postulation of Mr. Lias demonstrated by Dr. Nur on the
ground in connection with a hitherto forgotten Jerusalem of Asir, I
cannot but endorse the statement of Dr. Nur that this new vision of
Biblical geography must be taken by academe, as by mankind, "as a
working basis, with all that goes with it."
June 24, 2010 11:47 PM
Dr.Nur said...
1:34 AM
Dear Dr NUR

Assalamu 'alaykum wa rahmatullahi ta'ala wa barakatuhu!

Can you indictae where I can find a reliable history book on the "Semitic" people in Biblical times?

I had written a 1200 pages unpublished illustrated book on "The Alien Beginning and End of Humankind". It is one Islamic perspective of World History, and some new material can help me improve some of its entries.

Many thanks

Barak Allah Fik

Basheer Ahmad

P.S. I am 65 and a "naturalised" second class French citizen, and an enemy of Nicolas Sarkozy and of Dalil Boubakeur!
3:33 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
Dear Bashir Ahmad Fremaux-Soormally, thanks for your interest in the historal and geographical roots of the zionist farce and fraud. I hope to cooperate with you. You say you are an adopted frenchman or rather a second class citizen. I am an original french born frenchman convert to Islam and I live in the original kingdom of Juddah of Saudia and the rest of the muslim world as a first class citizen. I hope you will join us in our research. For the end story on biblical studies try to follow my posts on the true history and geography and please download Dr.Bernard-Leeman's "QueenofShebaandIsrael"pdf and the-"Conspiracy-of-Zion"by Douglas-Reed which is following the "old"geohistory but is fully correct for analysis. For Kamal-Salibi the english part is below the arabic at

7:32 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
few basic facts: 1. It isthe official foreign policy of
“Isrealhell”since the Ariel Sharon government that the
“historical”borders of the the zionist farcical invention are from the
Nile to the Euphrates meaning Anatolia,Syria,the whole Arabian
peninsula,Irak,and Egypt. Of course this has no basis in history at
all but Palestine is part of it,that means that the "West Bank"and the
rest are scheduled for further Nakbah or holocaust (genocide). American leaders
are part and parcel of this comedy as they were/are with the broken
treaties with their american indians and their ongoing genocide and
dispossession. 2. In fact, as we have demonstrated at and and also in the Haaretz
article by Dr.Zeev-Herzog chief archeologist at Tel-Aviv
University,and also by myself with Dr.kamal Salibi at and and in the masterly free download
pdf book and maps”QueenofShebaandIsrael”by Dr.Bernard-Leeman, that
there never was any ancient “Israel”or even a “Jerusalem”in Palestine
(except the one “invented”by the crusaders who confused the death
place of one of the 3 Jesuses,see
about the koranic Jesus, with the city of David and Solomon (at
Arwa+Salam villages near present day Tanumah) of the rainy saudi
highlands-the ancient kingdom of Juddah near Yemen). (the ancient jews
were mountain pirates preying on the incense caravans trade between
India,Yemen,Egypt and Europe. They were of the “bin-Yamin”tribes or
“sons-of Yemen”like modern day pirate Binyamin Netanyahu). They used
to ransack,ransom, and racket the caravans,and pillage other arab tribes-
(arab/hebrew are the same word/reversal of consonants)
including fighting the northern tribe of, Israel from the area of
present Madina,Tayma,Khaybar,(prior to "unity",and break up and
disappearance of Israel to the kingdom of Juddah)-piracy whereby they
claimed their "wealth",and for
that reason,their hideout Jerusalem was sacked and 10000 of their
aparatchik/leader“warriorpriests”were brought captives by the king of
Babylon-and they were freed 40years later by Cyrus king of Persia
after his victory over Babel with the help of jewish
traitors/informers from inside,and Cyrus used some of them as
administrators to rule Palestine where he built a temple by his order
and money as a “joint venture”of sorts since the false prophet
“Ezra”or“Esdras”had told Cyrus that the Abraham/Ibrahim of jews is the
sameIbrahim-Zeradust or Zarathoustra/Zoroaster of persians. Hence the
small colony of jews of Palestine sentby Cyrus were known as
“Pharisees”that is farsis or persians in the land of“Philistines”or
Palestine as per semitic pronunciation. When Alexander the great of
Greece defeated the persians 2 centuries later they invented their
story and fraud about escape from Egypt in their frauded septuagint
greek "Thorat" used to this day by christians,mormons ,and morons as
well,so as to hide their past as persian enemies and keep privileges,
by farce and fraud, with the new greek masters. Ezra was of the
illegal zadokite priest caste (no blood line to David,or
Moses/Aaron),not recognized by original jews,like
samaritans,Hunafas (Hanif),etc. He invented and started the talmud
"master-race" propanda and its “chosen “people myth together with
other jewish criminal fantasies.
4:58 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...

...The temple of Cyrus story is related
in any bible in the part called "book of Ezra" as such: “and the lord
moved the heart of Cyrus by the mouth of Jeremiah,.and he ordered and
put it in writing that a temple be built in that land..” So as they do
now,they were doing then: appropriating the history of others,their
lands and lives by lies ( Mossad's motto:"by deception thou shalt make
war.." : the oldest mafia in the world disguised as a religion …e.g
USS LIBERTY,9/11,ETC.,)... Not long ago Shimon Peres praised king
Cyrus on TV as the "first zionist"!..He knows the farce..!
Note:At the time of the arrival of Islam 70% of arabs were jews of
many original-now disappeared-and reformist denominations from prior
to the zadokite "deuteromy"and Talmud fascist credo imposture(the
original israelites were arabs unlike today's turkish-hun khazar
invaders of Palestine)and 25% christians. Both Islam and Christianity
ARE reformed sects of judaism which the people could no longer accept
as such because of its incoherence, inhumanity and racist genocidal
primitivity but some criminals want to revive it today as a blueprint
for mankind's enslavment to a tiny orogenitally constipated
frankensteinian mythomaniac mafia who should be banned and/or hung by
their balls without ceremony wherever they can be found as they are a
peril to mankind ,and to themselves of course !...
5:00 AM
Blogger NUR said...
Don't forget to copy this page and send it to your friends:


the abodes
of the Jews who are called Beni (children of) Rechab, men of Thema.
The seat of their government is at Thema (or Tehama), where their
prince and....
governor rabbi Chanan resides.

The province of which Thanaejm is the metropolis contains forty
cities, two hundred villages, and one hundred small towns, and is
inhabited by about three hundred thousand Jews. Thanaejm is a very
strong city, fifteen square miles in extent, and large enough to allow
agriculture to be carried on

p. 414

within its boundaries; within which are also situated the palace of
Prince Salomon, and many gardens and orchards. Telmas is also a city
of considerable magnitude; it contains about one hundred thousand
Jews, is strongly fortified, and situated between two very high



At twenty-one days' journey through the desert of Sheba, or Al-Yemen,
from which Mesopotamia lies in a northerly direction, are the abodes
of the Jews who are called Beni (children of) Rechab, men of Thema.
The seat of their government is at Thema (or Tehama), where their
prince and....
governor rabbi Chanan resides. This city is large, and the extent of
their country is sixteen days' journey toward the northern mountain
range. They possess large and strong cities and are not subject to any
of the Gentiles, but undertake warlike expeditions into distant
provinces with the Arabians, their neighbors and allies, to take the
spoil and the prey. These Arabians are Bedouins, who live in tents in
the deserts and have no fixed abode, and who are in the habit of
undertaking marauding expeditions into the province of Yemen. The Jews
are a terror to their neighbors. Their country being very extensive,
some of them cultivate the land and rear cattle. A number of studious
and learned men, who spend their lives in the study of the law, are
maintained by the tithes of all produce, part of which is also
employed toward sustaining the poor and the ascetics, called "Mourners
of Sion" and "Mourners of Jerusalem." These eat no meat and abstain
from wine, dress always in black, and live in eaves or in low houses,
and keep fasts all their lives except on Sabbaths and holy-days. 51
They continually implore the mercy of God for the Jews in exile, and
devoutly pray that he may have compassion on them for the sake of his
own great Dame; and they also include in their prayers all the Jews of
Tehama and of Telmas. The latter contains about one hundred thousand
Jews, who are governed by Prince Salomon, who, as well as his brother,
Prince Chanan, are descendants of the royal house of David, who rests
in peace, which is proved by their pedigrees. In doubtful cases they
solicit the decisions of the prince of the captivity, and set aside
forty days of every year, during which they go in rent clothes, and
keep fasts, and pray for all the Jews who live in exile.

The province of which Thanaejm is the metropolis contains forty
cities, two hundred villages, and one hundred small towns, and is
inhabited by about three hundred thousand Jews. Thanaejm is a very
strong city, fifteen square miles in extent, and large enough to allow
agriculture to be carried on
6:28 AM
Blogger NUR said...
p. 414

...within its boundaries; within which are also situated the palace of
Prince Salomon, and many gardens and orchards. Telmas is also a city
of considerable magnitude; it contains about one hundred thousand
Jews, is strongly fortified, and situated between two very high
mountains. Many of its inhabitants are well informed, wise, and rich.
The distance from Telmas to Chaibar is three days' journey. It is
reported that these Jews are of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half
the tribe of Manasseh, who were led away captives by Shalmaneser, King
of Ashur, and who repaired into these mountainous regions, where they
erected the above-named large and strong cities. They carried on war
with many kingdoms, and are not easily to be reached because of their
situation, which requires a march of eighteen days through uninhabited
deserts, and thus renders them difficult of access.

Chaibar is also a very large city, and contains among its fifty
thousand Jewish inhabitants many learned scholars. The people of this
city are valiant, and engaged in wars with the inhabitants of
Mesopotamia, with those of the northern districts, and with those of
Yemen, who live near them; the latter province borders on India. It is
a distance of twenty-five days' journey from the country of these Jews
to 52 on the river Virah, in Yemen, which place contains about three
thousand Jews....
6:35 AM
Blogger NUR said...
THE 3 JESUSES//Who Was Jesus? How Much Can Be Known about the Koranic Jesus?



Supplement for the Second Edition of

Who Was Jesus?

How Much Can Be Known about the Koranic Jesus?

The Israelite priesthood was apparently regarded from an early time as
the preserve of the tribe of Levi, with members of this tribe offering
priestly services wherever they were needed (see Judges 17:6b-13). At
some point, however, as the Israelite Yahweh cult became more
organized, the priesthood came to be restricted exclusively to one
particular Levitical lineage: the house of Aaron who was allegedly the
brother of Moses, the first priest of Israel and the man originally
given charge of the Ark of the Covenant (the sacred wooden chest in
which the spirit of the invisible Yahweh was supposed to reside). The
last officially recognized Aaronic chief priest, whose name was
Abiathar, served under King David (c. 1005-964 BC), but was made to
share his office with a man called Zadok who was apparently neither of
Aaronic nor even of Levitical descent. Later, when Solomon succeeded
his father David as king, Abiathar was sacked from the chief
priesthood and banished to an agricultural estate that his family
owned in Anathoth (1 Kings 2:26; Joshua 21:18) - today, almost
certainly the village called Antutah (Arabicized form of the Biblical
Hebrew Anatot, name changed today to al-Mubarakah), in the fertile
hinterland of the Saudi Arabian coastal town of Jizan, close by the
border with Yemen.

From that time on, the chief priesthood of the Davidic kingdom - under
Solomon, then under the kings of Judah who were his successors -
became the exclusive preserve of the house of Zadok. This same
Zadokite priestly establishment continued to dominate Israelite
religious affairs following the Babylonian conquest of Judah in 586 BC
and the deportation of its leading citizens to Iraq. In the meanwhile,
the Aaronic priesthood had somehow managed to survive in Anathoth,
probably supported by a body of die-hard Israelites who refused to
accept the sacerdotal authority of the Zadokites. Among the Aaronic
priests of Anathoth was the Prophet Jeremiah, who predicted - and
lived to witness - the downfall of Judah, and who vanished from
history in obscure circumstances shortly thereafter.
6:48 AM
Blogger NUR said...
Apart from identifying "Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah" as being one "of
the priests who were in Anathoth" (Jeremiah 1:1), the Received Text of
the Hebrew Bible, which was compiled and redacted by the Zadokites and
their associates in post-exilic times, has nothing to say about the
house of Aaron following the dismissal of Abiathar from the chief
priesthood. And nothing would have been known about the fate of the
Aaronic priestly line after the mysterious disappearance of Jeremiah,
had it not been for the Koran, where it identifies Maryam - the
Koranic Mary - as an Israelite temple figure of unequivocally Aaronic
lineage (see chapter four). As the son of Maryam, Issa - the Koranic
Jesus who was believed to be virgin-born - would have naturally
inherited his mother's Aaronic lineage, apparently to become the head
of the house of Aaron in due course. The fact that the Koran
recognizes him as al-Masih, or "the Christ," indicates that he was
recognized by his followers, in his time, as the long-awaited priestly
messiah whose mission was to end the prolonged Zadokite usurpation of
the Israelite priesthood, and to restore it to the house of Aaron to
which it legitimately belonged.

The Koranic juxtaposition between the Aaronic Issa and the Zadokite
Ezra (see chapter four) seems to indicate a historical connection
between the careers of the two men. Ezra, who was active in the middle
decades of the fifth century BC, was the person chiefly responsible
for the post-exilic revival of the law of Moses, on the basis of which
the scattered remnants of the Israelite people were reorganized under
Zadokite leadership as the religious community of the "Jews"
(yehuwdim, from yehuwdah, the Hebrew for Judah). Disregarding the fact
that an Aaronic priesthood still existed in Arabia in his time, and
that this priesthood probably commanded an Israelite following of some
size, Ezra claimed for himself an Aaronic lineage to which he was not
entitled (Ezra 7:1-5). Alternatively, it was his Jewish followers who
fabricated this lineage for him during his lifetime, or following his
death. This daring action, whether on his part or that of his
partisans, would alone have sufficed to elicit an open confrontation
on the issue between the houses of Zadok and Aaron. And there is good
indication that a contest over the possession of the Ark of Covenant -
to the Israelites, the ultimate touchstone of genuine priestly
standing - may have been at the heart of the matter.

Of the fate of the Ark of the Covenant after it came to be installed
in the temple of Solomon (see 1 Kings 8:1-11), the Received Text of
the Hebrew Bible, curiously, has nothing to say, leaving the ultimate
fate of the Ark unknown. However, in a book on the antiquities of
Arabia written in the early decades of the eighth century AD, an early
Muslim historian and epigraphist, Wahb ibn Munabbih (Kitab al-tijan
li-muluk Himyar, Hyderabad Deccan, AH 1347, pp.179-180), reports that
the Israelites once deposited the Ark in Mecca as they fled through
the Hijaz in panic before a powerful coalition of enemies, and that
the Ark remained thereafter in Mecca until Issa ibn Maryam arrived in
the city to claim it. Wahb, who was the descendant of a prominent
Jewish family from the Yemen, was well versed in the Israelite lore of
Arabia. What lends special credence to his Ark story is, first, the
casual manner in which he relates it, without comment or elaboration,
and, second, the fact that he relates it in the context of the history
of Mecca, and not that of the Israelites, about which he has much to
say elsewhere. Add to this the fact that his story of the Ark makes
good historical sense. In a struggle between Issa and the Zadokites
over the legitimate right to the Israelite priesthood, what success
could have been more dramatic for an Aaronic messiah than suddenly
managing to find and take possession of the long lost and virtually
forgotten Ark?
6:48 AM
Blogger NUR said...
The question of the Ark aside, Wahb's account of its concealment in
Mecca and of its subsequent reclamation from there by Issa in that
city seems to assume, first, that pre-exilic Israelite history ran its
course in Arabia and second, that the geographical setting of Issa's
career was equally Arabian. It was in Arabia, apparently, that he died
and was buried. This, at least according to a story originally told by
an Arabian notable from Medina, in the Hijaz, and quoted by the great
Arab scholar al-Tabari (d. AD 923) in his major historical work Tarikh
al-rusul wal-muluk (Cairo edition, 1967, vol.1, pp.603-4):

One of our womenfolk had made a vow to climb to the peak of al-Jamma',
a mountain in al-Aqiq, [south of] Medina. So I climbed with her until
we reached the mountain top. There stood an enormous sarcophagus with
two huge tombstones, one [at each end], which bore inscriptions in a
writing unknown to me. I carried the two stones back with me. But as I
was crossing a passage down the mountainside, the two of them became
too difficult for me to carry; so I dropped one and descended with the
other. I asked people who knew Syriac if they could read [the
inscription on that stone], but they could not. Then I showed it to
people from the Yemen who could write [Hebrew], or who wrote the South
Arabian script, and they could not read it. So, when I found no one
who could make sense of [the inscription], I put it away at home under
a chest, where it remained for years. Then some Persians arrived [in
Medina] from [the town of] Maha to buy beads. I asked them: "Do you
have a written language?" They answered: "We do." So I brought out the
[inscription] for them [to see] and, behold, they were reading it, as
it was in their script: "This is the grave of Issa ibn Maryam, the
messenger of God to the people of this land." It turned out that
[Persians] had inhabited the area at that time, and [Issa] died in
their midst, so they buried him on top of the mountain.

This story not only confirms the location of the career of Issa ibn
Maryam in the Arabian province of the Hijaz, but also relates it to
the period of Persian rule in the lands of the Near East (535-330 BC).
More interesting, however, is the fact that ¤abar* was aware that the
Issa who was buried on top of Mount Jamma', south of Medina, was a
person entirely different from the Jesus who was crucified by the Jews
in Jerusalem during the reign of the

Roman emperor Tiberius. "I have been told," he says, "that the man
taken to be Issa and crucified in his place was an Israelite called
Ishu bin Fandara" (Tabari, vol.1, p.605). This name is none other than
the pejorative name Yeshu' ben Panthera, or ben Pandera (see chapter
three), by which the Jewish Talmud refers to the Davidic Jesus who was
crucified in the Palestinian Jerusalem, and whom we have agreed to
call Jeshu bar Nagara (see chapter seven).

With respect to the dating of the career of the Koranic Jesus who was
Issa ibn Maryam, the Damascene Muslim historian, Abul-Qasim Ibn
Asakir, writing in the twelfth century AD (Sirat al-Sayyid al-Masih,
Suleiman Murad, ed., Amman, 1996, par.10), cites a tradition related
by an early Muslim authority who died in AD 721 which asserts that the
"ascension" of Issa to God's presence occurred 933 years before the
start of the Muslim era (AD 622). Unless another explanation can be
given to this tradition, it means that the "ascension" of Issa
(possibly to mean his canonization or apotheosis) occurred is 311 BC,
and that his career as a prophet and Aaronic Messiah belonged to the
late fourth century BC, and not to the late fifth or early fourth
centurs earlier surmised (see chapter four).
6:49 AM
Blogger NUR said...
Bahram Maskanian

Mithra was a Persian savior. The worship of Mithra became common
throughout the Roman Empire, particularly among the Roman civil
service and military. The Mithraism and Christianity were competitors
until the 4th century. Mithra believed to have been born on December
25. Mithra's birth was witnessed by shepherds and by gift-carrying
Magi, or - the three wise men. - This was celebrated as the, - Dies
Natalis Solic Invite. - The Birthday of the Unconquered Son. - Many
followers believed that Mithra was born of a virgin. During his life,
Mithra performed many miracles, cured many illnesses, and cast out
devils. Mithra celebrated a - - Last Supper with his 12 Disciples. -
He ascended to heaven at the time of the spring equinox, about March
21, the first day of spring.

The above story sounds uncannily similar to the story of Jesus, or
ISSAH, his real name. Except Mithra and his religion took place over
two thousand (2000) years earlier than ISSAH, or Jesus, which is a
Greek name replacing his real name, meaning angel. - ISSAH or Jesus
died due to natural causes three hundred (300) years before the Jews
made him into a mythical religious figure and the Son of God, just
like Mithra. -

Christianity is just a plagiarized religion, an exact replication of
Mithraism, which was in existence over two thousand (2000) years
earlier than Christianity.

Now let's look at the much older Persian supernatural being: Mithra.
The earliest known examples of Mithra worship date back over four
thousand (4000) years ago into the Persian Empire. Mithra was the son
of Ahura-Mazda, the divine God of the heavens.

Mithra and Ahura-Mazda were strong influences on early Babylonian
beliefs. Along came the Zoroastrians in the 6th century BC who
absorbed Mithra and Ahura-Mazda into their own culture where, -
Ahura-Mazda - became the supreme holy God of goodness and - Ahriman -
became the God of Evil.

Soon after this Zoroastrian / Babylonian takeover around 580-BC, the
Babylonians were holding the Jews in captivity. The Jews were
Henotheists at this time but became heavily influenced by the concept
of one god of goodness and one god of evil.


Mithra was sent by the Father God down to Earth to confirm
his contract with Man.

Mithra was born of a Virgin through - Immaculate Conception
- He was born of Anahita, an immaculate virgin mother.

Mithra was born in a stable - We celebrate his birth on
December 25th -.

Mithra was visited by wise men bearing gifts.

Mithra had 12 disciples - He was called the Messiah -.
6:51 AM
Blogger NUR said...

Mithra was also the god of Darius, conqueror of Babylon, He
was called - - Messiah - - or Christos by Jews during their Captivity.

Mithra made a (Contract) or (Covenant) with Man confirming
an older contract with God - The Persian word Mithra literally means -
- Contract. - -

Mithra celebrated a last supper with his disciples before his death.

Mithra died to atone for the sins of Man.

Mithra was resurrected on a Sunday.

Mithra ascended into Heaven to rejoin his Father.

Mithra will return to pass judgment on Man - He was known as
the judger of souls -.

On judgment day, the dead will arise and be judged by Mithra.

Mithra will send sinners to HELL.

Mithra will send the faithful to HEAVEN.

On judgment day there will be a final conflict between Good
and Evil - The forces of Evil will be destroyed and the saved will
live in paradise forever -.

Mithra is part of a Holy Trinity the - (Father, Son, And
Holy Spirit) -, that took human form.

Mithra is depicted as having a halo, (a circular band of
light around his head).

Mithra followers drink wine and eat bread, which represent
his blood and flesh.

Mithra followers are baptized.

Saturday and Sunday, the two (2) days of the week to rest
and celebrate.

That is a whole lot of remarkable coincidences, all from thousands of
years before ISSAH or Jesus was born.

The Holy book of Zoroastrian was called the Avesta of Zarathustra,
(Zoroaster is the Greek word for the Persian - - Zarathustra - -). The
Jews were well aware of this book.

Mithra worship declined with the arrival of the strong Zoroastrian
philosophy of - - One True God - -. in the Roman Empire.

Mithra worship increased again and became very popular during the late
Roman Empire... When did this happen? Yes. The first Century AD,
another remarkable coincidence.

From what race did the mythical Jesus allegedly come from? - The Jews.
- Who had already been influenced by the Mithra cult for centuries and
have adopted many other Zoroastrian beliefs.

Who convened the Great Christian Council of Nicea in 325-AD? The Roman
Emperor Constantine. Who did he worship before his conversion?

The large number of similarities between the Persian / Zorastrian God
Mithra and the Judeo / Christian Jesus are just too many to be mere
coincidences... The two stories are just too much alike... even down
to the gifts brought by the wise men to the stable for the infant
Mithra, born of a virgin, the son of God, savior of mankind who died
to save us from evil.
6:54 AM
Blogger NUR said...
It is blindingly obvious that Christianity is just a plagiarization of
the earlier Persian Cult of Mithraism. There is nothing original in
the Christian belief system. It is all copied.

Christianity has always practiced this art of absorbing other people's
beliefs and calling them their own.... Easter from the pagan festival
of Eastre... High Mass, Sunday Sabbath, Holly and Ivy, Decorating
trees, Monotheism, The Eucharist... All of it is taken from Mithra.

The bread disks that the Mithra worshipers ate during their Mass to
symbolize the flesh of their God was marked with a cross, - - hundreds
of years before it became a Christian symbol. - -

And finally, during the Roman Revival of the Mithraism Cult, where do
you think the cult centered?

- - - On The One And The Same - Vatican Hill - in Rome - - - !

Christianity is a false religion with no doctrine of its own. All of
its dogma, its rituals, its key characters, its very foundation is
stolen from Mithraism.

Well, as usual in the good old Christian fashion, Fanatic Christians
deliberately fail to realize that,


Christianity is Mithraism. - The Christian religion is
nothing but a plagiarized version of what EVERYONE claims to be pure
mythology, therefore so is Christianity.

Even the artifacts have been positively dated to WAY earlier
than Christianity, so NO, someone did not just - - Make Them Up. - -

Christianity is what was made up, then spread by a psychotic man
called Paul, who had his - - Vision - - while on the road to Damascus.
Paul's vision, has since been proven to have been the result of a - -
Temporal Lobe Epileptic Seizure. - - For 20 years this delusional man
thought the end of the world was coming each and every day he woke up.

Everything this irrational man wrote was while he believed that at any
moment the end was coming. This is what Christian Fundamentalist
consider - - Words to LIVE by - - instead quite obviously they were -
- Words to DIE by, - - written by a psychologically impaired man.

Paul is the first Christian mullah, a figure largely responsible for
bringing the Christian message to the Roman Empire. Paul was born a
Roman citizen at Tarsus in Cilicia, the son of a Jew belonging to the
tribe of Benjamin. He was known originally as Saul.

Paul was arrested while preaching and taken into custody near Troas.
He was transferred to Rome and was beheaded in the Neronian
persecution when he was 65 or 67 years old. His remains were buried on
the road to Ostia.

Paul was instrumental in organizing the fundamentalist Christian
Church. Through his disturbed psychotic writings he plagiarized and
elevated Mithraism to Christianity.

Paul transformed a minor and obscure sect of Judaism, ISSAH's
movement, by copying Mithraism, replacing Mithra with ISSAH and then
calling him Jesus, a Greek name-meaning angel.
7:08 AM
Blogger NUR said...
A spiritual reinterpretation of Persian Mithraism was suppressed when
Constantine I decided to transform Mithraism from a Persian originated
religion into a Roman version. Pursuant to his command, historians
changed the name from Mithraism to Christianity and ISSAH replaced
Mithra and was named Jesus. Roman historians began plagiarizing a new
book of lies. Soon after, Constantine I converted to Christianity in
CE 312.

Constantine I was raised at the Eastern court of Emperor Diocletian.
In 305 Constantius and Galerius succeeded Maximian and Diocletian as
the Western and Eastern emperor, respectively. In 306 Constantius died
at York, north of England. Soon after Constantine was acclaimed as the
Western emperor by the Roman army.

Galerius, however, proclaimed Flavius Valerius Severus as the Western
emperor. Maximian and his son, Maxentius, defeated Severus, who was
replaced by Licinius. Constantine invaded Italy and killed Maxentius
at the Battle of Milvian Bridge (312). Constantine and Licinius were
now confirmed as the Western and Eastern emperors respectively.

In 313 they signed the Edict of Milan, extending tolerance to
Christians throughout the Roman Empire. In 324 Constantine crushed
Licinius and became sole ruler.

Constantine presided over the first ecumenical council of the
Christian church at Nicaea (325), which condemned Arianism. In (330)
Constantine rebuilt Byzantium as his capital, renaming it
Constantinople, (today's Istanbul).

Constantine I centralized imperial power and minted a new gold coin,
the solidus, that remained the basic unit of Byzantine currency for a
thousand years. Above all, Constantine was responsible for the
Christianization of the Roman Empire.

His commitment to Christianity was reflected in the building of the
Church of the Holy Wisdom (the original Hagia Sophia), Constantinople,
the first St. Peter's basilica, Rome, and the Church of the Holy
Sepulcher, Jerusalem.
Definition of Faith / Religion
7:09 AM
Blogger NUR said...
It must be noted that the Judaism theology including the Ten
Commandments, was stolen from the Egyptian Book Of Death, obviously an
Egyptian theology. Christianity was stolen from the Persian Mithraism,
evidently a Persian theology, and finally, Islam’s, criminal manual,
which is almost identical to the barbaric dogmas of Jewish manual, Old
Testament, with the exception of a few names changed. It is no secret
that Muhammad idealized Moses and that Muhammad's criminal genocidal
conquests rivals those of Moses.

Besides of the true character of Moses, as stated and acknowledged in
the Jewish manual, which is the most revolting as it can possibly be
imagined. Moses clearly was the first of the so-called GOD Messengers
who began the religious genocidal wars to conquer, plunder and advance
the false pretences of religion; under the mask of all that is holy,
committed the most unexampled atrocities that are to be found in the
history of any nation on earth, of which I will state only one
instance. When Moses and his Jewish army returned from one of their
plundering and murdering excursions, the account goes on as follows:

- - And Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the
congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp; and Moses was
wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands,
and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle; and Moses said
unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive? Behold, these caused the
children of Israel, through the - thous ands, and captai commit
trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor, and there was a
plague among the congregation of the Lord. Now, therefore, kill every
male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known a man
by lying with him; but all the women-children, that have not known a
man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves. - - (Chap. xxxi.,
ver. 13)

Muhammad did almost exactly the same, following Moses footsteps, using
the same revolting doctrines and tactics to become the Islamic Emperor
of the world, calling himself last god messenger. Through the same
brainwashing methods Muhammad and his criminal army converted,
subjugated and murdered the nonbelievers, followed by the plunder,
enslavement and rape of the captive virgins of any age.
7:10 AM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
the same revolting doctrines and tactics to become the Islamic Emperor
of the world, calling himself last god messenger. Through the same
brainwashing methods Muhammad and his criminal army converted,
subjugated and murdered the nonbelievers, followed by the plunder,
enslavement and rape of the captive virgins of any age."


3:42 PM
NUR said...

"Muhammad did almost exactly the same, following Moses footsteps, using
the same revolting doctrines and tactics to become the Islamic Emperor
of the world, calling himself last god messenger. Through the same
brainwashing methods Muhammad and his criminal army converted,
subjugated and murdered the nonbelievers, followed by the plunder,
enslavement and rape of the captive virgins of any age.

7:10 AM"

I do not admit LIES on any respectable blog and will not waste my time with authors of LIES or with lunatics that have escaped from mental institutions or some other kind of prisons!

I see enough filths on Zionist and racist websites.

1:58 AM
Blogger Nancy Lee said...
DO you allow any comments but your own I wonder? I found only one other person who comments then the writer of this page?
5:25 PM
Blogger Dr.Nur said...
we accept comments from knowledgeable people & we comment on ours & our research which is not a topic for kindergartens !
11:14 PM
"we accept comments from knowledgeable people & we comment on ours & our research which is not a topic for kindergartens !"

Well said.
3:15 AM

The Bible Came from Arabia" published in 1984, Kamal Al Salibi

 Rasta Livewire

The Afro-Arabian Origins of the Israelites and Ishmaelites PT 1 – DANA MARNICHE

The Afro-Arabian Origins of the Israelites and Ishmaelites – by – Dana Marniche
Regions to Know
Hejaz – western region of Arabia stretching between the region south of Sinai to the Yemen. Major cities include Mecca, Medina and Jiddah.
Nejd – Central Arabia now including Yemamah region originally stretched to the Euphrates. It is bounded by the Hejaz in the West and by Bahrein in the East and the Yemen in the south.

Tehama - Hijaz
Yemen – was the general name for all of the southern portion of Arabia.Al Harra or Harrah – a volcanic region now encompassing northwestern Arabia once included similar region stretching into southern Syria. Medina was in the area of Harra.
Roman general Marcellinus wrote the following on the nomads of Arabia circa 4th century A.D. “Among these tribes, whose primary origin is derived from the cataracts of the Nile and the borders of the Blemmyae, all the men are warriors of equal rank; half naked, clad in colored cloaks down to the waist, overrunning different countries, with the aid of swift and active horses and speedy camels, alike in times of peace and war.” 380 A.D. The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus, Book XIV.iv.1-7. Translation by C.D. Yonge. 1894 George Bell and Sons. (The Blemmyae were a people of Nubia. )
According to Western historical interpretation the Semites were the Hebrews and Arabians, Hamites were Africans and Japhetites were either Europeans or East Asians depending on the period. The notion that Shem, Ham and Japhet were peoples of varied appearance is something that is contradicted in early Arabian genealogical sources. In Arabian tradition the descendants of Noah were Arabians who had settled various lands after the flood.
During the Middle Ages the term “Saracen” stood for any nomadic or bedouin clan of the Middle East, including Kurds and Syrians. However, a millennium earlier when Ammianus Marcellinus wrote of the Nubian origins of the Saracens, the term signified only the bedouin of Arabian stock. Among them were the historical descendants of Tamudi or Thamudenioi Equites (equestrians) of Duma’at al Jandal in Jordan (Dumah of Bible), Hagarenes or Agarenioi (Hagar daughter the people of Misrah), Naba’aiti (Nabataeans of Petra), Kedrai ( Kedar), all people of Jordan and the Palmyrenes, Ghassanitae or Kassan in Wadi Madyan (Jokshan or Kushan brother of Midian), Maddenioi or Madani (Madan, brother of Midian) all located in those times in the area between southern Syria, North and Central West (Tihama) Arabia. There were also the Macae, Makka or Makkan (of Wady Makna), Macetae, Messenians in the same region and in Oman, and Scenitae or Ascitae (Hasik or Sakun) and Homeritae (Humayr or Himyarites) in the south (modern Yemen, Hadramaut, Aden, Oman).
By the start of the Christian era and up until the Middle Ages the name of the “Saracens” were considered to have been derived from the name of Sarah, wife of Abraham. Thus as late as the 14th century the following was written of the Arabians , “Peple þat cleped hem self Saracenys, as þogh þey were i-come of Sarra” – translated, “People that called themselves Saracens, as though they were come of Sarah [John of Trevisa, transl. Higdon’s Polychronicon, 1387]
The names of the “Saracen Bedouin” are also mentioned over a thousand years before Marcellinus in the texts of Assyrian kings who often fought with them and refer to them by such names as Qidar, Tamudi, Naba’aiti Ma’asei and Kushi. The Nab’aiti in particular, occupants of Petra and Jordan were among those classified as “Amurru” or Amorites, a name which had come to mean westerner.
Children of Isma’il, son of Hagar
Dumah or Duma’at Jandal in Jordan was the major town of the Thamud (or Samud See part I on the Mahra). They were called Idumaeans descendants of the Edomites.

Jordanian Arab
Jordanian Arab
Some of the other children of Isma’il son of Hagar are according to Genesis tradition the Naba’aithi, Kedar, Massa, are called children of Ishmael son of Hagar, daughter Misraite woman. According to Achtemeier, Paul J., Th.D., Harper’s Bible Dictionary, (San Francisco: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.) 1985, the term “Ishamelite” was synomous with the term “Midianites.”Biblical book Habakkuk 3:7 speaks of Jokshan as Kushan. “The prophet Habbakuk parallels Kushan with Midian: The tents of Kushan…the dwellings of Midian ….” The identification of the children of Keturah with the children of Hagar is witnessed in Genesis 37:28 and other places where the Midianites are called Ishmaelites. “Some Midianite traders passed by, so pulling Joseph up, they (his brothers) lifted him out of the pit. They sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver.”
The tribes of Kushan are historically known in the works of Ptolemy. The same tribe is named by Agatharchides as Cassandreis and circa 1st century by Diodorus of Sicily “the Gasandi”. In Arabia they were originally living in an area called Wadi Madyan in Jordan and extended into Egypt where the land was named Goshen or Guzan (in the area of modern Gaza) ; they were also located southeast of Mecca and later are the early Arabian Christians called Ghassan in Syria. In Samaritan Greek translations of the Bible the word Kush is translated as “Ethiopian” because they (the Kushan) also lived in Africa under the name Kush in what was then Nubia and this was also part of Arabia of early Greek writers, like Strabo and Diodorus. “Ethiopia”, however, had become the term for all black peoples whom according to Ephorus of the 4th c. B.C. had “occupied all of the southern coasts of Asia”. Later, Greek Biblical translators saw no inconsistency in calling northern Arabians, “Ethiopians” since they were an extension of the “Kushi” in Africa south of Egypt.
The Ishmaelites or descendants of Hagar, and the Midianites or Kushites (Jokshan or Kushan) of Keturah of the Bible were unquestionably one and the same Ethiopian people. They were settled on both sides of the Arabian sea in the time of Josephus – who claimed that Keturah and the children and grandchildren were those who had settled the region of the Ethiopian trogodytae.
Ethiopia was Arabia for the Greek writers of the start of the Christian era as much as Arabia was an extension of Ethiopia, Ethiopia was considered Arabia. The name Kush in the Bible is also used for the tribes known as Kushan or Jokshan.
Saba is a child of Kush, son of Ham and is also Saba (or Sheba) who was in fact a child of Jokshan and with Dedan (or Yudadas), another descendant of Keturah) “inhabited Western Ethiopia,” see Josephus Antiquities and were no doubt partly responsible for the name of the region of Kush. Josephus and Strabo claimed the inhabitants of Meroe were “Arabians” and Sabaeans and everything east of the Nile in the troglodyte country were Arabian.
According to David Goldberg’s, The Curse of Ham, “The identity of the Arabian Kush with Midian is the key to understanding the passage in numbers that speaks of Moses Kushite wife. According to the earlier biblical narrative Moses indeed had a wife, Zipporah, who was Midianite (Ex 2:21). When the Bible says that therefore that Moses had a Kushite wife, it is referring to the same Midianite wife of Zipporah, but is using the ancient name of her people. The Kushite of Num. 12:1 is just another name for the Midianite. The identity of the names is found in Christian sources as early as a fifth century and in Jewish sources of the Hellenistic period and the later Middle Ages.” P. 28 The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity and Islam., published 2003.
In Arabian tradition Ziphorah the Kushite is called Za’afira, Zarifah or Saffureh and she is “the diviner or prophetess and wife of Amr bin Amir Ma’as Sama who was surnamed Muzaikiya or Muzaiqiya (Moses) . Kitab-alaghaniy called the prophetess of the tribe Tarikah. She is Tarikha el Himyari for her mother was a woman of the tribe of Himyar. Other sources say that Tarikha, Zarifah or Saffureh was the same as Keturah. In fact these names all appear to be etymologically related or varied spellings of the same name.
The origins of the name Jokshan or Kush (Kushan or Gassan):
“Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kishon:” Psalms 83:9
Jokshan was brother of Midian, a child of Keturah – those familiar with early Christian history are aware of the name of the Gassan tribe of “Saracen” Arabians who settled Syria in the first centuries after Christ and who were in fact among the earliest Christians. The Banu Ghassan according to Arabian tradition had received their name from a brook located in the souther Hejaz of western Arabia near Zebid.
This tradition is well known in Arabia, “From the great family of Cahlan (descendant of Cahtan) the Azdite branch supplied to Mecca the tribe of the Khaza’a, and to Medina the Aus and Khazraj, while to Syria it gave the dynasty of Ghassan.” see p. 371, Calcutta Review published, 1853.
The Khazras
The Khazras were the traditional inhabitants of the city of Medina and comprised the ansar or “companions” of Muhammed, along with their brethren the Awza or Aus. Historical descriptions of the Khazraj (sometimes written Gazras or Khazras) are telling. One such reference was with regards to the early aristocratic leader of the Khazraj tribe, Ubada bin Samit, who had been sent on a diplomatic mission to the then Byzantine rulers of Egypt:
‘“When the companion Ubada bin Samit led a delegation to Muwqaqis” the Christian Byzantine red haired ruler of Alexandria is said to have exclaimed “get this black man away from me…how can you be content that a black man be your leader.”’ See David Goldenberg, The Curse of Ham, p. 107.
Ubadah, a pure Arabian aristocrat of the Khazraj tribe was described as very tall and black as were apparently many clans of the Arabian peninsula at the time. He was literally said to have been a commander of thousands of men who were of his complexion. This has apparently caused some European political historians chagrin, as a conservative American political commentator, David Pipes, made the following statement in the article, “Slave Soldiers in Muslim Armies”, in the International Journal of African Historical Studies with regard to Ubada and his compatriots.
“I shall assume that any body of blacks refers to Africans, since it is unlikely that a group of swarthy Caucasians would band together. Thus, while Ubada bin As-Samit is quite clearly an Arabian, the thousands of blacks he commands must be African.” The International Journal of African historical Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1980) pp. 87-94. Daniel Pipes.
Whatever the meaning ‘swarthy Caucasians” it is clear that Pipes, like so many other European historians haven’t made themselves familiar with Arabian histories and has been influenced by the notorious wishful thinking of their own ancestors inspired by the ridiculous notion of black and cursed “Hamites” as perennial slaves of a presumably fair-skinned, “semitic” people and imaginary fair “Japhetic” tribes. This warped view of separate differently colored “children of Noah” has often been wrongly taken as fact even by “Afrocentric” historians, causing still more unnecessary confusion.
The tribes of Ubada bin As-Samit’s homeland in Arabia’s volcanic Harrah were said to be black in complexion by al Jahiz (an Iraqi writer who appeared to have had a Zanj east African grandfather) living in the 9th c A.D. The grandfather of the prophet Mohammed, himself, named Abd al Mutallib, son of Hashim, was the son of a Khazraj woman from Yathrib. And, it has been often quoted from Jahiz that “The sons of Muttalib were massive in stature and black”. Among the most famous branches of the Khazraj were the Sulaym ibn Mansour to be discussed below. The complexion of the Sulaym tribes of al Harra and the Hejaz or northwest Arabia is said by al Jahiz to be “black” as the volcanic lava of the region. Ibn Athir also described a man of the Sulaym as “black” and called them of the “pure Arabs”.
The tribe Ubadah belonged to was the Auf bin Sulaym or belonging to the Auf branch of the Sulaym according to Tabari and others. See Last Years of the Prophet by Tabari, translation Ismail Poonawala and Ismail Husayn p. 358, footnote, or Biographies of the Prophets Companions and Successors, p. 28, fn. Translation Ella Landon-Tasseron, 1998.
Only 600 years after Ibn Athir , Muhammed Sadiq Bey (a man of Turkish ancestry of Egyptian birth) mentioned the inhabitants Medina (home of the Khazraj) in 1861. He “described Madinah and its inhabitants… The people of Madinah were of ‘a dark, almost black complexion,’ although some were ‘light-skinned, almost white.’” See “Pioneer Photographer of the Holy Cities” by John De St. Jorre, in the magazine Saudi Aramco World, Jan Feb 1999.
The Ghassan
The Ghassan were a closely related tribe of the Khazraj were the Banu Gassan or Ghassan (Jokshan) They are often described as an ancient offshoot of the tribes Aws and Khazraj whose ancestors Jafna and Thalabiyah had been followers of Muzaikiyah from Iram and Marib and who had settled in the area of Medina and the Harra before the time of Mohammed. They were the descendants of the tribe of Kahlan (brother of Himyar) that had left Marib in Saba in the time of following their leader “Muzaikiya” the sooth-sayer.
The relationship of Muzaikiyyah to Biblical Moses was discussed in Part I. Immanuel Velikovsky, author of Ages in Chaos, wrote of this Arabian tradition: “In the region of Marib was staying a tribe that had arrived there only a short time before. According to al-Masudi, the king [in other sources the ruler of the tribe] was Amr the son of Amir; he had the surname Mozaikiya. He had a divine brother whose name was Amran. The ruler had for wife a woman skilful in the art of divination; her name was Zarifah” Masudi, Murudij al-Dhabab, Vol. III, pp. 374f. Cf. Nuwairi, Chap. IV. See Sources of God and Silver in Islam , D. M. Dunlop.
The people of Amr bin Amir the soothsayer after being expelled by Akk bin Adnan disengaged and dispersed in idifferent directions. Jafna bin Amr bin Amir settled in Syria, Aus and Khazraj settled in Yathrib and Khuza’a went to Marra.
Velikovsky, wrote, “They continued on their way and came to a camp between the land of the Aharites and Akk, near a pool named Gassan, between two valleys called Zebid and Rima, and they drank the water of the pool.” Zabid is the ancient capital of Tihama which was part of the southern Hejaz. This is also a reference to the land of the Achar and Og, the Amorite ruler of the Bible.”
Of the ancestors of the Ghassan or Kushan it is written, ‘Jafna bin ‘Amr and his family, headed for Syria where he settled and initiated the kingdom of Ghassan who was so named after a spring of water, in Hijaz, where they stopped on their way to Syria.” The spring, stream or brook, pool of water the Ghassan is otherwise known in the Bible as Kishon or Kison. In Judges 5:21 of the Bible it is written, “Then Elijah said to them, Seize the prophets of Baal; do not let one of them escape. So they seized them; and Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon, and slew them there” and in Psalm 83:9 “the torrent of Kishon” is also mentioned.
Marib the capital of ancient Saba was evidently the Meriba of the book of Exodus. The story of Jafna, Muzaikiya and Tha’labah is unmistakably too similar to that of Jephuneh and his father Caleb in the Bible to be coincidental. (Tha’labah is sometimes written Salabiyyah.) While the Midianites at the torrent of Kishon are the people known as Jokshan or Kushan or Midianites of Habakkuk, Chronicles and Genesis. They are the same as the Kushi in the tents of Kedar and the reason Ziphorah the Midianite is named “a Kushite” woman (later translated Ethiopian). It is also said that the brethren of Jafna, descendants of “Tha‘labah bin ‘Amr left his tribe Al-Azd for Hijaz and dwelt between Tha‘labiyah and Dhi Qar. When he gained strength, he headed for Madinah where he stayed. Of his seed are Aws and Khazraj, sons of Haritha bin Tha‘labah.” And “Imran bin ‘Amr and his folks went to ‘Oman where they established the tribe of Azd whose children inhabited Tihama and were known as Azd-of-Shanu’a.
Imran bin Amr was no doubt Aaron the brother of Moses. Amr his father is thus Amram the father of Aaron and Moses. “And at the end of forty days they came to Moses and Aaron, and they brought him word as it was in their hearts, and ten of the men brought up an evil report to the children of Israel, of the land which they had explored, saying, It is better for us to return to Misraim than to go to this land, a land that consumes its inhabitants. But Joshua the son of Nun, and the son of Jephuneh, who were of those that explored the land, said, The land is exceedingly good.”
The tall black Khazraj of Medina the Harrah who were the same as the Kush or Ghassan were thus a remnant of the children of not only of the Keturah or the Midianite followers of Moses, but were in Arabian tradition the descendants of Jephuneh and Caleb brother of Kenaz who fathered Othniel the first Judge of Israel – the Kenizzites were, like the Amalekites, descendants of Eliphaz in the Bible.
Josephus replaces the word Jokshan with Jazar which is Arabic for Gezer or the Khazraj who are also called Khazara, Hazraj, Gazras in various translations.
The Fall of the Pure and Matrifocal Arabians
By the time of Muhammed, Iranians and Romans had strong influence on the both the early Afro-Arabs of Arabia and Syria peninsula. Several early writers spoke of the destruction of the matrifocal tradition and Goddess worship of the Afro-Arabians indigenous populations of the Hejaz. The authors seem to have taken particular satisfaction in the smiting of the daughters of Allah and other Goddesses worshipped by the Khazraj. According to Muslim documents these idols were accustomed to manifesting themselves as “wailing black women” with “disheveled hair” when later followers of the Prophet came to destroy their temples:
“…worshipped by the Azd, Sa’d bin Zaid Ashhal was sent to the idol temple of Menat to demolish it, this being the idol of the tribes of Aus, Khazraj and Ghusan. When Sa’d entered the temple of Menat he beheld a black woman with dischevelled hair coming out of it… but S’ad finished her with one blow of his sword. “ From Garden of Purity by Mirkhond The Rayzat – in Safa translation E. Rehatsak printed by the Royal Asiatic Society , London, 1891-1894.
Al Tabari born in Central Asia in the 9th century mentions the goddess Uzza or Azziz-lat another emanation of Allat, daughter of Allah: “‘I have destroyed it.’ he said to Muhammad. ‘Did you see anything.’ ‘No.’ ‘Then.’ Muhammad said, ‘go back and kill her.’ So Khalid returned to the idol. He destroyed her temple and broke her graven image. The shrine’s keeper began saying, ‘Rage, Oh Uzza, display one of your fits of rage.’ Whereupon a naked, wailing Ethiopian woman came out before him. Khalid killed her and took the jewels that were on her. Then he went back to Allah’s Messenger and gave him a report. ‘That was Al-Uzza,’ Muhammad said. ‘Al-Uzza will never be worshiped again.’” –
Another translation says “Khalid Ben Alwalid destroyed the idol temple of Uzza and a nude black women with disheveled hair manifested. Al walid exclaimed, ‘Thou art not to be believed, nor to be praised. Allah has humbled thee!” Uzza was venerated especially by the Shayban (belonging to the Bakr bin Wa’il) a vassal tribe of the Sulaym.
Cleodemus and Josephus claimed that aside from Jazar (Khazara) who was Jokshan, other tribes of Keturah who had entered and settled the Trogodyte area of Africa were the Midianites (of Mady’an, Sinai, Gaza) and the children of Midian and Madan, the Afran and Japhren, Abida, Anoch, Ephah and Eldad (or Yada’il) were found in Africa. Midian’s brother Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. Sheba or Saba occupied the Nile including Meroe where the tribes were also described as tall and black. The tribes of Dedan and Ashurim were occupants of Ethiopia and the Sahara. Ashurim or Surim in fact were known in Roman times, and considered as a branch of the Levathes Mauri or Maurusioi of the Sahara. They are the historical people variously called Ausuriani, Austuriani, Astrikes, Astacures or Saturiani in Roman texts named after their ancestor Ashur, Assheran or Saturn whom the Greeks called Chronus and the Mesopotamians, Zeruan or Zervan Akarene, ruler of time.
In his Book 1 Chapter 15 called “How the Nation of the Trogodytes were Derived from Abraham by Keturah” the following is written:
“Now the sons of Sous (Shasu or Shuwa)were Sabathan and Dadan. The sons of Dadan were Latusim, and Assur, and Luom. The sons of Madiau were Ephas, and Ophren, and Anoch, and Ebidas, and Eldas. Now, for all these sons and grandsons, Abraham contrived to settle them in colonies; and they took possession of Troglodytis, and the country of Arabia the Happy, as far as it reaches to the Red Sea. It is related of this Ophren, that he made war against Libya, and took it, and that his grandchildren, when they inhabited it, called it (from his name) Africa. And indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: “Cleodemus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a History of the Jews, in agreement with the History of Moses, their legislator, relates, that there were many sons born to Abraham by Keturah: nay, he names three of them, Apher, and Surim and Japhran. That from Surim was the land of Assyria denominated; and that from the other two (Apher and Japhran) the country of Africa took its name, because these men were auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antaeus; and that Hercules married Aphra’s daughter, and of her he begat a son, Diodorus; and that Sophon was his son, from whom that barbarous people called Sophacians were denominated.””
Josephus wrote that Dedan or Yudadas (Judah?) were settlers of “Western Ethiopia”. The name Ditanu or Tidanu according to Cyrus Gordon and later historians is the early Mesopotamian name for the south Arabian originated people known as Amorites or (Amurrim). He is also the Afro-Arabian and African nilotic deity Dedun whom the Greeks call Titan. The Sabaeans were the inhabitants of Meroe and Sabtah were the historical Astaborans along the Nile in Africa. The Titans or Sabaeans were in both legend and tradition said to be very tall statured people. The word Titan is related to that of Ad, Adad, Hadad or Shadad and Chedid all sons of descendants of Ad.
By late or Greco- Roman (Byzantine) times in Syria and the West not only the word Midianite or Kushites, but each of the names Nabit, Kedar, Canaan, Ham and Misrah had come to signify blackness – not because these peoples had come from Nubia, but because Arabians of that day were also known to the inhabitants of Syria and other places northward as black in color or “Ethiopians”.
Naba’ait, 1st son of Isma’il
David Goldberg wrote, “… al Dimashqi who lists the Nabataeans (Nbt) among the descendants of Ham together with the Copts, the BrBr (Berbers) and the Sudan … and the Akkbar al Zaman, which lists the Nabit , among the children of Canaan ” also said the word, ‘Nabit’ signifies ‘ ‘black’…” see p. 313, The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianitym and Islam by David Goldenberg. (Al Dimashqi was a Syrian of Damascus. )
The word Nabataean came from the major African-Arabian deity Nabu or Nebo which was in the West called Mercury. It originally signified a prophet, its meaning having originally nothing to do with blackness, however, due to the African appearance of the Nabataeans also known as the “Anbat Saraceni”, the word came to signify black. Certain bedouin clans of the Nabataean regions like Petra, Wadi Rum and other areas of Jordan such as the Huwat’at or Haweitat who claim descent from the Nabataeans, are still near black in color.
One European traveler as late as 1887 wrote of a sheikh of the Haweitat tribes in the region of northwest Arabia: “The sheikh soon afterwards appeared. He was a dirty, truculent looking fellow, with very black eyes and very white teeth, a sinister expression, and complexion scarcely less dark than that of a negro.” P. Austen Henry Layard, Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana, and Babylonia: Including … pg. 32. Published by J. Murray.
The Huwaytat, are in fact, one of the many Arabian tribes still living in Jordan and Sinai that came to settle in Egypt and Sudan and make up part of the Ababdeh or Ababideh along the Red Sea coasts of Egypt and Sudan.
Circa 9th thc. A.D. the Muslim historian al Masudi from Baghdad wrote, “The Nabataeans founded the city of Babylon and were those descendants of Ham who settled in the same province under the leadership of Nimrod, the son of Cush, who was the son of Hamm…This took place at the time when Nimrod received the governship of Babylonia as the delegate of Dzhahhak.”
In Arabian tradition Nimrod of Babylon is known Nomeir, Numeiri or Numayr ibn Kasit (Casit or Qasit) (Namir or Numayr meaning panther). He is sometimes called Nomeir son of Arfakhshad (Aur or Ur Khasdim) son of Shem which links him to the people called to the historical Chaldeans. But, in the Bible Nimrod is the son of Kush, son of Ham. The suggestion is that Kush has some connection to the name of the Kasdim who were the people also called Chaldeans. Kush father of Nimrod is called child of Ham, while Arfakshad or Kasit father of Numayr refers to the Ur Khasdim and was called the first child of Shem. Kamal Salibi in the Bible Came from Arabia identifies this town with present (Maqsud or Wariyah Maqsud of southern Arabia.).
Kedar 2nd son of Ismail
Kedar the second son of Isma’il is the name of another group which also came to signify blackness. The word Kedar or Kidar was apparently related to the word Khadar or Akhdar, originally the word for a greenish iron. It, thus, came to signify strength and power or otherwise things that were either green or black. The word “green” is often used in the Arabian and Sudanese Arabic to describe individuals of dark brown complexion.
A European Targum text Song 1:5 employs the phrase “as black as the Kushi who live in the tents of Kedar.” In the tradition of Syria and in the later European Jewish or Rabbinic tradition the Kushi signified black peoples which in fact became derogatory.
Who are Biblical Massa, Tema, and Dedan – children of Hagar and Keturah?
The records of the Assyrian King Tiglath Pileser III of the 7th c. B.C. mentions the Arabian clans of the Maasaai or Mash’aai and of Tema (also written Tayma or Teima), who paid him tribute. The tribe of Maasei’ah or Maasei are mentioned together with Ishmael in the book of Ezra chapter 10, both are children of Harim and of Pashur. These are the Massa who figure among children of Ishmael in the book of Genesis.
On the summit of Jebal Ghunaym, located about fourteen kilometers south of modern Tayma in Jordan, archeologists discovered some graffiti texts mentioning the tribe Massaa, in connection with Dedan and the Neba’aith (Nabataeans). Josephus circa 1st c. connects the name of Massa with the Saracen Mesenaeans whom Ptolemy calls Masanioi living northeast of Dumah (in Jordan). These were the Masanioi who founded the Kingdoms of Mesene (Maysan) near Basra where the Tigris and Euphrates meet at the shore of the Persian Gulf. [editors note] “A substantive population of black Iraqis still live in Basra to this present day.”
Individuals of the tribe of Mash’ai living in Oman in Arabia are described and shown in a photograph in a book by Bertram Thomas. They are described as “very dark brown” in color. It is not impossible they are the remnant of the ancient Maasei/Mashaai of Assyrian records who founded the kingdom of Mesene.
Teima or Tayim received its name from the Banu Tayyi, a tribe associated with the A’d or Adites.
“‘Descendants of Kedar son of Ishmael lived long in Mecca and of them issued Adnan and his son Ma’ad and his son Nizar” .
In most Arabian genealogical tradition among the descendants of Ishmael who we have just shown were otherwise called Midianites, were the Hawazin, Sulaym and Mazin, three sons of Mansour, son of Ikrima, son of Khasafa, son of Al Nas or Qays Ailan. “From Mazin bin Mansour bin Ikrima were the Khazraj and Aus or Awza children of Tha’laba or Salebiyya and Jafna. “ The tribes of Mansour or Manasse’ir had branched off from the Ma’adi who appear to have been the origin of the Ma’adi’ah a family of priests (Levites) named in (Nehemiah 12). It will be shown that Mansour or Manasse’ir is the same as Manasseh, child of Joseph and that in genealogy of Arabia most of Mansour’s descendants figure among the children of Levi in the Bible who had been captured by Bukht al Nasir (Nebuchadnezzar) the Chaldean in charge of Babylon centuries before the Christian era.
According to the findings of Kamal Salibi, Israel and Canaan were originally names of areas of southwest Arabia. Salibi discovered the identity of the names of hundreds of villages and localities of the Biblical Judah and Israel in the Yemen, Hejaz, and Tihama regions which have yet to be located in modern Israel and Palestine. His proposal was not acceptable to modern European historians for nationalist and political reasons. Yet the early Arab writings have also showed that the tribes descended from Ismail and the Levites, Israelites, Ismaelites and Edomites were in fact one and the same. Apparently a portion of the children of Israelites otherwise or simultaneously known as Midianites who settled in the Hejaz and Tihama came to be called the children of Ishmael.
Abd al Wahhab, an 18th century Arabian born in the Nejd (of present Saudi Arabia) in the text Mukhtasar Seerat ar-Rasul (Biography of the Prophet) was one of the last to recount the genealogy that many historians previous to him had given with regards to the living tribes of Arabia. Nizar (also known as Nasr) son of Ma’ad, son of Adnan had four sons who branched out into the tribes of Rabi’a, Mudar (Muzar), Anmar and Eyad (Jadah). Mudar or Muzar branched into the two great divisions of Qais Ailan or El Nas and El Yas. The former gave birth to the Ghatafan and Khasafa father of Ikrima father of Mansur. Mansur fathered three children, Mazin, Hawazin and Sulaym or Salim. Khasafa’s brother, Ghatafan through Reishi gave birth to Ashja’a, Zubyan and Abs, the Bahila and Sad Manat. From Zubyan also came the Fezara.
El Nas and Ghatafan are mentioned in the Bible as the families of the Judaeans, Neziah and Hatipha in the Biblical book of Ezra 2:54 and Nehemiah 7:56. El Yas, brother of El Nas, was undoubtedly Elias which is sometimes translated Elijah in the Bible. “Then Elijah said to them, Seize the prophets of Baal; do not let one of them escape.” So they seized them; and Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon, and slew them there.” This is the brook from which the “Ghusan or Kushan (or Jokshan Midianites) were named.
While Khasafa, brother of Ghatafan is apparently Hasupha or Chasupha of Ezra 2:43. They are classified as Levites or priests. Zubyan and Ashja’a, descendants of Ghatafan are mentioned in Genesis 36:24 as Zibeon and his son Ajah or Aia descendants of Se’ir, the Horite and Hivites of Cana’an. Zibeon and Se’ir are also descendant of Esau or Edom in Genesis. Khasafa’s son, Ikrima, is obviously Kirama of Ezra 2:26. Fazara is evidently Passhur the Levite, and father of Maasei’ah in Ezra 2:38. Reishi is likely Rosh, son of Benjamin. Bahila is Bilhah, handmaid of Rachel. The Manat took their name from the Goddess who was called Manah or Manat and correspond to descendants of Manahath the second son of Se’ir the Horite.
The pasture grounds of the Zubyan (also written Dhubyan or Dhubian) lay to the east of Medina in the time of Ubadah where they dwelt along with all of the other descendants of Ghatafan.
According to Tabari, Wahhab and other genealogists of the Arabian tribes, Sulaym bin Mansour belonged to the Auf clan of the Khazraj and from Ghatafan came the tribes named Assiyeh , Rahil and Zakwan. Mansour or Manase’ir son of Ikrima, is the Biblical Manasseh, child of Joseph and Asenath, daughter of Potiphera a priest of Ra at On. Thus Assiyeh was Asenath, wife of Joseph (Asaf), while the name of the tribe of Ra’ala (Ruhayla or Rahil descended from Ghatafan) is Rachel, mother of Joseph. (One writer calls her the wife of Potiphar). This is why Tabari in The History of El Tabari Vol. III, ‘The Children of Israel”, calls Assiyeh “an Israelite woman”.
In Arabian tradition Rahil or Ra’ala es- Saidi was from the noble family of the Djurhumites (Djorham or Jurham is Biblical Hadoram) who were the historical Adramitae of the Sabaean kingdom (mentioned by Pliny 1st century and Ptolemy later called Dreematae or Dareem) daughter of the ruler Modad of the Hejaz (southwestern Arabia.) Rahil married Ishma’il, the son of Hagar, who was also called Keturah variously called daughter of Joktan, or Japhet in the European Rabbinic traditions. They had 3 children Nebait, Kedar and Mahalath. Thus the Arabian tradition makes the tribe of Djurham or Dareem occupants of Hejaz and Yemen ancestors of both Israel and the Ismaelites. This leaves open the possility that Ishma’il is the same as Asma who is in one early Arabian tradition called the father of Qahtan (biblical Joktan). Ibn Ishaq, was an Arabian born in Medina in the 8th century makes Isma’il the father of Qahtan.
The ruler Asaf, according to Arabian tradition corresponding to the Bible story of Joseph was put in control of Misrah by the Hyksos or Amalekite rulers Raian (El Riyan) and Walid, who ruled in Egypt. Misrah, however, also include Musra or Musran a region or village and people synonymous with the Meluhha or Amalekites living next to and controlling the Egypt of the Hyksos period. In the Bible, Joseph is called a son of Jacob who is identified by some archeologists as the Hyksos ruler who figures on Egyptian scarabs as Yaqub Hor or Yaqub El. In the Bible, Jacob is, of course, also called “Israel”.
It was very likely that in this time the tribes known as Sulaym bin Mansour (historical Solymi or Soleimi) and other Canaanite or Amalekite peoples came to found the northern Cana’an settlement of Hierosolymi (Jerusalem) in Palestine and to settle other regions around the coast, including the Mediterranean Isles and Iran in the East. It was from here the Anakim of Canaan settled and were called Ph’anakes by the Greco-Egyptian historian Manetho, “Phoenicians” by other Greeks and Fenkhu in ancient Egyptian inscriptions.
Josephus refers to the Amalekites as “the Phoenician shepherds”. Cathim, traditionally known as “an Amalekite” also went down in the tradition of the Greeks as Cethimus. Josephus said Chethim became the name of all of the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts because of the colonizations of his people. The city of Citium or Khittium in Cyprus was also populated by these Phoenicians and Diogenes Laertius said one of their descendants, Zeno the founder of Stoicism is said to be “gaunt, very tall and black” with a twisted neck and called “Egyptian vine shoot” because of it.
In North Africa they were in fact the people recorded in Roman documents and by later Arabic writers as Uakutameni, Maketae or Micutateni of the Tunisian coast and the Atlas (a tribe mentioned by Diodorus Siculus circa 1st c. as the color of Ethiopians) and as the Ketama or Kitama whom 11th century Christian Iraqi ibn Butlan says were black. See on this blog, ‘The Appearance of the Original Berbers According to European Perceptions” edited by Dana Marniche, . In the Bible they are the children of Heth or Kheth as well as Kittim descendants of Japhet. Makitan is still the name of the eastern branches of the Tuareg, and their script called “Tifinagh” is thought to mean “belonging to the Phoenicians”.
Meluhha (Amlikhu) had been known in earlier Akkadian inscriptions as well. According to Samuel Noah Kramer founder of Sumerian studies, in the Akkadian dialect Meluhha came to mean “the place of black men” . See p. 277 in The Sumerians ( University of Chicago Press, 1963, pp.276-285). The Amalekites or Phoenician shepherds as Josephus calls them and the Ketama (Imakitan) were one. The Amlakh mentioned as a a batn or clan of Dthu Ru’ayn or Rahawein now located in Somalia. The Somalian Afar/D’anakil and Tuareg people represent the tall people of ancient Arabia known as Anakh, Nakhawil. Afar Ifuraces and Ifuras Tuareg and other tall peoples remain under their ancient names.
They are the tall Amalek/Meluhha, Philistim, Phoenikes or Anakim, Amorites/Amurath or Mur’ad, Adites Rephaims, Ditanu, Emim (Umayma), Ilm –Aroma Ahlam-Aramu. Sabai Sabaeans, and Humayr or Himyarites of old and of modern Africa and Arabia.
The True Remnants of Hawazin bin Mansour (of Manasseh, son of Joseph)
Through the descendants of Hawazin son of Mansour of the Qays Ailan (El Nas) came the clans of Beni Amir bin Za’za’a or Sa’sa’ah. Zaza in the Bible is a descendant of Judah through Jerachmeel brother of Caleb, both Israelites. Zaza is a grandson of Jada in the Bible, 1 Chronicles 2:33. The Arabian clan of Jada is said to be the son or sometimes the brother of Kaab bin Rabee’a bin Amir bin Sa’sa.
The genealogy of the Hawazin is the same as the Mazin and Sulaym son of Mansour, It is Hawazin son of Mansur (Manasseh) son of Ikrima (Kirama) son of Khasafa (Chasupha)son of Kais Alan son of Mudar or Muzar (Mizraim).
In the late 19th century, there was a group of Afro-Arabian tribes living in the region of Khuzestan, Iran and around the Persian Gulf and the Shott al Arab in Iraq called variously Kaab, (Cha’ab or Chub), Kuleib, Al Muntafik (or Afek), Khuza’il, Khafajah, Uqayl or Aqil, and Jada. They are the documented descendants of the Beni Amir bin Sa’sa’a of the Hawazin bin Mansour, a tall peoples described until the 20th century as “near black” in color and strongly built. (See below) The Iranians called them “Tsiab”. [editors note] –“Many of their descendants live there even today still black in complexion.”
Assyriologists familiar with texts of the neo-Assyrians identify a king, Haza’il of Adumu one of the Sheikhs of Kedar conquered by Sennacherib of Assyria. Esarhaddon (7thc.B.C.) the next Assyrian king met Haza’il and visited the districts of Hazu or Khazu and Bazu where he succeeded in subduing 7 kings. These are the regions of the tribes Hazo and Buz of the Bible. See G. Maspero’s, History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 8. Hazo, was brother of Uz or Huz, Khesed and Kamuel father of Aram.
It is well known that the Uz were the tribe of Aus or Awza and Buz is now called Bayzan. There is a Khuza’il also mentioned in the book of Amos. The land of Khaza’a is also mentioned in the Egyptian Amarna records of the time of Akhenaton as the land of Hazaa. A people known as Chub were in alliance with the Egypt at the time of Nebuchadnezzar in Ezekiel 30:5, they are in league with Phut or Fut and Lud which has sometimes been wrongly interpreted as Libya and Lydia (in reality the latter were only two of several regions colonized by the tribes of Fut and Lud).
According to Al Bukhari or Al Bekri “Afsa bin Haritha bin Amr bin Amir was from the Khuza’a tribe.” The Bible calls El Afsa , Eliphaz. “Khuza’a was one group of those who were split from the tribes of Saba when God sent on them the flood of al-Aram. And the Aws and Khazraj tribes were from Saba also.” See pp. 1-2, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad by Ibn Kathir, translation Trevor le Gassick published, 2000. (Ibn Kathir was a 14th century Syrian.)
Descriptions by European Travelers
Having left the Hejaz before the Christian era, many of the tribes of the Hawazin were domiciled in Central Arabia (the Nejd) with a stronghold in a place called Yemamah (Yemamah or Jemimah means ‘little dove”). After taking up the banner of Islam the Ka’ab bin Rabia, a son of Beni Amir bin Za’za’ah, and Ka’ab’s sons and brothers Uqayl bin Kaab, Muntafiq bin Uqayl bin Kaab (to whom belonged the tribe Khuza’il), Jada’ah bin Ka’ab and Kulaib and other clans of Rabi’a left the southwest of Yemamah ( north of the Rub al Khali) by the 9th century and headed for Iraq and Syria in support of other Arabian followers of Mohammed who had settled those countries. By the 16th century, the clans of Ka’ab son of Rabia of the Banu Amir bin Za’za’a descendants the Qays through Hawazin bin Mansour began immigrating to Iran from Iraq and settled in the Khuzestan region of Iran.
Their descendants are described in the 19th century by orientalist explorer George Rawlinson, who traveled through the region and described the Cha’b (also called in recent times Chub, Ka’ab, Kub) and Montefik bin Uqayl Arabs in Khuzestan as “nearly black” and having the dark “copper” complexion of the “Galla Ethiopians” and other Abyssinians, See The Seven Great monarchies of the Ancient World, Vol. 1 (07) p. 35
In 1881, Rawlinsons asserts, “The Cha’ab Arabs, the present possessors of the more southern parts of Babylonia are nearly black and the ‘black Syrians’ of whom Strabo speaks seem to represent the Babylonians.” The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World: Or, The History, Geography, and Antiquites of Chaldœa, Assyria, Babylon, Media, and Persia, Vol. II
The Hawazin remnants still in Yemamah are the Dowasir or Ad Dawasir. (See below)
Another “black” tribe known as Khaza’il or Kassahil of the town of Lamlun in Khuzestan were a people of Muntafik ibn Uqayl bin Kaab. The early First Encylopaedia of Islam from 1913-1936 says the Khaza’il in Iran “extended from Lamlun to Diwana where they bordered on the Muntafik, Muntafik are or wild Afik, Faidj are a subdivision of the Khaza’il, the most powerful tribe in southern Babylonia.” In Islamic times the Khafaja a branch of the Muntafiq or Afiq once commanded the road from Basra to Kufa in Iraq. The Kaab were centered south of Basra.
1829 – The tribes in Yemamah of the Nejd called today Dawas’ir or Dossariya were a remnant of the Beni Amer bin Sa’sa’ah branch of the Hawazin, “The Dowaser are said to be very tall men, and almost black. In former times they used to sell at Mekka ostrich feathers to the northern pilgrims, and many pedlars of Mekka came here in winter to exchange cotton stuffs for those feathers.” from John Lewis Burkhardt, Travels in Arabia. Vol. 1
1844 – Charles Forster writing on, “The marked distinctiveness of the Dowaser Arabs” says “this striking difference in height and color from the surrounding tribes is not confined to the Dowaser. The phenomenon reappears among the Arabs of the Persian Gulf …The Arabs of the Persian Gulf observed Colonel Chesnesy are a fine race of men, remarkable for lofty stature and dark complexion, in both respects differing markedly from the Arabs of the Arabian Gulf.” The Historical Geography of Arabia by Charles Forster, p. 30.
1859 – The Dowaser are blacker than their neighbours….the tribes further to the east are those of Mahara, Ad and Amelik” By Robert Gordon Latham p. 83 Descriptive Ethnology Vol. II London. (The same Ad and Amalik who had supposedly disappeared or made extinct.)
1894 – On the tribes of Beni Amer ibn Za’za’a Arabians of Khuzestan Iran, “The faces and limbs of these Arabs were almost black from constant exposure to the sun. They were nearly naked and their hair was plaited in long tresses shining with grease…” p. 85 of Henry Layard’s, Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana and Babylonia, republished 2003
1878 – Francois Lenormant describes people of Lamlun in Iran (Khaza’il) as “almost Melanian” on p. 351 of his Chaldean magic : or It’s origin and Development or Magie Chez les Chaldaeans, he also writes : “Part of the marshy region around the Persian Gulf was inhabited by people who were nearly black. A remnant of these are yet extant in the Lamlun whom the French traveler, Texier has described and who are allied …to the Bisharis…” p. 518-519. (The Bishari or Bishariin are a tribe of the Bedja living in southern Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea east Africa.)
1884 – “The bas reliefs of Susiana show negroid types and Texier found the Lamlam tribe in the marshes around the head of the Persian Gulf to resemble the Bisharin of upper Egypt . Was the Buddha one of these Kushite Ethiopians?” p. 143 footnotes, Richard Francis Burton The Book of the Sword republication in 2006. The modern clans of Lamlam however had later Arabian origins and nothing to do with the earlier Elamites or Afro-Indic people.
Lastly, W. Robertson Smith in Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia refers to “the important tribe of ‘Amir ibn Sa’sa’a, a branch of the great confederation called Hawazin,” as people “which corresponded to the modern ‘Otaiba.” Of the Otaiba also written (Ateyba, Utaiba, Ateibe, etc.) a century ago by James Hamilton, “they wore their hair in long curly plaits” and their skin was “dark brown”. See pp. 129-130, Wanderings Around the Birthplace of Mohammed, published by R. Bentley, 1857.
To be continued:
Dana Marniche

6 thoughts on “The Afro-Arabian Origins of the Israelites and Ishmaelites PT 1 – DANA MARNICHE”

  1. In the above posting the word Judah? after Dedan and Yudadas is incorrect, and if I put it there it is a very serious and costly mistake. The word Yhwd or Judah which comes from a word meaning lion – “wahd” or “aoud” – had nothing whatsoever to do with the words, Dedan,Titan or Ditanu an ancient word used for the Amurrite people, and is etymologically related to the word’s” tit” a hill or pillar of water. Ancient “Semitic” people called their goddesses “Teta” or Adthat or “Irthet” like the modern Ethiopians. From which came the Greek names Titea or Tethis mother of the Titans.
  2. This is very interest what you are doing to educate the wider public. Keep doing the good works you are doing, your are making a difference in providing quality information.

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  1. Great research No wonder they want Arabia the heartland of the universe