Friday, 27 May 2011


Jesus in the Holy Qur'aan

Posted: May 26, 2011 by crescentandcross in Uncategorized
5 Votes

He Shall Speak to the People in Childhood and in Maturity
Qur’an 3:45-51 Surah Ale-’Imran (The Family of ‘Imran)
Behold! the angels said “O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ (Maseeh) Jesus the son of Mary held in honor in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah.
“He shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity and he shall be (of the company) of the righteous.”
She said: “O my Lord! how shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?” He said: “Even so: Allah createth what He willeth; when He hath decreed a plan He but saith to it ‘Be’ and it is!
“And Allah will teach him the Book and Wisdom the Law and the Gospel.
“And (appoint him) an Apostle to the Children of Israel (with this message): I have come to you with a sign from your Lord in that I make for you out of clay as it were the figure of a bird and breathe into it and it becomes a bird by Allah’s leave; and I heal those born blind and the lepers and I quicken the dead by Allah’s leave; and I declare to you what ye eat and what ye store in your houses. Surely therein is a Sign for you if ye did believe.
“(I have come to you) to attest the Law which was before me and to make lawful to you part of what was (before) forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign from your Lord. So fear Allah and obey me.
“It is Allah who is my Lord and your Lord; then worship Him. This is a way that is straight.”

Mary, the Daughter of ‘Imran, Guarded Her Chastity

Qur’an 66:11-12 Surah At-Tahrim (Banning)
And Allah sets forth as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord! build for me in nearness to Thee a mansion in the Garden and save me from Pharaoh and his doings and save me from those that do wrong”;
And Mary the daughter of ‘Imran who guarded her chastity; and We breathed into her (body) of Our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His Revelations and was one of the devout (Servants).
The Similitude of Jesus Before Allah Is as That of Adam….”Be” and He Was

Qur’an 3:59-63 Surah Ale-’Imran (The Family of ‘Imran)
This similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam: He created him from dust then said to him: “Be” and he was.
The truth (comes) from Allah alone; so be not of those who doubt.
If anyone disputes in this matter with thee now after (full) knowledge hath come to thee say: “Come! let us gather together our sons and your sons our women and your women ourselves and yourselves: then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!”
This is the true account: there is no god except Allah; and Allah He is indeed the Exalted in Power the Wise.
But if they turn back Allah hath full knowledge of those who do mischief.
Allah Too Planned and the Best of Planners Is Allah

Qur’an 3:52-58 Surah Ale-’Imran (The Family of ‘Imran)
When Jesus found unbelief on their part he said: “Who will be my helpers to (the work of) Allah?” Said the Disciples: “We are Allah’s helpers we believe in Allah and do thou bear witness that we are Muslims.
“Our Lord! we believe in what thou hast revealed and we follow the Apostle; then write us down among those who bear witness.”
And (then unbelievers) plotted and planned and Allah too planned and the best of planners is Allah.
Behold! Allah said: “O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject Faith to the Day of Resurrection; then shall ye all return unto Me and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute.
“As to those who reject faith I will punish them with terrible agony in this world and in the Hereafter nor will they have anyone to help.
“As to those who believe and work righteousness Allah will pay them (in full) their reward; but Allah loveth not those who do wrong.
“This is what We rehearse unto thee of the Signs and the Message of Wisdom.”
They Killed Him Not Nor Crucified Him

Qur’an 4:155-159 Surah An-Nisaa (The Women)
(They have incurred divine displeasure): in that they broke their Covenant: that they rejected the Signs of Allah; that they slew the Messengers in defiance of right; that they said “Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve Allah’s Word; we need no more)”; nay Allah hath set the seal on their hearts for their blasphemy and little is it they believe.
That they rejected faith: that they uttered against Mary a grave false charge.
That they said (in boast) “We killed Christ (Maseeh) Jesus the son of Mary the Apostle of Allah”; but they killed him not nor crucified him but so it was made to appear to them and those who differ therein are full of doubts with no (certain) knowledge but only conjecture to follow for of a surety they killed him not.
Nay Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power Wise.
And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment He will be a witness against them.
Jesus Shall Be a Sign for the Coming of the Hour of Judgment

Qur’an 43:57-67 Surah Az-Zukhruf (Gold Adornments)
When (Jesus) the son of Mary is held up as an example behold thy people raise a clamor thereat (in ridicule)!
And they say ” Are Our gods best or He?” This they set forth to thee only by way of disputation: yea they are a contentious people.
He was no more than a servant: We granted Our favor to him and We made him an example to the Children of Israel.
And if it were Our Will We could make angels from amongst you succeeding each other on the earth.
And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment): therefore have no doubt about the (Hour) but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way.
Let not the Evil One hinder you: for he is to you an enemy avowed.
When Jesus came with Clear Signs he said: “Now have I come to you with Wisdom and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) on which ye dispute: therefore fear Allah and obey me.
“For Allah; He is my Lord and your Lord: so worship ye Him: this is a Straight Way.”
But sects from among themselves fell into disagreement: then woe to the wrongdoers from the Penalty of a Grievous Day!
Do they only wait for the Hour that it should come on them all of a sudden while they perceive not?
Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except the Righteous.
O Allah Our Lord! Send Us from Heaven a Table Set

Qur’an 5:112-115 Surah Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread)
Behold! the disciples said: “O Jesus the son of Mary! can thy Lord send down to us a table set (with viands) from heaven?” Said Jesus: “Fear Allah if ye have faith.”
They said: “We only wish to eat thereof and satisfy our hearts and to know that thou hast indeed told us the truth; and that we ourselves may be witnesses to the miracle.
Said Jesus the son of Mary: “O Allah our Lord! send us from heaven a table set (with viands) that there may be for us for the first and the last of us a solemn festival and a sign from Thee; and provide for our sustenance for Thou art the best Sustainer (of our needs).
Allah said: “I will send it down unto you: but if any of you after that resisteth faith I will punish him with a penalty such as I have not inflicted on anyone among all the peoples.
Who Will Be My Helpers to the Work of Allah? Said the Disciples…

Qur’an 61:14 Surah As-Saff (The Ranks)
O ye who believe! be ye helpers of Allah: as said Jesus the son of Mary to the Disciples “Who will be my helpers to (the work of) Allah?” Said the Disciples “We are Allah’s helpers!” Then a portion of the Children of Israel believed and a portion disbelieved: but We gave power to those who believed against their enemies and they became the ones that prevailed.
Apostles Who Gave Good News as Well as Warning

Qur’an 4:163-170 Surah An-Nisaa (The Women)
We have sent thee (O Muhammad) inspiration as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him; We sent inspiration to Abraham Ismail Isaac Jacob and the Tribes to Jesus Job Jonah Aaron and Solomon and to David We gave the Psalms.
Of some Apostles We have already told thee the story; of others We have not; and to Moses Allah spoke direct.
Apostles who gave good news as well as warning that mankind after (the coming) of the Apostles should have no plea against Allah: for Allah is Exalted in Power Wise.
But Allah beareth witness that what He hath sent unto thee He hath sent from His (Own) Knowledge and the angels bear witness: but enough is Allah for a Witness.
Those who reject faith and keep off (men) from the way of Allah have verily strayed far far away from the path.
Those who reject faith and do wrong Allah will not forgive them nor guide them to any way.
Except the way of Hell to dwell therein for ever: and this to Allah is easy.
O mankind! the Apostle hath come to you in truth from Allah: believe in him: it is best for you. But if ye reject faith to Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth: and Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise.
No Difference Between One and Another of the Prophets of Allah

Qur’an 2:135-141 Surah Al-Baqarah (The Heifer)
They say: “Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (to salvation).” Say thou: “Nay! (I would rather) the religion of Abraham the true and he joined not gods with Allah.”
Say ye: “We believe in Allah and the revelation given to us and to Abraham Isma’il Isaac Jacob and the Tribes and that given to Moses and Jesus and that given to (all) Prophets from their Lord we make no difference between one and another of them and we bow to Allah (in Islam).”
So if they believe as ye believe they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them and He is the All-Hearing the All-Knowing.
(Our religion is) the baptism of Allah; and who can baptize better than Allah? and it is He whom we worship.
Say: Will ye dispute with us about Allah seeing that He is our Lord and your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and that we are sincere (in our faith) in Him?
Or do ye say that Abraham Isma’il Isaac Jacob and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than Allah? Ah! who is more unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from Allah? But Allah is not unmindful of what ye do!
That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case.
The Same Religion as That Enjoined on Noah

Qur’an 42:12-14 Surah As-Shuraa (The Consultation)
To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth: He enlarges and restricts the Sustenance to whom He will: for He knows full well all things.
The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah–the which We have sent by inspiration to thee–and that which We enjoined on Abraham Moses and Jesus: Namely that ye should remain steadfast in Religion and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him).
And they became divided only after knowledge reached them through selfish envy as between themselves. Had it not been for a Word that went forth before from thy Lord (tending) to a Term appointed the matter would have been settled between them: but truly those who have inherited the Book after them are in suspicious (disquieting) doubt concerning it.
Allah Sent down Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) Before the Qur’an

Qur’an 3:1-6 Surah Ale-’Imran (The Family of ‘Imran)
Allah! there is no god but He the Living the Self-Subsisting Eternal.
It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step) in truth the Book confirming what went before it; and He sent down Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this as a guide to mankind and He sent down the Criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).
Then those who reject Faith in the Signs of Allah will suffer the severest penalty and Allah is Exalted in Might Lord of Retribution.
From Allah verily nothing is hidden on earth or in the heavens.
He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no god but He the Exalted in Might the Wise.
Allah Sent Jesus the Son of Mary Confirming the Law, Sent Him the Gospel

Qur’an 5:45-47 Surah Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread)
We ordained therein for them: “Life for life eye for eye nose for nose ear for ear tooth for tooth and wounds equal for equal.” But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed they are (no better than) wrong-doers.
And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary confirming the law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light and confirmation of the law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.
Let the people of the Gospel Judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed they are (no better than) those who rebel.
Clear Signs To Jesus the Son of Mary

Qur’an 2:253 Surah Al-Baqarah (The Heifer)
Those apostles We endowed with gifts some above others: to one of them Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honor); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. If Allah had so willed succeeding generations would not have fought among each other after clear (Signs) had come to them but they (chose) to wrangle some believing and others rejecting. If Allah had so willed they would not have fought each other; but Allah fulfilleth His plan.
Glad Tidings of an Apostle to Come after Me Whose Name Shall Be Ahmad

Qur’an 61:6-9 Surah As-Saff (The Ranks)
And remember Jesus the son of Mary said: “O Children of Israel! I am the apostle of Allah (sent) to you confirming the Law (which came) before me and giving glad Tidings of an Apostle to come after me whose name shall be Ahmad.” But when he came to them with Clear Signs they said “This is evident sorcery!”
Who doth greater wrong than one who invents falsehood against Allah even as he is being invited to Islam? And Allah guides not those who do wrong.
Their intention is to extinguish Allah’s Light (by blowing) with their mouths: but Allah will complete (the revelation of) His Light even though the Unbelievers may detest (it).
It is He Who has sent His Apostle with Guidance and the Religion of Truth that he may proclaim it over all religion even though the Pagans may detest (it).
Some Apostles You Called Impostors and Others You Slay

Qur’an 2:87-88 Surah Al-Baqarah (The Heifer)
We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of Apostles; We gave Jesus the son of Mary clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Is it that whenever there comes to you an Apostle with what ye yourselves desire not ye are puffed up with pride? Some ye called impostors and others ye slay!
They say “Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve Allah’s word we need no more).” Nay Allah’s curse is on them for their blasphemy; little is it they believe.
Prophets Zakariya, John, Jesus and Elias: All in the Ranks of the Righteous

Qur’an 6:83-89 Surah An-An’am (The Cattle)
That was the reasoning about Us which We gave to Abraham (to use) against his people: We raise whom We will degree after degree: for thy Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge.
We gave him Isaac and Jacob: all (three) We guided: and before him We guided Noah and before him We guided Noah and among his progeny David Solomon Job Joseph Moses and Aaron: thus do We reward those who do good:
And Zakariya and John and Jesus and Elias: all in the ranks of the righteous:
And Ismail and Elisha and Jonas and Lot: and to all We gave favor above the nations:
(To them) and to their fathers and progeny and brethren: We chose them. And We guided them to a straight way.
This is the guidance of Allah: He giveth that guidance to whom He pleaseth of His worshippers. If they were to join other gods with Him all that they did would be vain for them.
These were the men to whom We gave the Book and authority and prophethood: if these (their descendants) reject them behold! We shall entrust their charge to a new People who reject them not.
Glory to Thee! Never Could I Say What I Had No Right to Say

Qur’an 5:116-120 Surah Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread)
And behold! Allah will say “O Jesus the son of Mary! didst thou say unto men ‘worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah”? He will say: “Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing Thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart though I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden.
“Never said I to them anything except what Thou didst command me to say to wit ‘Worship Allah my Lord and your Lord’; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up thou wast the Watcher over them and Thou art a Witness to all things.
“If Thou dost punish them they are Thy servants: if Thou dost forgive them Thou art the Exalted the Wise.
Allah will say: “This is a day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are Gardens with rivers flowing beneath their eternal home: Allah well-pleased with them and they with Allah: that is the great Salvation (the fulfillment of all desires).
To Allah doth belong the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein and it is He who hath power over all things.
Say Not “Trinity”: Desist: it Will Be Better for You: for Allah Is One Allah

Qur’an 4:171-173 Surah An-Nisaa (The Women)
O people of the Book! commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but truth. Christ (Maseeh) Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle of Allah and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Apostles. Say not “Trinity”: desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One Allah: glory be to him: (for Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.
Christ (Maseeh) disdaineth not to serve and worship Allah nor do the angels those nearest (to Allah): those who disdain His worship and are arrogant He will gather them all together unto himself to (answer).
But to those who believe and do deeds of righteousness He will give their (due) rewards and more out of His bounty: but those who are disdainful and arrogant He will punish with a grievous penalty; nor will they find besides Allah any to protect or help them.
They Do Blaspheme Who Say: “Allah Is Christ the Son of Mary”…

Qur’an 5:72-77 Surah Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread)
They do blaspheme who say: “Allah is Christ the son of Mary.” But said Christ (Maseeh): “O children of Israel! worship Allah my Lord and your Lord.” Whoever joins other gods with Allah Allah will forbid him the garden and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.
They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy) verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.
Why turn they not to Allah and seek His forgiveness? For Allah is Oft-forgiving Most Merciful.
Christ (Maseeh) the son of Mary was no more than an Apostle; many were the Apostles that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah doth makes His Signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth!
Say: Will ye worship besides Allah something which hath no power either to harm or benefit you? But Allah He it is that heareth and knoweth all things.”
Say: “O people of the Book! exceed not in your religion the bounds (of what is proper) trespassing beyond the truth nor follow the vain desires of people who went wrong in times gone by who misled many and strayed (themselves) from the even way.
Priests and Anchorites to Be Their Lords in Derogation of Allah
Qur’an 9:30-35 Surah At-Tauba (Repentance)
The Jews call Uzair a son of Allah and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the truth!
They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary; Yet they were commanded to worship but one Allah: there is no god but He. Praise and glory to him: (far is He) from having the parents they associate (with him).
Fain would they extinguish Allah’s light with their mouths but Allah will not allow but that His light should be perfected even though the unbelievers may detest (it).
It is He who hath sent His apostle with guidance and religion of truth to proclaim it over all religions even though the pagans may detest (it).
O ye who believe! there are indeed many among the priests and anchorites who in falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the way of Allah. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah: announce unto them a most grievous penalty.
On the day when heat will be produced out of that (wealth) in the fire of hell and with it will be branded their foreheads their flanks and their backs “this is the (treasure) which ye buried for yourselves: taste ye then the (treasures) ye buried!”
Christ Does Not Disdain to Serve and Worship Allah

Qur’an 4:172-173 Surah An-Nisaa (The Women)
Christ (Maseeh) disdaineth not to serve and worship Allah nor do the angels those nearest (to Allah): those who disdain His worship and are arrogant He will gather them all together unto himself to (answer).
But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness He will give their (due) rewards and more out of His bounty: but those who are disdainful and arrogant He will punish with a grievous penalty; nor will they find besides Allah any to protect or help them.
If Anyone Desires a Religion Other than Islam It Will Never Be Accepted

Qur’an 3:83-86 Surah Ale-’Imran (The Family of ‘Imran)
Do they seek for other than the Religion of Allah? While all creatures in the heavens and on earth have willing or unwilling bowed to His Will (accepted Islam) and to Him shall they all be brought back.
Say: “We believe in Allah and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham Isma’il Isaac Jacob and the Tribes and in (Books) given to Moses Jesus and the Prophets from their Lord; we make no distinction between one and another among them and to Allah do we bow our will (in Islam).”
If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).
How shall Allah guide those who reject faith after they accepted it and bore witness that the Apostle was true and that clear signs had come unto them? But Allah guides not a people unjust.

More in the E-book
Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and Jews for the God (‘Eloh-im’ in Hebrew; ‘Allaha’ in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associate or partner, and He does not beget nor was He begotten. SWT is an abbreviation of Arabic words that mean ‘Glory Be To Him.’
s or pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him. This expression is used for all Prophets of Allah.
Those who wish to understand the specific and broader meaning of the verses of the Qur’an, it is recommended that they should also read commentary on these subjects and verses. The English readers will find either Yusuf Ali’s or Maududi’s commentaries a good source. Allama Yususf Ali presents the meaning Ayah (verse) by Ayah with detailed footnotes for relevant words in each verse and includes a detailed index of the topics mentioned in the Qur’an. Maulana Maududi’s work covers commentary for each Surah (chapter) of the Holy Qur’an.

Pickthall writes in his foreward of 1930: “… The Qur’an cannot be translated. … The book is here rendered almost literally and every effort has been made to choose befitting language. But the result is not the Glorious Qur’an, that inimitable symphony, the very sounds of which move men to tears and ecstasy. It is only an attempt to present the meaning of the Qur’an-and peradventure something of the charm in English. It can never take the place of the Qur’an in Arabic, nor is it meant to do so. …”

“The Holy Qur’an,” Text, Translation and Commentary by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 1934. (Latest Publisher: Amana Publications, Beltsville, MD, USA; Title: “The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an,” 1992). A pocket edition of Yusuf Ali’s translation is also available in contemporary English.

“The Meaning of the Glorious Koran,” An Explanatory Translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, a Mentor Book Publication. (Also available as: “The Meaning of the Glorious Koran,” by Marmaduke Pickthall, Dorset Press, N.Y. and several Islamic book publishers; Published by several publishers since 1930). Note: The Mentor publication (451 MJ1529 195) contains a few errors/omissions, e.g., in Surah 72: the last part of Verse 2 should read “we ascribe no partner unto our Lord”, and Surah 68: Verse 22 should read “straight” road instead of “beaten” road. In case of any doubt, the reader is advised to check with a copy from an Islamic publisher and also check with an Islamic scholar for the meaning directly from the Arabic original.
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  1. MJ says:
    And Allah sets forth as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord! build for me in nearness to Thee a mansion in the Garden and save me from Pharaoh and his doings and save me from those that do wrong”;
    Qur’an 66:11-12 Surah At-Tahrim (Banning)
    I say This supplication every day We do have modern day Pharaohs : D.
    Revealed knowledge says that paradise has many levels and we can strive To be at The level of the best men and women such as Mary and the wife of pharaoh ( peace and blessings be upon them)and live in nearness To Allah. Those from our ranks can reach this level by being truthful, righteous, witnesses/martyrs.
    By all means explore all ideas and at least be aware about what you are upon.
  2. mark from kentucky says:
    I can’t even tell you how relevant this is to a discussion I had last night on face book.
    Thank You Mark
  3. I have been talking to myself (almost) on the Children of a lesser god, shall I keep on monologuing here?
  4. DR.NUR says:
    Supplement for the Second Edition of
    Who Was Jesus?
    How Much Can Be Known about the Koranic Jesus?
    The Israelite priesthood was apparently regarded from an early time as
    the preserve of the tribe of Levi, with members of this tribe offering
    priestly services wherever they were needed (see Judges 17:6b-13). At
    some point, however, as the Israelite Yahweh cult became more
    organized, the priesthood came to be restricted exclusively to one
    particular Levitical lineage: the house of Aaron who was allegedly the
    brother of Moses, the first priest of Israel and the man originally
    given charge of the Ark of the Covenant (the sacred wooden chest in
    which the spirit of the invisible Yahweh was supposed to reside). The
    last officially recognized Aaronic chief priest, whose name was
    Abiathar, served under King David (c. 1005-964 BC), but was made to
    share his office with a man called Zadok who was apparently neither of
    Aaronic nor even of Levitical descent. Later, when Solomon succeeded
    his father David as king, Abiathar was sacked from the chief
    priesthood and banished to an agricultural estate that his family
    owned in Anathoth (1 Kings 2:26; Joshua 21:18) – today, almost
    certainly the village called Antutah (Arabicized form of the Biblical
    Hebrew Anatot, name changed today to al-Mubarakah), in the fertile
    hinterland of the Saudi Arabian coastal town of Jizan, close by the
    border with Yemen.
    From that time on, the chief priesthood of the Davidic kingdom – under
    Solomon, then under the kings of Judah who were his successors -
    became the exclusive preserve of the house of Zadok. This same
    Zadokite priestly establishment continued to dominate Israelite
    religious affairs following the Babylonian conquest of Judah in 586 BC
    and the deportation of its leading citizens to Iraq. In the meanwhile,
    the Aaronic priesthood had somehow managed to survive in Anathoth,
    probably supported by a body of die-hard Israelites who refused to
    accept the sacerdotal authority of the Zadokites. Among the Aaronic
    priests of Anathoth was the Prophet Jeremiah, who predicted – and
    lived to witness – the downfall of Judah, and who vanished from
    history in obscure circumstances shortly thereafter.
    Apart from identifying “Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah” as being one “of
    the priests who were in Anathoth” (Jeremiah 1:1), the Received Text of
    the Hebrew Bible, which was compiled and redacted by the Zadokites and
    their associates in post-exilic times, has nothing to say about the
    house of Aaron following the dismissal of Abiathar from the chief
    priesthood. And nothing would have been known about the fate of the
    Aaronic priestly line after the mysterious disappearance of Jeremiah,
    had it not been for the Koran, where it identifies Maryam – the
    Koranic Mary – as an Israelite temple figure of unequivocally Aaronic
    lineage (see chapter four). As the son of Maryam, Issa – the Koranic
    Jesus who was believed to be virgin-born – would have naturally
    inherited his mother’s Aaronic lineage, apparently to become the head
    of the house of Aaron in due course. The fact that the Koran
    recognizes him as al-Masih, or “the Christ,” indicates that he was
    recognized by his followers, in his time, as the long-awaited priestly
    messiah whose mission was to end the prolonged Zadokite usurpation of
    the Israelite priesthood, and to restore it to the house of Aaron to
    which it legitimately belonged.
    The Koranic juxtaposition between the Aaronic Issa and the Zadokite
    Ezra (see chapter four) seems to indicate a historical connection
    between the careers of the two men. Ezra, who was active in the middle
    decades of the fifth century BC, was the person chiefly responsible
    for the post-exilic revival of the law of Moses, on the basis of which
    the scattered remnants of the Israelite people were reorganized under
    Zadokite leadership as the religious community of the “Jews”
    (yehuwdim, from yehuwdah, the Hebrew for Judah). Disregarding the fact
    that an Aaronic priesthood still existed in Arabia in his time, and
    that this priesthood probably commanded an Israelite following of some
    size, Ezra claimed for himself an Aaronic lineage to which he was not
    entitled (Ezra 7:1-5). Alternatively, it was his Jewish followers who
    fabricated this lineage for him during his lifetime, or following his
    death. This daring action, whether on his part or that of his
    partisans, would alone have sufficed to elicit an open confrontation
    on the issue between the houses of Zadok and Aaron. And there is good
    indication that a contest over the possession of the Ark of Covenant -
    to the Israelites, the ultimate touchstone of genuine priestly
    standing – may have been at the heart of the matter.
    Of the fate of the Ark of the Covenant after it came to be installed
    in the temple of Solomon (see 1 Kings 8:1-11), the Received Text of
    the Hebrew Bible, curiously, has nothing to say, leaving the ultimate
    fate of the Ark unknown. However, in a book on the antiquities of
    Arabia written in the early decades of the eighth century AD, an early
    Muslim historian and epigraphist, Wahb ibn Munabbih (Kitab al-tijan
    li-muluk Himyar, Hyderabad Deccan, AH 1347, pp.179-180), reports that
    the Israelites once deposited the Ark in Mecca as they fled through
    the Hijaz in panic before a powerful coalition of enemies, and that
    the Ark remained thereafter in Mecca until Issa ibn Maryam arrived in
    the city to claim it. Wahb, who was the descendant of a prominent
    Jewish family from the Yemen, was well versed in the Israelite lore of
    Arabia. What lends special credence to his Ark story is, first, the
    casual manner in which he relates it, without comment or elaboration,
    and, second, the fact that he relates it in the context of the history
    of Mecca, and not that of the Israelites, about which he has much to
    say elsewhere. Add to this the fact that his story of the Ark makes
    good historical sense. In a struggle between Issa and the Zadokites
    over the legitimate right to the Israelite priesthood, what success
    could have been more dramatic for an Aaronic messiah than suddenly
    managing to find and take possession of the long lost and virtually
    forgotten Ark?
    The question of the Ark aside, Wahb’s account of its concealment in
    Mecca and of its subsequent reclamation from there by Issa in that
    city seems to assume, first, that pre-exilic Israelite history ran its
    course in Arabia and second, that the geographical setting of Issa’s
    career was equally Arabian. It was in Arabia, apparently, that he died
    and was buried. This, at least according to a story originally told by
    an Arabian notable from Medina, in the Hijaz, and quoted by the great
    Arab scholar al-Tabari (d. AD 923) in his major historical work Tarikh
    al-rusul wal-muluk (Cairo edition, 1967, vol.1, pp.603-4):
    One of our womenfolk had made a vow to climb to the peak of al-Jamma’,
    a mountain in al-Aqiq, [south of] Medina. So I climbed with her until
    we reached the mountain top. There stood an enormous sarcophagus with
    two huge tombstones, one [at each end], which bore inscriptions in a
    writing unknown to me. I carried the two stones back with me. But as I
    was crossing a passage down the mountainside, the two of them became
    too difficult for me to carry; so I dropped one and descended with the
    other. I asked people who knew Syriac if they could read [the
    inscription on that stone], but they could not. Then I showed it to
    people from the Yemen who could write [Hebrew], or who wrote the South
    Arabian script, and they could not read it. So, when I found no one
    who could make sense of [the inscription], I put it away at home under
    a chest, where it remained for years. Then some Persians arrived [in
    Medina] from [the town of] Maha to buy beads. I asked them: “Do you
    have a written language?” They answered: “We do.” So I brought out the
    [inscription] for them [to see] and, behold, they were reading it, as
    it was in their script: “This is the grave of Issa ibn Maryam, the
    messenger of God to the people of this land.” It turned out that
    [Persians] had inhabited the area at that time, and [Issa] died in
    their midst, so they buried him on top of the mountain.
    This story not only confirms the location of the career of Issa ibn
    Maryam in the Arabian province of the Hijaz, but also relates it to
    the period of Persian rule in the lands of the Near East (535-330 BC).
    More interesting, however, is the fact that ¤abar* was aware that the
    Issa who was buried on top of Mount Jamma’, south of Medina, was a
    person entirely different from the Jesus who was crucified by the Jews
    in Jerusalem during the reign of the
    Roman emperor Tiberius. “I have been told,” he says, “that the man
    taken to be Issa and crucified in his place was an Israelite called
    Ishu bin Fandara” (Tabari, vol.1, p.605). This name is none other than
    the pejorative name Yeshu’ ben Panthera, or ben Pandera (see chapter
    three), by which the Jewish Talmud refers to the Davidic Jesus who was
    crucified in the Palestinian Jerusalem, and whom we have agreed to
    call Jeshu bar Nagara (see chapter seven).
    With respect to the dating of the career of the Koranic Jesus who was
    Issa ibn Maryam, the Damascene Muslim historian, Abul-Qasim Ibn
    Asakir, writing in the twelfth century AD (Sirat al-Sayyid al-Masih,
    Suleiman Murad, ed., Amman, 1996, par.10), cites a tradition related
    by an early Muslim authority who died in AD 721 which asserts that the
    “ascension” of Issa to God’s presence occurred 933 years before the
    start of the Muslim era (AD 622). Unless another explanation can be
    given to this tradition, it means that the “ascension” of Issa
    (possibly to mean his canonization or apotheosis) occurred is 311 BC,
    and that his career as a prophet and Aaronic Messiah belonged to the
    late fourth century BC, and not to the late fifth or early fourth
    centurs earlier surmised (see chapter four).

  5. DR GERALD DIRKS – Did Jesus die for the sins of the world?
  6. DR GERALD DIRKS – From Jesus to Muhammad: A History of Early Christianity

    N.B. Do not miss to watch the first clip as it reveals that there were two Jesuses:
    The Coptic Church canonised Pontius Pilate for saving Jesus, Son of te father, BAR ABAS.
  7. DR LAURENCE BROWN – Do Muslims follow Jesus Christ more than Christians?
    Raised as a non practicing Quaker, almost an Atheist, Dr Laurence Brown is a retired US Air Force Officer (Major) and ophthalmologist. Trying hard to become a Christian, he found and embraced Islam some 15 years ago when the Christian priests were unable to answer his questions about Christianity.
    Because he embraced Islam, he lost his wife, children, parents, house, friends, and even his guest house on his property.

  8. Atonement and The Original Sin – Dr. Laurence B. Brown

  9. Former Christian Youth Minister – Joshua Evans – Jesus in the Qur’ân
    How the Bible Led Me to Islam

  10. DR.NUR says:
    DEAR B.A.Frémaux-Soormally :
  11. B.A.Frémaux-Soormally says:
    Dear Dr Nur
    As soon as I saw your long commentary, I was again annoyed (a rather polite term) and said to myself NUR IS AGAIN SPAMMING with his Dr Kamal Salibi stuff and quickly skipped over it. Further, I was not in the mood to spend time reading it or writing about the issue of “Jesus in the Qur’ân” when people concerned are not even interested in the “Jesus in the Bible” itself. But, a few minutes ago I came back to the posting and saw, lo and behold; your commentary was relevant and very appropriate to the subject matter containing material I never found anywhere. Unfortunately, I will repeat again, as I said in my email, that a summary or synthesis would have sufficed.
    In brief, Nur, I was wrong in my first impression and sincerely apologize.
    I never managed to put my hands on the finished manuscript of “The Alien Beginning and End of Humankind”, but found only a few drafts here and there. I have lost hundreds of books from my personal library (my beloved wife threw a lot away after she had kicked me out of our home, so I was told!) and I never managed to recover a few of my old damaged hard disks. Although I had a laser printer at the time, I should have printed the whole entire 1200 pages myself, but I was neglectful and I was not motivated as I was evolving in the midst of people who did not care at all about history. They were more interested in King Henry VIII and his “72” wives and mistresses than in the history of ARABIA where most of the answers regarding Sumerian civilisation, Judaism and early Christianity could be found.
    In one of my books I was keeping besides my head (after I was kicked out, I had many books aligned right on my bed!), I stumbled on a paragraph where it mentioned that Northern Arabs were among the inhabitants of Sumer, Mesopotamia. To me, this meant a lot. And, then, I found out again that there was a Roman Arab governor of Egypt, then that Rabbi Saul of Tarsus went to live in Arabia after his “vision”! But, most people are simply not smart enough to understand what they read, but I do pay a lot of attention and I have a very critical mind. But, who really cares?
  12. B.A.Frémaux-Soormally says:
    Do you realise that I had to read your research to understand at 65 years of age that the “Jewish” Pharisees were in fact PERSIANS, “PHARSIS” or FARSIS? This makes a lot of sense to me. My father used to write and speak Farsi, the official language of Mughal Hindustan before the British barbarians invaded the land of my ancestors and banned it. But, people will fail to see the connection because either they do not think or do not read enough or have other vested interests other than the truth. When I was quite young I used to question everything! I still do and it is getting worse!
    When I read (or was told by my “teachers”) that Aristotle studied philosophy with Plato for twenty years, I said to myself: what an idiot! He must have had a very ordinary brain! In truth he was a fake made up and adopted by the West as the cleverest man (ape, says Dawkins) ever in their history. I would later find confirmation in my research that there was no way that a SOLDIER and murderer in the army of Alexander the Accursed (who they claim was Aristotle’s student!) could ever have been a “philosopher” at all or having mastered and written about physics, metaphysics, poetry, theatre, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology in such a short span with no academy (they taught and learned under olive trees, so it would seem) training, no research laboratory at his disposal and just by walking back and forth with Plato for twenty years like an imbecile! I knew Aristotle was a fake although maybe not completely. When, I found out later that Alexander (after conquering Egypt) made him collect (buy, they say!) all existing Egyptian manuscripts of the sum total of their knowledge and had them translated into Greek in Alexandria (Alexander used to destroy everything on his way and give his name to all the main towns he conquered!), I immediately understood where “Aristotelian” knowledge came from – from the Egyptian Mystery Schools, Persia and other neighbouring countries which were far more advanced in science than “Greece”! On a catalogue mentioning all (or many of) the translated works of others, they (he) put the name Aristotle on it and those works became known as written and authored by Aristotle himself when they were just only listed by him!
    In those days, philosophers were persecuted in Athens and had to flee or face death like Socrates and others!
    But, coming back to this Jesus matter, there is no way we can convince people who have been indoctrinated in a set of beliefs (Christians and Muslims) that the truth may be not what they believe.
    Moses was not a Jew but a Levite who married an Arab (Medianite), but how many of us know this? The term Arab covered the inhabitants of a vast region and were people of all biological types, colours and creeds, whereas the term Jewish was a tribal (ethnic) term, not even meaning a Judaist. The white European racists have always held that the Greeks were the most perfect “race” on earth and claim they descended from them (Pr Richard Dawkins), but thanks to Alexander the Greeks were Hellenised. How many know what this term really means? Most people I deal with on a daily basis are full of propaganda and display little civilised culture and factual knowledge.
    Well, I am not a specialist like you on Middle Eastern history. What I really know is what I learned from European and Jewish sources half of which cannot be trusted at all!
  13. B.A.Frémaux-Soormally says:
    To the Jews Christianity was a Jewish “heresy”.
    Rome hated the early Christians and murdered them by the millions.
    The Catholics burned all Christian heretics they could lay their hands upon.
    But, today, we have seen the Catholics accepting their “heretics” (the Protestants and other Reformed denominations) as Christians.
    Islam was undoubedtly both a Jewish and a Christian heresy!
    The Catholics launched the Crusades, the Inquisition and their Mongol hordes (mercenaries) and murdered Muslim “heretics” by the millions.
    But, it does not seem likely that the Catholics would ever accept the Muslim heretics as “heretic” Christians! WHY? Fanaticism? Racism? Supremacism? Satanism?
    Muslims are preaching and practicing a “heretical” form of Christianity and their Holy Book, the Qur’aan or Furqaan is a “heretical” and reformed version of the Christian Bible. Yes or No?
    Millions of early Jews and Christians (People of the Older Books) accepted it and became known as those who sumbit to the Will of the One GOD, that is, MUSLIMS in Arabic.
    More and more Jews and Christians, Atheists, Hindus and Buddhists are accepting Islam today which claims to be the only natural religion (Diin) that GOD chose for His Creation (inanimate and animate) since the very beginning.
    This does not prove that there is such a thing as GOD, but one thing cannot be disputed: Islam is currently the best suited religion for the whole world, not that it is 100% perfect, but that this is the best humanity has for a moral and righteous life here with very little controversy.
    The above passages quoted from the Holy Qur’aan do not say that Islam was a new religion, but it is the same old religion of submission to GOD people call by different INVENTED names like Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, etc.
    Come on, Basheer, are you crazy?
    How dare you say such an outrageous thing that THE QUR’AAN IS A CHRISTIAN BOOK ADDRESSED TO THE JEWS AND THE CHRISTIANS?
    Well, I said it because I can prove it is the case, but it is up to you to prove me wrong if you really care! And, you can’t!
    I gave you, STUPID Christians and Muslims, the solution to your problems by telling you the TRUTH while you are living in a make-believe world.
    Do not believe the “Jehovah Witnesses” when they published recently that there are TWO BILLION Christians in the world. They lied.
    But, even so, do you realise that if we have three billion Christians and Muslims uniting and fighting the common enemy because WE ARE ALL PEOPLE OF THE SAME BOOK (in its pure form), submitting to the same One and Unique GOD, believing in the same core values (virtues), Satan and his armies do not stand a chance?
    But, I know, we won’t listen and unite because most of us are possessed by the Devil and in need of exorcism!
    I am sorry for Mark Glenn because by posting this I am sure he will alienate some of our Christian Sisters and Brothers, but only if they dislike the TRUTH, that is, Jesus Christ himself who said he was the Light, the Truth and the Way because he did the WILL OF HIS FATHER, THE ONE AND ONLY TRUE GOD!
    Make no mistake: the Light was from GOD; the truth was GOD’s; and the Way is that of GOD, and this is Biblical – what Islam calls the STRAIGHT PATH – the MIDDLE PATH!
    The voice of one crying in the wilderness (A Jewish joke!)
  14. B.A.Frémaux-Soormally says:
    In both cases the answer is no!
    But, in the Qur’aan, GOD has chosen a name for the religion (Diin) of the believing Jews (Israelites), Christians, Muslims and all the believing nations around the world who received Revelations from GOD. Guess which one? (I cannot tell you everything, can I?)
    God bless and guide you all – even the fools!
  15. B.A.Frémaux-Soormally says:
    mark from kentucky says:
    May 26, 2011 at 5:40 pm
    “I can’t even tell you how relevant this is to a discussion I had last night on face book.”
    There is an Islamic Saying:
    To you your religion, to me mine, because GOD says so and says also that in Islam there is no compulsion in religion.
    Frankly, when I read the Gospels I am not impressed by the way either Jesus or his mother are depicted. But, when I read the Qur’aan, I say to myself that it still does not prove that there was such a person as Jesus and that his existence is based on faith alone.
    But, as a spiritual person, GOD is within us, in our mind, heart and soul and this belief is seen in our daily actions. Islam preaches the same religion as the Biblical Jesus preached (whether he existed or not) and that faith has to be followed by righteous actions (works).
    LOVE GOD with all our heart, mind and strength and love our neighbours as we love ourselves. This is Islam or we can call it by whatever name we want. Because of indoctrination, brainwashing, fanaticism and racism NON ARAB Christians have been made to hate Islam, the Arabs and even the Arabic language.
    Christians do not believe in the English GOD just because the word is English.
    Muslims do not believe in ALLAH because GOD is an Arab or believe in the Moon God as many say!
    Christians give us proof of their lack of CHARITY, LOVE and COMPASSION when they say Muslims do not worship the same GOD as they do or that Muslims worship Satan (Pr Texe Marrs and millions others) while the Muslims say Christians do worship the same GOD as the Muslims, but disagree when they associate partners with Him: Son of GOD, Holy Spirit, Holy Ghost, Mother of God, Saint worship, etc.
    The reason why Muslims feel more comfortable with the Arabic term is because it is explicitly mentioned in their Holy Book, and that it has no plural and no gender. While you can say gods and goddesses in both French and English, in Arabic you can say only ALLAH – THE GOD! The term is neuter.
    Surah 112 of the Holy QUr’aan sums it up beautifully.
    112 – al-Ikhlâs – The Purity
    In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
    He is Allah, the One and Only!
    Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute;
    He begetteth not nor is He begotten.
    And there is none like unto Him.
    Translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali
    There is no way Muslims can ever corrupt this concept of and Truth about THE CREATOR GOD.

    La Revue de Téhéran | Iran

    N° 38, janvier 2009

    La figure du Christ dans l’islam

    Amélie Neuve-Eglise

    Si mon ami plein de douceur me fait asseoir dans la poussière,
    Pourquoi s’affligerait un pauvre hère qui possède un puissant Ami ?
    Le chagrin qu’il me cause est dans mon cœur comme un trésor,
    Mon cœur est "Lumière sur lumière",
    Pareil à la belle Maryam qui porte en son sein Jésus.
    Mon ami est le soleil, il ne se promène que seul ;
    C’est la lune qui est à la tête de l’armée des étoiles

    (Jalâl-ud-Dîn Rûmî, Dîwân-e Shams-e Tabrîzî, Ode 565)
    مرا یار شکرناکم دگر بنشاند بر خاکم

    چرا غم دارد آن مفلس که یار محتشم دارد؟

    غمش در دل چو گنجوری

    دلم نور علی نوری

    مثال مریم زیبا که عیسی در شکم دارد

    چو خورشید است یار من، نمی گردد به جز تنها

    سپهسالار مه باشد کز استاره حشم دارد
    (جلال الدین رومی، دیوان شمس تبریزی، غزل 565)
    JPEG - 21.4 ko
    Jésus et Marie représentés dans une ancienne miniature persane, date et auteur inconnus.
    Prophète central de l’islam, Jésus - appelé "’Îsâ" dans le Coran - fait partie, avec les prophètes Noé, Abraham, Moïse et Mohammad, des "élus" à qui a été révélé un Livre ou une Loi divine. [1] Dans l’islam, Jésus a donc été choisi par Dieu pour transmettre aux hommes un nouveau texte sacré, l’Evangile (Injîl), censé contenir le sens profond et vrai de la Thora, ainsi que pour rappeler aux "Enfants d’Israël" (Banî Isrâ’îl) le dogme central du monothéisme et la nécessité de se soumettre à la volonté divine.
    Jésus est évoqué dans le Coran comme indissolublement lié à Marie et constitue un modèle à suivre pour l’ensemble des croyants : "Ô Marie ! Dieu t’annonce la bonne nouvelle d’un verbe émanant de Lui. Son nom est : le Messie, Jésus, fils de Marie (Al-Masîh, ’Îsâ ibn Maryam) ; illustre en ce monde comme dans l’au-delà ; il est au nombre de ceux qui sont proches de Dieu." [2] Il fait partie de la "famille de ’Imrân" comprenant sa mère Marie, Yahyâ (Jean-Baptiste), son cousin, ainsi que le père de ce denier, Zacharie. Jésus est également considéré pur de tout péché.
    Le ’Îsâ de l’islam est cependant très différent du Jésus du christianisme : bien que favorisé de grands dons et "fortifié par l’Esprit Saint", la vision coranique le considère essentiellement comme un homme et lui dénie donc la part de divinité qui constitue le fondement de la religion chrétienne. Ainsi, dans une optique comparée, la vision et conception profondément différente du monothéisme ainsi que de la relation entre Dieu et les hommes dans ces deux religions apparaît avec toute sa force au travers de leur différente vision du personnage de Jésus. Cependant, dans les deux traditions, il n’en demeure pas moins le prophète qui bouleverse les lois, tant par sa naissance et sa mort que par la profondeur de son message, et qui a constitué une source inépuisable de méditation pour de nombreuses grandes figures de l’islam au cours des siècles.

    Le contexte de l’époque

    Nous ne savons pas avec précision dans quelle mesure le prophète Mohammad lui-même connaissait le personnage de Jésus et les différents aspects de la doctrine chrétienne de l’époque, qui, à la fin du VIe siècle, était loin d’être unifiée. La révélation coranique s’est ainsi déroulée dans un contexte où foisonnaient une multitude de communautés chrétiennes - nestoriens, priscilliens, monophystes… - ayant notamment des conceptions différentes de la nature de la personne du Christ lui-même.
    JPEG - 24.1 ko
    Rencontre du jeune Mohammad avec le moine chrétien Bahîra, illustration de Jamî’ al-Tawârikh, XIVe siècle.
    Selon certains éléments de la tradition islamique, le prophète Mohammad se serait trouvé au contact de plusieurs chrétiens tels que le moine nestorien Bahîra - qui, alors que Mohammad n’était encore qu’enfant, le reconnaît comme un futur prophète [3] -, Waraqa ibn Nawfal, chrétien parent de sa femme Khadîja qui lui apportera la confirmation de sa mission prophétique, ou encore Salmân de Perse, qui se convertira à l’islam et fut l’un de ses plus proches compagnons.
    A l’époque de la Révélation, l’Arabie entretenait également des relations avec les chrétiens monophysites du Najrân au Yémen [4], les Lakhmides nestoriens de Hira, et certaines communautés chrétiennes de Syrie. En outre, au temps des persécutions des compagnons de Mohammad à la Mecque, ce dernier les invita à se réfugier en Abyssinie, auprès du roi chrétien Négus qui, touché par le respect et la haute estime accordés à Jésus et Marie dans le Coran, décida de leur accorder protection et soutien.

    La figure du Christ dans le Coran

    Tantôt qualifié de Parole de Vérité (Qawl al-Haqq), d’Esprit de Dieu (Rûh Allah), de serviteur de Dieu (’Abdollah) ou encore de "signe pour l’Heure" (’ilm lilsa’ât) et de "Masîh" (signifiant le "oint") [5], le Coran présente également Jésus comme le "Verbe" (Kalima) de Dieu - dont la signification est cependant bien différente de la notion de "Verbe" de l’Evangile de Saint Jean selon lequel Dieu s’est fait chair. Pour l’islam, le Verbe reste une créature, même s’il n’en demeure pas moins doté d’un rang éminent en ce qu’il est chargé de véhiculer la Parole de Dieu et parler en son nom : "Jésus devient le Verbe de Dieu non pas à cause de son incarnation par laquelle sa chair devient divine, mais parce que son esprit est parvenu à un tel degré de perfectionnement qu’il est devenu un miroir au travers duquel la divinité se révèle". [6]
    JPEG - 26.2 ko
    Jésus-’Îsâ faisant descendre une "table servie" (mâ’ida) du ciel pour ses disciples, miniature persane, date et auteur inconnus.
    La dimension exceptionnelle de la naissance virginale de Jésus est soulignée par le fait que Jésus a été conçu par le souffle de l’Esprit divin (Rûh) [7] insufflé en Marie. Le mystère de sa conception a parfois été comparé à celle d’Adam, créés tous deux par la Parole divine existentiatrice "Soit" (Kun !) [8], avec cependant pour différence essentielle qu’Adam n’eut pas de mère. Le miracle de la naissance de Jésus est renforcé par le caractère extraordinaire du nouveau-né qui parle dès sa naissance [9] et répond aux accusations lancées contre sa mère : "Je suis vraiment le serviteur de Dieu. Il m’a donné le Livre et m’a désigné Prophète. Où que je sois, Il m’a rendu béni ; et Il m’a recommandé, tant que je vivrai, la prière et la Zakat ; et la bonté envers ma mère. Il ne m’a fait ni violent ni malheureux." [10]
    Comme le prophète Mohammad après lui, Jésus-Isâ ne vient pas apporter un nouveau message, mais davantage confirmer les révélations précédentes et inviter les hommes au monothéisme pur, dans la continuation de Noé, d’Abraham et de Moïse. Il confirme ainsi le message de la Torah, tout en modifiant certaines de ses prescriptions légales. En outre, le Coran évoque que Jésus fut aidé par l’Esprit Saint (Rûh al-Qudus) [11] ainsi que par un groupe de "disciples" (hawâriyûn). C’est également à la demande de ces derniers que Jésus demande à Dieu de faire descendre du ciel une "table servie" (mâ’ida) [12] - qui rappelle aux commentateurs tantôt l’épisode de la Cène, tantôt celui de la multiplication des pains - comme ultime preuve de la véracité de sa prophétie. Ainsi, si le contenu de cette dernière fut rejeté par une grande partie des Juifs (Banî Isrâ’îl), seuls les apôtres (hawâriûn) ont réellement "crû" à l’issu de l’envoi de ce signe du ciel. Dieu a également donné à Jésus la capacité de réaliser des miracles "par sa permission", notamment de guérir les malades ou de donner vie à des formes inertes : "Tu fabriquais de l’argile comme une forme d’oiseau par Ma permission ; puis tu soufflais dedans. Alors par Ma permission, elle devenait oiseau. Et tu guérissais par Ma permission, l’aveugle-né et le lépreux. Et par Ma permission, tu faisais revivre les morts." [13]
    Concernant la conception même de la personne du Christ, toute idée d’incarnation ou de divinité est fermement rejetée. Nous touchons ici au cœur même de l’islam qui insiste avant tout sur l’idée d’unicité (tawhîd), d’unité et de transcendance divine absolue, proscrivant ainsi formellement toute idée d’association (shirk) entre Dieu et ses créatures. [14] Malgré son statut d’élu et de messager, le Christ reste donc avant tout un homme, dont l’existence est sans commune mesure avec l’essence divine. Cette différence essentielle est clairement exprimée dans le Coran qui rapporte les paroles du Christ à son Créateur : "Tu sais ce qu’il y a en moi, et je ne sais pas ce qu’il y a en Toi. Tu es, en vérité, le grand connaisseur de tout ce qui est inconnu." [15] Isâ se présente également comme un serviteur de Dieu (’abd) et se défend d’être à l’origine de tout associationnisme : "Je ne leur ai dit que ce que Tu m’avais commandé, (à savoir) : "Adorez Dieu, mon Seigneur et votre Seigneur"". [16] La figure de Jésus-Isâ telle qu’elle est présentée dans le Coran souligne la centralité de la transcendance du divin en islam, qui ne peut en aucun cas s’incarner dans l’histoire et être appréhendé en soi au travers des notions de matérialité ou de corporéité.

    L’Evangile (Injîl) comme "guide et lumière"

    JPEG - 30.3 ko
    Marie venant de donner naissance à Jésus près du palmier, miniature persane, date et auteur inconnus.
    Comme nous l’avons évoqué, il fut révélé à Jésus un Evangile (Injîl) [17] qualifié par le Coran de "guide et lumière" [18] et censé contenir le sens vrai de la Thora. Cependant, le texte original fut ensuite perdu et son application dévoyée : "Nous […] lui avons apporté l’Evangile, et mis dans les cœurs de ceux qui le suivirent douceur et mansuétude. Le monachisme qu’ils inventèrent, Nous ne le leur avons nullement prescrit. [Ils devaient] seulement rechercher l’agrément de Dieu." [19] Le sens et le contenu du mot "évangile" font donc référence à deux réalités fondamentalement différentes dans la chrétienté et en islam : recueil de témoignages écrits plusieurs décennies après la mort du Christ pour le christianisme, l’Injîl lui fut au contraire directement révélé par Dieu de son vivant selon l’islam.
    Il faut néanmoins relever certaines similitudes, comme ce verset du Coran indiquant que l’Injîl présente les vrais croyants comme "une semence qui sort sa pousse, puis se raffermit, s’épaissit, et ensuite se dresse sur sa tige, à l’émerveillement des semeurs" [20] ; faisant ainsi écho à certains passages de l’Evangile selon Saint Matthieu : "Celui qui a reçu la semence dans la bonne terre, c’est celui qui entend la parole et la comprend ; il porte le fruit, et un grain en donne cent, un autre soixante, un autre trente" [21] ; "la bonne semence, ce sont les fils du royaume ; l’ivraie, ce sont les fils du malin". [22]

    L’annonceur du "Paraclet"

    Le Christ est également considéré par l’islam comme l’annonciateur de la venue du prophète Mohammad. [23] Cette vision s’appuie notamment sur une lecture particulière des paroles du Christ rapportées dans l’Evangile selon Saint Jean, annonçant la venue d’un "Paraclet" : "J’ai encore beaucoup de choses à vous dire, mais vous ne pouvez pas les porter maintenant. Quand le consolateur sera venu, l’Esprit de vérité, il vous conduira dans toute la vérité (Jean, 16:12-13).
    L’authenticité de la traduction chrétienne courante évoquant un "consolateur" (du grec parakletos) est contestée par les musulmans qui considèrent que le mot grec original était periklytos, signifiant "glorieux", "plus loué" ou encore "Ahmad" en arabe, provenant lui-même de la racine "h-m-d", évoquant l’idée de louange et de glorification, et à partir duquel est formé le nom de "Mohammad". Cette interprétation est selon eux confirmée par la seconde partie de la parole du Christ qui poursuit : "car il ne parlera pas de lui-même, mais il dira tout ce qu’il aura entendu, et il vous annoncera les choses à venir" (Jean, 16:13) ; ce qui s’accorde totalement avec la révélation coranique qui fut "dictée" à Mohammad par l’intermédiaire de l’Ange Gabriel et comporte une dimension eschatologique essentielle. La continuité des prophéties christique et mohammadienne, expressément affirmée dans le Coran, est, selon les musulmans, également énoncée par le Christ à la suite des paroles que nous venons de rapporter : "Il me glorifiera, parce qu’il prendra de ce qui est à moi, et vous l’annoncera", (Jean, 16:15).


    Selon l’islam, le Christ ne serait pas mort sur la croix : un sosie lui aurait été substitué peu avant la crucifixion, tandis que, comme les prophètes Hénoch et Elie, il serait monté au ciel vivant : "Ils ne l’ont ni tué ni crucifié ; mais ce n’était qu’un faux semblant. […] Dieu l’a élevé vers Lui." [24] Le Christ a cependant un rôle eschatologique essentiel en ce qu’il doit revenir à la fin des temps au côté du "mahdî" pour rétablir le règne de la justice et vaincre l’Antéchrist. [25] Cependant, à la différence du christianisme, l’islam ne considère pas le Christ comme un sauveur, étant donné qu’il ne reconnaît pas la notion d’Alliance ni de péché originel et que la rédemption ne s’obtient qu’au travers des efforts de chaque croyant pour suivre les préceptes révélés dans le Coran. L’essentiel des dogmes chrétiens (divinité du Christ, incarnation, Trinité, crucifixion, rémission des péchés) est donc rejeté. [26] Malgré ces différences, ces deux traditions n’en partagent pas moins un horizon commun, caractérisé par une même attente eschatologique du retour de Jésus-Christ à la fin des temps.

    La question de l’étymologie : le "Jésus" des chrétiens est-il le "’Îsâ " des musulmans ?

    Dans le Coran, Jésus apparaît soit sous le nom de " ’Îsâ ", soit celui de "Masîh" ; or, le Jésus des chrétiens arabes se nomme Yasû’, lui-même issu de l’hébreu Yéshû’, diminutif de Yéhôshûa (Josué) signifiant "Dieu sauve". Yasû’ viendrait donc de la racine Yâsha’, "sauver", distincte de la racine de ’Îsâ, dont l’origine et la signification demeurent incertaines. [27] Certains ont évoqué une simple déformation du nom par déplacement du ’ayn final au début du mot (métathèse) et modification de voyelle longue "û" en "â", mais qui n’en fait pas moins référence à une même personne ; cependant, l’ampleur de la transformation rend cette hypothèse douteuse. [28] François Jourdan penche pour la version selon laquelle ’Îsâ proviendrait de ’Ysaû, nom sémitique d’Esaü, alors utilisé par les Juifs pour désigner les chrétiens. Sans rentrer dans l’ensemble des analyses linguistiques et historiques venant étayer telle ou telle affirmation, ces hypothèses n’en révèlent pas moins la difficulté à assimiler de fait le "Yasû’ " du Nouveau Testament au "’Îsâ " du Coran, bien que le fait qu’il y soit désigné comme "fils de Marie" nous autorise à penser qu’il s’agit bel et bien d’un même personnage.

    Jésus dans la tradition musulmane

    Les nombreux récits de la tradition musulmane consacrés à Jésus insistent notamment sur sa pureté, comme ce célèbre hadîth de Bukhârî : "Lorsque chaque être humain naît, Satan touche de ses deux doigts les deux côtés de son corps, sauf Jésus, fils de Marie, que Satan n’a pas réussi à toucher, n’effleurant que le placenta." [29] De même, selon un hadîth attribué au prophète Mohammad, ce dernier aurait affirmé que "De tous les prophètes, le plus proche de moi est Jésus, fils de Marie. Il y a entre lui et moi aucun autre prophète". Le message du Christ apparaît donc comme étroitement lié à la révélation mohammadienne qui ne viendrait que l’approfondir et en restaurer le sens vrai ; Jésus et Mohammad n’étant cependant que les deux pôles d’une vérité unique. De façon générale, les chrétiens sont également considérés comme les croyants les plus proches des musulmans : "Tu trouveras certes que les plus disposés à aimer les croyants [musulmans] sont ceux qui disent "Nous sommes chrétiens". [30]
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    Sermon sur la montagne du Christ, miniature persane, date et auteur inconnus.
    Jésus est également "présent" dans plusieurs événements de la vie du Prophète : comme le relate Martin Lings dans sa biographie consacrée au prophète Mohammad, lors de son voyage nocturne (isrâ’) suivi de son ascension céleste (mi’raj), accompagné de sa monture Burâq et de l’Archange Gabriel, "ils filèrent en direction du nord, dépassèrent Yathrib et Khaybar et parvinrent enfin à Jérusalem. Là, un groupe de prophètes - Abraham, Moïse, Jésus et d’autres - se porta à leur rencontre…" [31] Cet événement n’est bien sûr pas à situer dans le temps "historique" qui est le nôtre, mais dans le monde imaginal, lieu des évènements mystiques au-delà de toute temporalité terrestre, où, dégagées de la linéarité du temps matériel, toutes les rencontres deviennent possibles…

    Jésus selon la gnose chiite

    Dans la gnose chiite, Jésus est avant tout considéré comme une épiphanie (mazhar) de l’un des aspects de la gloire divine apparaissant dans le monde sensible sans s’y incarner, telle une image se reflétant dans un miroir sans pour autant se confondre avec lui.
    L’importance de la figure du Christ est également soulignée par plusieurs Imâms dont l’Imâm Sâdiq qui aurait déclaré : "Sache que si quelqu’un renie Jésus le fils de Marie, et reconnaît tous les prophètes sauf lui, il n’est pas au nombre des croyants" [32] ; tandis que l’Imâm Bâqir va même jusqu’à s’identifier avec le Christ, en s’inspirant des versets du Coran lui étant consacrés : "Je suis le Christ qui guérit les aveugles et les lépreux, qui donne vie aux oiseaux d’argile et qui dissipe les nuées. Je suis lui et il est moi". [33] Enfin, le septième Imâm, Mûsâ Kâzim, choisit de faire figurer une partie du texte des béatitudes de l’Evangile dans son testament spirituel.
    JPEG - 25.3 ko
    L’ascension au ciel de Jésus, miniature turque ancienne.
    En outre, Narkès, la mère de l’Imâm du Temps, le douzième imâm chiite, était une princesse grecque chrétienne et descendante de l’un des apôtres du Christ, Simon-Pierre [34]. Un jour, cette dernière voit en songe le Prophète Mohammad demander au Christ sa "fille" pour son propre fils, l’Imâm du temps : "Christ, ayant regardé longuement Simon-Pierre, lui dit : "Honneur insigne et noblesse sont venus à toi. Noue donc ce lien entre ta propre famille et la famille de Mohammad". [35] Les deux prophètes ainsi que les douze apôtres et les douze imâms du chiisme duodécimain seront par la suite témoins de cette union, qui scelle également dans la conscience chiite un lien et une proximité unique entre Jésus et l’Imâm du Temps.
    De façon générale et comme l’a souligné Henry Corbin dans son œuvre, l’imâmologie chiite est proche d’une certaine christologie des origines, celle des premiers siècles ayant suivi la mort du Christ ayant essentiellement développé une conception théophanique du Christ ou "Christos Angelos", présenté comme le reflet de l’un des attributs divin mais non son incarnation ; idée qui fut par la suite totalement évincée par la christologie paulinienne ayant fait prévaloir le dogme de l’incarnation. [36] Or, cette conception se rapproche de la vision chiite des Imâms conçus comme étant l’épiphanie de la "Forme" de Dieu au travers de laquelle il manifeste ses Attributs sans s’y incarner.

    Jésus dans la mystique musulmane

    Jésus est une figure quasi-omniprésente de la littérature mystique musulmane où il incarne souvent l’invitation adressée à chaque homme à partir à la recherche de la part de divin cachée en lui. Etroitement liée à la figure de Maryam, le Christ typifie essentiellement la naissance spirituelle destinée à s’accomplir au sein de chaque être ; le corps devant auparavant être "purifié" de toute mauvaise pensée ou acte pour pouvoir donner naissance au "Jésus de son être". [37]
    Dans ce sillage, au cours d’une réflexion sur la douleur, Mowlânâ Jalâl-od-Dîn Rûmî compare notre corps à celui de Marie, que les douleurs de l’enfantement incitèrent à se réfugier vers un palmier desséché qui porta alors ses fruits : "Le corps est pareil à Marie, et chacun possède en lui un Jésus. Si nous éprouvons en nous cette douleur, notre Jésus naîtra" [38] pour enfin conclure : "Cherche un remède tant que ton Jésus est sur la terre : une fois ton Jésus parti vers le ciel, ton remède aura disparu". La figure du Christ, symbolisant ici l’âme et la dimension spirituelle de chaque homme, souligne la nécessité de l’action dans cette vie, étant donné que l’occasion de nous perfectionner au travers nos actes ne nous sera plus donnée dans l’au-delà. Nous retrouvons la même thématique dans nombre de ses poèmes : "Si tu es à la recherche de l’âne, dans cette étable du monde, Va chercher ton âne, mais Jésus ne doit pas être cherché là. Jésus est séparé de l’âne par la lumière du cœur. [...] N’entre pas en lice avec un âne ; celui qui est monté sur l’âne." [39] ; "Le chagrin qu’il [40] me cause est dans mon cœur comme un trésor, mon cœur est "lumière sur lumière" [41], pareil à la belle Maryam qui porte en son sein Jésus." [42] Jésus est encore ici indissolublement lié à Marie, symbolisant la pureté du corps nécessaire à la naissance de l’enfant de l’âme (tefl-e jân). Le Christ incarne également la lutte et le nécessaire détachement de toute âme à la recherche de son vrai principe. [43]
    Dans l’anthropologie mystique de ’Alâoddawleh Semnânî (XIVe siècle) selon laquelle l’homme possède sept organes subtils (latâ’if) correspondant à une couleur et à un prophète particulier, le "Jésus de ton être" correspond au "mystère" (khafî) de la naissance spirituelle destinée à s’accomplir dans chaque être, annonçant ainsi la venue du "Vrai Moi", ou le "Mohammad de ton être". Dans cette intériorisation de la figure christique, l’ "enlèvement au monde" de ce dernier symbolisera dès lors le retour du mystique à son Principe et son occultation au monde.
    Le motif de la Croix de Lumière a également été largement évoqué par la gnose ismaélienne qui présente une vision selon laquelle la vraie croix et le vrai Christ ne sont pas à rechercher dans ce monde mais dans les profondeurs même de la conscience du gnostique.
    Jésus occupe également une place centrale dans l’œuvre d’Ibn ’Arabî qui le considère comme "le sceau de la sainteté (walâyat)" [44], face à Mohammad qui est le "sceau des prophètes". L’étroite dépendance de Jésus à Marie - qui incarne la Sophia éternelle - est également largement évoquée dans son œuvre. De façon générale, le couple Jésus-Maryam a souvent été mis en parallèle avec celui de Adam et Eve, avec qui il entretient une relation d’opposition : si le Féminin a originellement été existentialisé par le Masculin sans besoin d’une mère, la naissance miraculeuse du Christ marque l’apparition du Masculin existencié par le Féminin sans recours à un père. Le féminin se voit alors conférer une dimension créatrice essentielle, qui sera à la source de tout un ensemble de réflexions gnostiques sur la notion de "Sophia" divine ou de "Féminin-créateur".
    Malgré les différences profondes existant entre le Christ des chrétiens et le ’Îsâ des musulmans révélant deux différentes façons de concevoir la spiritualité et le rapport au divin, nous pouvons cependant constater certaines similitudes essentielles concernant le contenu même du message du Christ et de l’islam : le Jésus du Nouveau Testament vient prêcher l’avènement proche du royaume de Dieu, rejoignant ainsi l’une des thématiques centrales du Coran. Le message du Christ est essentiellement centré non sur la fondation d’une nouvelle religion, mais sur l’accomplissement de la Loi de Moïse, faisant écho à la nécessité d’un retour au monothéisme pur d’Abraham dans le Coran qui se définit essentiellement comme un "rappel". Enfin, l’appel coranique à une soumission à Dieu ainsi que la nécessité de renoncer à tout bien matériel et même à ses attaches familiales n’est pas sans rappeler certains passages centraux de l’Evangile : ainsi, le verset "Les hommes sont irrésistiblement attirés, dans leurs passions trompeuses, par les femmes, les enfants, les amoncellements d’or et d’argent, les chevaux de race, les troupeaux et les champs. C’est là une jouissance éphémère de la vie d’ici-bas , mais c’est auprès de Dieu que se trouve le meilleur séjour." [45] fait écho à ce passage de l’Evangile de Saint Matthieu : "Et quiconque aura quitté, à cause de mon nom, ses frères, ou ses sœurs, ou son père, ou sa mère, ou sa femme, ou ses enfants, ou ses terres, ou ses maisons, recevra le centuple, et héritera la vie éternelle." [46]
    Cependant, contrairement au christianisme où l’éradication des mouvements gnostiques des premiers siècles après Jésus-Christ et les différents Conciles ont donné lieu à l’émergence d’une définition "officielle" de la nature du Christ, l’absence d’un magistère dogmatique unique en islam a favorisé un véritable foisonnement de la conscience gnostique ainsi que la multiplication des réflexions sur les différentes dimensions théophaniques et mystiques du Christ. Jésus s’affirme donc en islam comme un prophète qui sauve non au travers de sa crucifixion, mais en incarnant lui-même la parole de Dieu, et en invitant chacun à la suivre : "Il faut achever la marche d’Abraham ; c’est cela entendre les verset qorâniques "par le Jésus de ton être", et c’est te mettre en mesure, toute vaine gloire bannie de ta pensée quand s’épiphanise la Lumière sacrosainte, de répondre toi aussi par les mots mêmes que Jésus prononce dans le Qorân : "Tu sais ce qu’il y a au fond de moi-même, mais je ne sais pas ce qu’il y a en Toi. Car c’est Toi qui connais les mystères"". [47]

    - Anawati, Georges C.,"’Îsâ", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Brill Academic Publishers.
    - Brague, Rémi, Du Dieu des chrétiens et d’un ou deux autres, Flammarion, 2008.
    - Corbin, Henry, En islam iranien, aspects spirituels et philosophiques, T. 1, 3 et 4, Gallimard, 1971.
    - Corbin, Henry, L’Imagination créatrice dans le soufisme d’Ibn ’Arabî, Entrelacs, 2006.
    - Gloton, Maurice, Une approche du Coran par la grammaire et la langue, Albouraq, 2002.
    - Ibn ’Arabî, Le livre des chatons de la sagesse (Fosûs al-Hikam), traduction en français de Charles-André Gilis, Albouraq, 1999.
    - Jourdan, François, Dieu des chrétiens, Dieu des musulmans, des repères pour comprendre, Editions de l’Œuvre, 2007.
    - Khalidi, Tarif, The muslim Jesus : sayings and stories in islamic literature, Harvard University Press, 2001.
    - Lehenhausen, Muhammad (trad.), Jesus through shi’ite narration, selected by Mahdî Muntazir Qâ’im, Ansaryan Publication 2004.
    - Lings, Martin, Le prophète Muhammad, Seuil, 2002.
    - Rûmî, Jalâl-ud-Dîn, Le livre du dedans (Fihi-mâ-fîhi), traduit du persan par Eva de Vitray-Meyerovitch, Albin Michel, Spiritualités Vivantes, 1997.
    - Rûmî, Jalâl-ud-Dîn, Odes mystiques (Dîwân-e Shams-e Tabrîzî), traduit du persan par Eva de Vitray Meyerovitch et Mohammad Mokri, Points, Sagesses, 1973.
    - Urvoy, Marie-Thérèse, article "Jésus" in Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali (dir.), Dictionnaire du Coran, Robert Laffont, 2007.


    [1Ces prophètes sont appelés "ulû’-l-’azm", ou hommes de la décision. Certaines traditions incluent également David et son psautier.
    [3Bahîra aurait ainsi reconnu le "Sceau de la Prophétie" ou "marque du Prophète" sur l’épaule du prophète Mohammad enfant.
    [4Le prophète Mohammad signa un pacte avec cette communauté, fondant ainsi leur protection et leur droit en tant que minorité en terre musulmane. Ceci permettra par la suite de fonder le statut de "protégé" (dhimmi) ayant permis au cours des siècles suivants une riche - et souvent trop rare - coexistence entre les "religions du livre", notamment au Maghreb, en Espagne, en Mésopotamie, en Syrie…
    [5La signification de "masîh" comme "oint" est distincte de celle du christianisme, étant donné qu’il est dénié à ’Isâ toute nature divine. "Masîh" n’en provient pas moins de la racine arabe "m-s-h" signifiant "oindre d’huile", provenant elle-même de l’hébreu.
    [6Lehenhausen, Muhammad (trad.), Jesus through shi’ite narration, selected by Mahdî Muntazir Qâ’im, Ansaryân Publication 2004.
    [7Cette notion est parfois traduite par "Esprit Saint" (Rûh al-Qudus), qui est cependant fondamentalement différente de la notion d’Esprit Saint comme troisième personne de la Trinité telle qu’elle est conçue par le christianisme. L’ "Esprit divin" ou "l’Esprit de Dieu" tel qu’il est le plus souvent évoqué dans la tradition islamique fait référence au souffle divin ayant insufflé la vie à Adam et qui, par extension, désigne la part de divin présent dans chaque être animé par ce "souffle". Concernant l’ "annonce" faite à Marie et la naissance miraculeuse du Christ selon l’islam, se référer à l’article "De Sainte Marie à Maryam Moqaddas : la Vierge dans la tradition islamique et la "Maison de Marie" à Éphèse", Revue de Téhéran, avril 2008.
    [8"Pour Dieu, l’origine de Jésus est similaire à celle d’Adam. Dieu l’a créé d’argile, puis lui a dit "Sois !" et il fut." (3:59).
    [9"Et quand Dieu dira : "Jésus, fils de Marie, rappelle-toi Mon bienfait sur toi et sur ta mère quand Je te fortifiais du Saint-Esprit. Au berceau tu parlais aux gens, tout comme en ton âge mûr."(5:110).
    [10Coran, 19:30-32.
    [11Cf. note 8.
    [12"(Rappelle-toi le moment) où les Apôtres dirent : "ô Jésus, fils de Marie, se peut-il que ton Seigneur fasse descendre sur nous du ciel une table servie ?" Il leur dit : "Craignez plutôt Dieu, si vous êtes croyants". Ils dirent : "Nous voulons en manger, rassurer ainsi nos cœurs, savoir que tu nous as réellement dit la vérité et en être parmi les témoins"."Dieu, notre Seigneur, dit Jésus, fils de Marie, fais descendre du ciel sur nous une table servie qui soit une fête pour nous, pour le premier d’entre nous, comme pour le dernier, ainsi qu’un signe de Ta part. Nourris-nous : Tu es le meilleur des nourrisseurs." "Oui, dit Dieu, Je la ferai descendre sur vous. Mais ensuite, quiconque d’entre vous refuse de croire, Je le châtierai d’un châtiment dont Je ne châtierai personne d’autre dans l’univers." (5:112-115). "La Table Servie" est également le nom de la cinquième sourate du Coran.
    [13Ibid, 5:110.
    [14La sourate Al-Ikhlâs résume cette idée d’unicité et de transcendance absolue : "Dis : "Il est Dieu, Unique. Dieu, Le Seul à être imploré pour ce que nous désirons. Il n’a jamais engendré, ni n’a été engendré. Et nul n’est égal à Lui" Ibid, 112:1-4.
    [15Ibid, 5:116.
    [16Ibid, 5:117.
    [17"Je t’enseignais le Livre, la Sagesse, la Thora et l’Evangile." (5:110).
    [18"Et Nous avons envoyé après eux Jésus, fils de Marie, pour confirmer ce qu’il y avait dans la Thora avant lui. Et Nous lui avons donné l’Evangile, où il y a guide et lumière, pour confirmer ce qu’il y avait dans la Thora avant lui, et un guide et une exhortation pour les pieux." (5:46).
    [19Coran, 57:27.
    [20"Mohammad est le Messager de Dieu. Et ceux qui sont avec lui sont durs envers les mécréants, miséricordieux entre eux. Tu les vois inclinés, prosternés, recherchant de Dieu grâce et agrément. Leurs visages sont marqués par la trace laissée par la prosternation. Telle est leur image dans la Thora. Et l’image que l’on donne d’eux dans l’Evangile est celle d’une semence qui sort sa pousse, puis se raffermit, s’épaissit, et ensuite se dresse sur sa tige, à l’émerveillement des semeurs. [Dieu] par eux [les croyants] remplit de dépit les mécréants. Dieu promet à ceux d’entre eux qui croient et font de bonnes œuvres, un pardon et une énorme récompense." (48:29).
    [21Matthieu, 13:23. Nous retrouvons la même parabole dans l’Evangile selon Saint Marc : "D’autres reçoivent la semence dans la bonne terre ; ce sont ceux qui entendent la parole, la reçoivent, et portent du fruit, trente, soixante, et cent pour un", Marc, 4:20.
    [22Matthieu, 13:38.
    [23"Et quand Jésus fils de Marie dit : "ô Enfants d’Israël, je suis vraiment le Messager de Dieu [envoyé] à vous, confirmateur de ce qui, dans la Thora, est antérieur à moi, et annonciateur d’un Messager à venir après moi, dont le nom sera "Ahmad"." (61:6).
    [24Coran, 4:157-158. Au sein même du christianisme, cette thèse est également soutenue par les docétistes.
    [25La figure de l’antéchrist ou du "Christ imposteur" (al-Masîh ad-Dajjâl) est une figure de l’eschatologie islamique prétendant tantôt égaler Dieu, tantôt être Dieu lui-même. Selon la tradition islamique, il est notamment prévu que lors du jour du Jugement Dernier, il apparaîtra aveugle de l’œil droit et engagera un ultime combat contre l’Imâm Mahdî ou "l’Imâm du Temps" (Imâm az-Zamân).
    [26"O gens du Livre [chrétiens], n’exagérez pas dans votre religion, et ne dites de Dieu que la vérité. Le Messie Jésus, fils de Marie, n’est qu’un Messager de Dieu, Sa parole qu’Il envoya à Marie, et un souffle (de vie) venant de Lui. Croyez donc en Dieu et en Ses messagers. Et ne dites pas "Trois". Cessez ! Ce sera meilleur pour vous. Dieu n’est qu’un Dieu unique. Il est trop glorieux pour avoir un enfant. C’est à Lui qu’appartient tout ce qui est dans les cieux et sur la terre et Dieu suffit comme protecteur." (4:171).
    [27Nous nous appuyons ici essentiellement sur la précieuse étude réalisée par François Jourdan dans son ouvrage Dieu des chrétiens, Dieu des musulmans, des repères pour comprendre, Editions de l’Œuvre, 2007.
    [28Ibid, p.143.
    [29Bukhârî, 4:54:506.
    [30Coran, 5:82.
    [31Lings, Martin, Le prophète Muhammad, Seuil, 2002.
    [32’Allâmeh Majlîsî, Bihâr al-Anwâr, 23, 96, 3.
    [33Prône de l’Imâm Mohammad Bâqir (Ve Imâm du chiisme), cité par Corbin, Henry, En islam iranien, aspects spirituels et philosophiques, Gallimard, T. 4., 1971, p.442.
    [34Selon la tradition chiite, la princesse Narkès serait la descendante de Simon-Pierre (Sham’ûn), présenté comme étant l’ "héritier spirituel" (wasî) du Christ. Cf. "L’hagiographie du XIIe Imâm" in Corbin, Henry, En islam iranien, aspects spirituels et philosophiques, Gallimard, T. 4., 1971, p.442.
    [35Hagiographie du XIIe Imâm selon Shaykh Sadûq, traduit par Henry Corbin in Corbin, Henry, En islam iranien, aspects spirituels et philosophiques, Gallimard, T. 4., 1971, p.313.
    [36"La conception théophanique (nullement limitée à quelques savants spéculatifs, mais partagée par tous les milieux spirituels où firent éclosion les Apocryphes) est celle d’une Apparition qui est transparition de la divinité par le miroir de l’humanité, à la façon dont la lumière ne devient visible qu’en prenant forme et en transparaissant à travers la figure d’un vitrail. C’est une union qui est perçue non pas au plan des données sensibles, mais au plan de la Lumière qui les transfigure, c’est-à-dire dans la "Présence Imaginative". La divinité est dans l’humanité comme l’Image dans un miroir. […] Par contre, l’Incarnation est une union hypostatique. Elle advient "dans la chair".", Corbin, Henry, L’Imagination créatrice dans le soufisme d’Ibn ’Arabî, Entrelacs, 2006, p.286.
    [37Cette vision est fondée sur l’anthropologie coranique selon laquelle Dieu aurait "insufflé" l’âme de chaque être. Cet événement est notamment relaté dans la sourate al-Hijr, lorsque Dieu s’adresse aux anges : "Je vais créer un homme d’argile crissante, extraite d’une boue malléable, et dès que Je l’aurais harmonieusement formé et lui aurait insufflé Mon souffle de vie, jetez-vous alors, prosternés devant lui" Alors, les Anges se prosternèrent tous ensemble", (15:28-30).
    [38Rûmî, Jalâl-ud-Dîn, Le livre du dedans (Fihi-mâ-fîhi), traduit du persan par Eva de Vitray-Meyerovitch, Albin Michel, Spiritualités Vivantes, 1997.
    [39Rûmî, Jalâl-ud-Dîn, Odes mystiques (Dîwân-e Shams-e Tabrîzî), traduit du persan par Eva de Vitray Meyerovitch et Mohammad Mokri, Points, Sagesses, 1973.
    [40"Il" fait ici référence à l’ "Ami", c’est à dire la recherche de Dieu, ou de l’esprit divin présent dans chaque homme symbolisé par Jésus.
    [41Allusion à la sourate "La Lumière" du Coran.
    [42Rûmî, Jalâl-ud-Dîn, Odes mystiques (Dîwân-e Shams-e Tabrîzî), traduit du persan par Eva de Vitray Meyerovitch et Mohammad Mokri, Points, Sagesses, 1973.
    [43Cette conception du Christ est parfaitement reflétée par cette anecdote citée par Semnânî : "Jésus sommeillait, ayant une brique pour coussin de tête. Alors vint le démon maudit, qui s’arrêta à son chevet. Lorsque Jésus eut perçu la présence du maudit, il s’éveilla et dit : "Pourquoi es-tu venu près de moi, ô maudit ? - Je suis venu chercher mes affaires. - Et quelles affaires sont donc à toi ici ? - Cette brique sur laquelle tu reposes ta tête." Alors Rûh Allah (Spiritus Dei = Jésus) saisit la brique et lui lança à la face". Op. cit. Corbin, Henry, En islam iranien, aspects spirituels et philosophiques, T.3, Gallimard, 1971, p.284.
    [44Cette position a néanmoins été fortement critiquée par certains penseurs et gnostiques chiites comme Haydar Amolî, pour qui le sceau de la walâyat ne peut être que le Premier Imâm.
    [45Coran, 3:14.
    [46Mat. 19:29.
    [47"Les Sept organes subtils selon Semnânî" in Corbin, Henry, En islam iranien, aspects spirituels et philosophiques, T.3, Gallimard, 1971, p.287.


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